Enharmonism |
Music Terms

Enharmonism |

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terms and concepts

from the Greek enarmonios – enharmonic, lit. – consonant, consonant, harmonious

Equality in height of sounds different in spelling (for example, des = cis), intervals (for example,

chords (as-c-es-ges=as-c-es-fis=gis-his-dis-fis etc.), keys (Fis-dur=Ges-dur). The concept of “E.” assumes a 12-step (equally) temperament system (see Temperament). It developed in connection with the renewal of the intervals of ancient genera – chromatic and enharmonic (see Chromatism, Enharmonic) – and the unification of the sounds of all three genera (together with diatonic) within a single scale; thus, between the sounds of diatonic. a whole tone, sounds of both low and high steps are placed, for example. (c)-des-cis-(d) with commatic the difference between their heights (by P. de Beldemandis, early 15th century; see: Coussemaker E., Scriptorum…, t. 3, p. 257-58; y H. Vicentino, 1555). Preserved in the terminology of theoretical. treatises, the ancient enharmonics (where the microintervals differed in height) in the 18th century, as temperament spread, especially uniform temperament, into the new European E. (where the microintervals, for example, eis and des, already coincide in height). The concept of “E.” differs in duality: E. as an expression of functional identity (passive or imaginary E.; for example, in Bach in the 1st volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier, the equivalence of the keys es-moll and dis-moll in the 8th prelude and fugue; in Beethoven in Adagio 8th fi. Sonata E-dur=Fes-dur) and as an expression of functional inequality (“detemperation”, A. S. Ogolevets; according to the intonation rule “sharp above flat”), hidden, but preserved under the cover of temperament ( active or real E., for example, in anharmonic modulation through hf-as-d=hf-gis-d when introducing a reprise in Gorislava’s cavatina from Glinka’s Ruslan and Lyudmila).

Arts. the use of E. in Europe. music belongs to the beginning. 16th century (A. Willart, duet “Quid non ebrietas”); E. was widely used in chromatic. madrigal of the 16th-17th centuries, especially the Venetian school. Since the time of J.S. Bach, it has become an important means of sudden modulation, and the circle of 30 keys of major and minor based on it has become necessary for classical-romantic. music modulation sphere shapes. In tonal chromatic 20th century system E.’s relations are also transferred to intratonal connections, for example. at the beginning of the 3rd part of the 6th fp. Prokofiev’s sonata, the chord nVI> of the degree (flat side) is melodically figured by the sounds of the enharmonic identical to it in the fifth degree (sharp side; in the recording of the excerpt – enharmonic simplification):

S. S. Prokofiev. 6th sonata for piano, part III.

E.’s concentration reaches its maximum degree in 12-tone music, in which enharmonic switching becomes virtually continuous (for a musical example of permanent E., see the article Dodecaphony).

References: Renchitsky P.N., Teaching about anharmonism, M., 1930; Ogolevets A. S., Introduction to modern musical thinking, M.-L., 1946; Tyulin Yu. (H.), A short theoretical course in harmony, L., 1960, revised. and add., M., 1978; Pereverzev N. (K.), Problems of musical intonation, M., 1966; Sposobin I. V., Lectures on the course of harmony, M., 1969; Beldemandis P. de., Libellus monocordi (1413), in Coussemaker E. de, Scriptorum de musica medii aevi. Novam seriem…, t. 3, Parisiis, 1869, facsimile. reissue Hildesheim, 1963; Vicentino N., L’antica musica ridotta alla moderna prattica…, Roma, 1555, facsimile. reissue Kassel, 1959; Scheibe JA, Compendium musices… (c. 1730-36), in Benary P., Die deutsche Kompositionslehre des 18. Jahrhunderts, Lpz., 1961; Levitan JS, A. Willaert’s famous duo, “Tijdschrift der Vereeniging vor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis”, 1938, bd 15; Lowinsky EE, Tonality and atonality in sixteenth-century music, Berk.-Los Ang., 1961.

Yu. N. Kholopov

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