Chromatism |
Music Terms

Chromatism |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

Greek xromatismos – coloring, from xroma – skin color, color, paint; xromatikon – chromatic, meaning genos – genus

Halftone system (according to A. Webern, chromatism is “movement in halftones”). Chromatisms include two kinds of interval systems – the ancient Greek “chroma” and European chromatism.

1) “Chrome” – one of the three main. “kinds” of the tetrachord (or “kinds of melodies”) along with “diatone” and “enarmony” (see Greek music). Together with the enharmony (and in contrast to the diatone) of chromium, it is characterized by the fact that the sum of two smaller intervals is less than the value of the third. Such a “cluster” of narrow intervals is called. pykn (Greek pyknon, letters – crowded, often). In contrast to enharmonics, the smallest chroma intervals are semitones, for example: e1 – des1 – c1 – h. From the point of view of modern music Greek theories. chroma essentially corresponds to the scales with SW. second (in octave frets – with two incremental seconds, as in the aria of the Queen of Shemakhan from the second act of the opera The Golden Cockerel by Rimsky-Korsakov) and is closer to diatonic than to chromatic. Greek theorists also distinguished in “births” “colors” (xroai), t. e. interval variants of tetrachords of a given genus. According to Aristoxenus, chrome has three “colors” (types): tone (in cents: 300 + 100 + 100), one and a half (350 + 75 + 75) and soft (366 + 67 + 67).

Melodica chromatic. genus was perceived as colorful (apparently, hence the name). At the same time, she was characterized as refined, “coddled”. With the onset of the Christian era, chromatic. melodies were condemned as not satisfying ethical. requirements (Clement of Alexandria). In Nar. music of the East frets with uv. seconds (hemiolic) retained their value in the 20th century. (Said Mohammed Awad Khawas, 1970). In the new European melodic X. has a different origin and, accordingly, a different nature.

2) The new concept of X. presupposes the presence of diatonicism as a basis, which X. “colors” (the concepts of chroma, color in Marchetto of Padua; see Gerbert M., t. 3, 1963, p. 74B). X. is interpreted as a layer of high-altitude structure, sprouting from the root diatonic (the principle of alteration; compare with the idea of ​​G. Schenker’s structural levels). In contrast to the Greek, the new concept of X. is associated with the idea of ​​6 sounds (melodic steps) in a tetrachord (the Greeks always had four of them; Aristoxenus’s idea of ​​a uniformly tempered tetrachord of a semitone structure remained a theoretical abstraction) and 12 sounds within each octave. “Nordic” diatonicism music is reflected in the interpretation of X. as a “compression” of diatonic. elements, “embedding” in the root diatonic. a row of the second (diatonic within itself) layer as X. Hence the principle of chromatic systematics. phenomena, arranged in order of their increasing density, from the most rarefied chromaticity to the extremely dense (A. Webern’s hemitonics). X. is subdivided into melodic. and chord (for example, chords can be purely diatonic, and melody can be chromatic, as in Chopin’s etude a-moll op. 10 No 2), centripetal (directed towards the sounds of tonic. ., at the beginning of the 1st variation of the 2nd part of the 32nd sonata by L. Beethoven for piano.). The systematics of the main phenomena X.:

Chromatism |

Modulation X. is formed as a result of the summation of two diatonic, disconnected by assigning them to different parts of the composition (L. Beethoven, finale of the 9th piano sonata, main theme and transition; N. Ya. Myaskovsky, “Yellowed Pages” for piano, No 7, also mixed with other species of X.); chromatic the sounds are in different systems and can be far apart. Subsystem X. (in deviations; see Subsystem) represents the sounds of chromatic. relationships within the same system (J.S. Bach, the theme of the h-moll fugue from the 1st volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier), which thickens X.

Lead-tone X. comes from the introduction of opening tones to any sound or chord, without the moment of alteration as a move to uv. I will accept (harmonic minor; Chopin, mazurka C-dur 67, No 3, P. I. Tchaikovsky, 1st part of the 6th symphony, the beginning of a secondary theme; the so-called “Prokofiev’s dominant”). Alteration X. is associated with the characteristic. The moment is a modification of the diatonic. element (sound, chord) by means of a chromatic step. semitone – uv. I will accept, explicitly presented (L. Beethoven, 5th symphony, 4th movement, bars 56-57) or implied (A. N. Scriabin, Poem for piano op. 32 No 2, bars 1-2).

Mixed X. consists in sequential or simultaneous mixing of modal elements, each of which belongs to different diatonic characters (A. P. Borodin, 2nd symphony, 1st movement, bar 2; F. Liszt, symphony “Faust”, 1 -th movement, bars 1-2; S. S. Prokofiev, sonata No 6 for pianoforte, 1st movement, bar 1; D. D. Shostakovich, 7th symphony, 1st movement, numbers 35-36 ; N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, “The Golden Cockerel”, orchestral introduction to Act II; symmetrical frets can come close to natural X.). Natural X. (“organic chromaticity” according to A. Pusseru) does not have a diatonic. underlying foundations (O. Messiaen, “20 views …” for piano, No 3; E. V. Denisov, piano trio, 1st movement; A. Webern, Bagatelli for piano, op. 9).

