Build in music |
Music Terms

Build in music |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

1) The system of pitch ratios used in music. It exists in the form of invariant auditory ideas about the height of each of the steps of the scale; these representations underlie all music. practices (ie. e. compositions, performances and perceptions of music) and are usually recorded in musical notes, etc. by signs. Forms of manifestation of S. in music due to nat. originality of music. culture, features of the development of ladoharmonic. systems, the prevailing requirements for music. of hearing For the formation of music. C. means. acoustic influence. music properties. sound (e.g., the phenomenon of the natural scale); music C. reflects the most typical pitch connections for the dominant modal system, although it does not include functional modal, harmonic. relationships between sounds. At a certain stage in the development of music. culture S. can become the basis for the emergence of new modal systems. Known are 5-step and 7-step (within an octave) tempered C. in Indonesia, 17- and 24-step systems in the music of the peoples of the Arab countries, 22-step S. in India, etc. In Europe, during the development of monophony, the 7-step (later 12-step) Pythagorean system was used. In the process of developing the choir. polyphony, there was a need for pure S., to-ry was proposed by the muses. theorists of the 16th century. (L. Folyany, J. Tsarlino – Italy). Further development of the tonal system – an increase in the number of keys used, the appearance of complex chords, modulations – led to uneven temperaments (16th century), and then to a 12-step uniform temperament, which implemented enharmonic. equality of sounds (cf. Enharmonism) and universally established in the 18th century. C. in music it can be expressed by a series of numbers (for example, by a sequence of simple fractions); such a mathematical the row shows the ratio of the frequencies of sounds – how many times the frequency of the upper sound in the interval is greater than the frequency of the lower one, or how the sound sources are tuned, forming this or that interval during vibration: a semitone, a whole tone, a tone and a half, etc. etc. For example, in pure S. these will be the following numbers, respectively: 16/15, 9/8, 6/5, in 12-step equal temperament – 21/12, 22/12, 23/12 ). C. can be expressed as a sequence of frequencies corresponding to each degree of the scale in a given C. For example, in pure S. from a1 u440d 1 hertz, the sound b469,28 will be equal to 1 hertz, h495 – 2, c528 – 12, in 440-step temperament these same sounds will have other values: 466; 16, 493; 88, 523; 25, XNUMX hertz. Mathematician. C. in music is used in the manufacture of music. instruments (determining the length of the tube or crown of wind instruments, the location of drilling holes on them, setting the frets on the fretboard of stringed plucked instruments, etc.). etc.), when tuning them, to control the accuracy of performance in an ensemble (choral or instrumental), in the process of educating hearing. T. father, mathematician C. reflects an important tendency towards stabilization, accurate fixation of the pitch of sounds, and thus turns into an expression of the norm of these relations. Exact S. can be embodied only on instruments with a fixed pitch (organ, piano, electromusic. tools, etc. P.). In singing, when playing certain instruments (violin, flute, trumpet, etc.) etc.), as studies by N. A. Garbuzov, develops so-called. Mr. zone C. (cm. Zone), which corresponds to another trend – the desire of performers in the arts. in order to constantly vary each of the steps of the scale, i.e. e. with the help of sound-pitched intonation shades (in accordance with the nature of development in music. prod.) to strengthen or weaken the modal gravity, to create a special flavor of sound. In mathematically calculated S. each of the steps of the scale cannot vary, i.e. e. represented by only one height (frequency) value. This circumstance constantly gives rise to attempts to create new, more perfect muses. C. At 19 in. appeared 40-step system P. Thompson, 32-speed G. Helmholtz, 36-speed G. Appuna and X. Engel, 53-speed R. AP Bosanqueta and S. Tanaki et al. In the USSR, 17- and 29-step temperaments were offered by A. C. Ogolevets, 22-step system P. AP Baranovskogo and E. Е. Yutsevich, 72-step system E. A. Murzina, 84-step system D. TO. Guzenko et al. The best of them is the 53-step temperament, which allows you to accurately reproduce in decomp.

2) Frequency (height) setting of the reference tone of the scale. In the USSR, in accordance with OST-7710, 1 hertz is set for a440.

3) The term “S.” in relation to music. instruments means the features of their tuning or design (fifth C. violin, fourth – domra, chromatic – button accordion, natural – horn, etc.) or the relationship between the real sound of the instrument and the musical notation for it (trumpet in B, horn in F, clarinet in A, etc.).

4) Choral S., i.e., consistency between the singers of the choir regarding the accuracy of pitch intonation; the most important characteristic of the choir. sound. Distinguish melodic. and harmonic. choral S. When performing a melody, there is a tendency to sharpened intonations of Pythagorean S.; during the execution of chords – to softer intonations of pure S.; in general, the sound of the choir is characterized by zone C. In 19 – early. 20th century the concept of “choral S.” meant the norm of choir tuning (in the practice of singing a cappella), which existed before the approval of a single standard of height; previously choral S. compared with instr. the music was somewhat understated.

5) S., or tone, – the same as tonality, mode, ladotonality, inclination (obsolete); e.g., “close tones of harmonic C.” (I. I. Dubovsky).

References: Chesnokov P. G., Choir and management, M.-L., 1940, M., 1961; Garbuzov HA, Zonal nature of pitch hearing, M.-L., 1948; his, Intrazonal intonation hearing and methods of its development, M.-L., 1951; Musical acoustics, M., 1954; Baranovsky P. P., Yutsevich EE, Pitch analysis of the free melodic system, K., 1956; Pigrov K.K., Leadership of the choir, M., 1964; Sherman N. S., Formation of a uniform temperament system, M., 1964; Pereverzev N. K., Problems of musical intonation, M., 1966; Pargs Yu. H., On the artistic norm of pure intonation in the performance of a melody, M., 1971 (abstract of diss.); Helmholtz H., Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen…, Braunschweig, 1863, Hildesheim, 1968 Riemann H., Katechismus der Akustik, Lpz., 1875, B., 1891 (Russian translation – Riemann G., Acoustics from the point of view of musical science, M., 1921.

Y. H. Rags

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