Italian, lit. – increasing, increasing
Gradual increase in sound intensity. The scale and nature of the use of S., as well as the diminuendo opposite to it, evolved along with the muses themselves. claim and fulfill it. means. Since up to ser. 18th century the dynamics of forte and piano dominated (see Dynamics), S. found only limited use, Ch. arr. in solo vocal music. At the same time, S., like other dynamic. shades and techniques, not indicated in the notes. In con. 16th century specials have been introduced. signs for forte and piano. It can be assumed that these signs in pl. cases, the use of S. or diminuendo was also predetermined in the transition from forte to piano and vice versa. Development in con. 17 – beg. 18th century violin music led to a wider use of S. and diminuendo. From the beginning 18th century began to come into use and special signs to designate them. Such marks are found in F. Geminiani (1739) and PM Veracini (1744), who, however, thought S. and diminuendo on only one note. The signs used by Veracini (for example, in the work of J.F. Rameau after 1733), subsequently turned into the < and > that have survived to this day. From Ser. 18th century composers began to resort to the verbal designations S. and diminuendo (for which the terms decrescendo and rinforzando were also used). The scope of S.’s application largely depended on the tools. Thus, the harpsichord, which was widely used in the 16th-18th centuries, due to its design did not allow a gradual increase in the strength of the sound. There was also a stepwise increase in the strength of the sound of the organ, which acquired the ability to S. only in the 19th century. Mn. ancient instruments had a weak sound, which also limited the possibilities of using C. This was the case, for example, with the clavichord. S. a wider scale has become achievable on the strings. keyboard instruments only after the clavichord and harpsichord were pushed into con. 18 – beg. 19th centuries piano. Although S. and diminuendo on the fp. are to a certain extent stepped (since each sound after a hammer strike more or less quickly fades, and amplification or weakening of the sound is possible only from blow to blow), due to musical-psychological. factors, this does not interfere with the perception of S. and diminuendo on FP. as smooth, gradual. The largest scales of S. and diminuendo are achievable in an orchestra. However, both orchestral S. and diminuendo evolved along with the development of the muses themselves. art-va, as well as the growth and enrichment of the orchestra. The composers of the Mannheim school began to use orchestral orchestrations of a large scale and length earlier than others in their compositions. Such symphonies were achieved not by increasing the number of sounding voices (a formerly common method), but by increasing the strength of the sound of the entire orchestra. Since that time, special designations for extended S. – cresc …, cres. dew a dew, and later cres…cen…do.
Very important dramaturgy. S.’s functions are performed in symphony. prod. L. Beethoven. In the subsequent time, S. completely retains its significance. In the 20th century a remarkable example of the use of S. is M. Ravel’s Bolero, built from beginning to end on a gradual, stepwise increase in the strength of the sound. On a new basis, Ravel returns here to the reception of early music – dynamic. the increase is connected not so much with the increase in the volume of the sound of the same instruments, but with the addition of new ones.
References: Riemann H., On the Origin of Dynamic Swell Signs, «ZIMG», 1909, Vol. 10, H. 5, pp. 137-38; Heuss A., On the Dynamics of the Mannheim School. Festschrift H. Riemann, Lpz., 1909.