Theory X. in Greek. thinkers was an explanation of chromatic intervals. sort by calculus mathematic. relations between the sounds of the tetrachord (Aristoxenus, Ptolemy). Express. the character (“ethos”) of chroma as a kind of gentle, refined, was described by Aristoxen, Ptolemy, Philodem, Pachymer. Generalization of antiquity. X. theory and the starting point for the Middle Ages. theorists was a presentation of information about X., belonging to Boethius (beginning of the 6th century AD). The phenomena of a new (introductory tone, transpositional) X., which arose approx. 13th century, initially seemed so unusual that they were designated as “wrong” music (musica ficta), “fictional”, “false” music (musica falsa). Summing up the new chromatic sounds (from the flat and sharp sides), Prosdocimus de Beldemandis came up with the idea of ​​a 17-step tone scale:

Chromatism |

The “artificial” introductory semitone of the minor scale remained a stable legacy of “ficta music”.

On the way to differentiation of anharmonic. tone values ​​in con. 16th century from the theory of X. branched microchromatics. From the 17th century theory X. develops in line with the teachings of harmony (also general bass). Modulation and subsystem X. are treated primarily. as transpositional transference of relations center. cells of ladotonality into subordinate and peripheral.

References: 1) Anonymous, Introduction to Harmonics, Philological Review, 1894, vol. 7, book. 1-2; Petr V.I., On compositions, structures and modes in ancient Greek music, Kyiv, 1901; El Said Mohamed Awad Khawas, Modern Arabic Folk Song, M., 1970; Paul O., Boetius und die griechische Harmonik, Lpz., 1872; Westphal R., Aristoxenus von Tarent. Melik und Rhythmik des classischen Hellenenthums, Lpz., 1883; Jan K. von (comp.), Musici scriptores graeci, Lpz., 1895; D’ring I. (ed.), Die Harmonielehre des Klaudios Ptolemaios, Göteborg, 1930.

2) Yavorsky B. L., The structure of musical speech, parts 1-3, M., 1908; Glinsky M., Chromatic signs in the music of the future, “RMG”, 1915, No 49; Catuar G., Theoretical course of harmony, parts 1-2, M., 1924-25; Kotlyarevsky I., Diatonics and Chromatics as a Category of Musical Myslennia, Kipv, 1971; Kholopova V., On one principle of chromaticism in the music of the 2th century, in: Problems of Musical Science, vol. 1973, M., 14; Katz Yu., On the principles of classification of diatonic and chromatic, in: Questions of theory and aesthetics of music, vol. 1975, L., 3; Marcheti de Padua Lucidarium in arte musicae planae, in Gerbert M., Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum, t. 1784, St. Blasien, 1963, reprografischer Nachdruck Hildesheim, 1; Riemann H., Das chromatische Tonsystem, in his book: Präludien und Studien, Bd 1895, Lpz., 1898; his, Geschichte der Musiktheorie, Lpz., 1902; Kroyer Th., Die Anfänge der Chromatik, Lpz., 1 (Publikationen der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft. Beihefte. IV); Schenker H., Neue musikalische Theorien und Phantasien, Bd 1906, Stuttg.-B., 1911; Schönberg A., Harmonielehre, Lpz.-W., 1949; W., 14; Picker R. von, Beiträge zur Chromatik des 16. bis 1914. Jahrhunderts, “Studien zur Musikwissenschaft”, 2, H. 1920; Kurth E., Romantische Harmonik, Bern – Lpz., 1923, B., 1975 (Russian translation – Kurt E., Romantic harmony and its crisis in Wagner’s Tristan, M., 1946); Lowinsky EE, Secret chromatic art in the Netherlands motet, NY, 1950; Besseler H., Bourdon und Fauxbourdon, Lpz., 1950; Brockt J., Diatonik-Chromatik-Pantonalität, “OMz”, 5, Jahrg. 10, H. 11/1953; Reaney G., Fourteenth century harmony, Musica Disciplina, 7, v. 15; Hoppin RH, Partial signatures and musica ficta in some early 1953th century sources, JAMS, 6, v. 3, no 1600; Dahlhaus C., D. Belli und der chromatische Kontrapunkt um 1962, “Mf”, 15, Jahrg. 4, no 1962; Mitchell WL, The study of chromaticism, “Journal of music theory”, 6, v. 1, no 1963; Bullivant R., The nature of chromaticism, Music Review, 24, v. 2, No 1966; Firca Ch., Bazele modal ale cromatismului diatonic, Buc, 1978; Vieru A., Diatonie si cromatism, “Muzica”, 28, v. 1, no XNUMX.

Yu. H. Kholopov

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