Polish taniec, from him. Tanz
An art form based on the expressiveness of rhythmic movement and plasticity of the human body. T. is organized in space and time into a single composition; dance the image is closely connected with music, as well as with the costume, which determines the nature of the movement and the manner of performance. T.’s emergence belongs to an extreme antiquity when the movement was direct. an expression of strong emotions, more often positive (a person overwhelmed with jubilation starts to dance; overflowing joy of life, a sense of health, enjoyment of being result in energetic movements). In many cases, collective t. enhances the jointly experienced feeling of both the participants themselves and the spectators. The original function of T. is an expression of emotions. tension through coordinated movements. The character of the time, the spirit of the era, is expressed in technology and in society’s attitude to technology. Drawn from labor and other life processes, the movements of primitive dancers were gradually autonomized and generalized; T. was isolated from the originally syncretic suit, acquiring stable forms. T. is one of the manifestations of Nar. creativity; in the t. of each people their traditions accumulated, choreographic ones crystallized. language, plastic expressiveness and relationship with music. In T., movements are determined in advance, unlike dance, which is improvised. There is a division of theater into “show” (stage and cult) and household.
Among the household, over time, differences were determined between peasant and urban t., and court, ballroom, salon ones stood out from the latter. On this basis, in turn, developed Europe. ballet. In ballet, the so-called. classical T. and characteristic T. (French danse de caractère or danse caractéristique – dance in character, in image) – a ballet version of Nar. nat. T. This classification is European. T. remains valid for the present, although the T. (ballroom, ballet) themselves evolve significantly or are replaced by new ones. Regardless of the European millennia, there are diff. T. in the countries of Asia and the East (for example, 4 main schools of Ind. Classical T.: Bharat Natyam, Kathakali, Kathak, Manipuri). One of the features of the Eastern T. is a finely developed sign language, dance. the equivalent of verbal speech, sometimes illustrating the content of the song accompanying T.. In modern prof. choreography established a new genre – stage. nar. T., which was shown for the first time by the Ensemble Nar. dance of the USSR (1937). Based on his experience in all the republics of the Soviet. Union, as well as in many countries of the world, amateur and prof. ensembles and groups scenic T. Influenced the development of music. genres and instruments. See also Ballet, Dance music.
References: Khudekov S. N., History of dances, parts 1-4, St. Petersburg, 1913-18; Vaganova A. Ya., Basics of classical dance, L., 1934, 1963; Ivanovsky N. P., Ballroom dance of the 1948th-1954th centuries, L.-M., 1963; Tkachenko T. S., Folk dance, M., 1975; Vasilyeva-Rozhdestvenskaya M., Historical and household dance, M., 1977; Dobrovolskaya G., Dance. Pantomime. Ballet, L., XNUMX; Koroleva E.A., Early forms of dance, Kish., XNUMX.