Concert |
Music Terms

Concert |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, musical genres

German Konzert, from Italian. concerto – concert, lit. – competition (votes), from lat. concerto – compete

A work for many performers, in which a smaller part of the participating instruments or voices opposes most of them or the entire ensemble, standing out due to the thematic. relief of music. material, colorful sound, using all the possibilities of instruments or voices. From the end of the 18th century the most common are concertos for one solo instrument with an orchestra; concertos for several instruments with an orchestra are less common – “double”, “triple”, “quadruple” (German: Doppelkonzert, Triepelkonzert, Quadrupelkonzert). Special varieties are k. for one instrument (without an orchestra), k. for an orchestra (without strictly defined solo parts), k. for voice (voices) with an orchestra, k. for a choir a cappella. In the past, vocal-polyphonic music was widely represented. K. and concerto grosso. Important prerequisites for the emergence of K. were the multi-choir and comparison of choirs, soloists and instruments, which were first widely used by representatives of the Venetian school, the allocation of wok.-instr. compositions of solo parts of voices and instruments. The earliest k. arose in Italy at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. wok. polyphonic church. music (Concerti ecclesiastici for double choir A. Banchieri, 1595; Motets for 1-4-voice singing with digital bass “Cento concerti ecclesiastici” by L. Viadana, 1602-11). In such concerts, various compositions – from large, including numerous. wok. and instr. parties, up to numbering only a few woks. parties and the part of the bass general. Along with the name concerto, compositions of the same type often bore the names motetti, motectae, cantios sacrae, and others. The highest stage in the development of the church wok. K. polyphonic. style represent emerged in the 1st floor. 18th century cantatas by J. S. Bach, to which he himself called concerti.

The genre K. has found wide application in Russian. church music (from the end of the 17th century) – in polyphonic works for choir a cappella, related to the field of partes singing. The theory of the “creation” of such crystals was developed by N. P. Diletsky. Rus. Composers greatly developed the polyphonic technique of church bells (works for 4, 6, 8, 12 or more voices, up to 24 voices). In the library of the Synodal Choir in Moscow, there were up to 500 K. of the 17th-18th centuries, written by V. Titov, F. Redrikov, N. Bavykin, and others. The development of the church concert was continued at the end of the 18th century. M. S. Berezovsky and D. S. Bortnyansky, in the work of which the melodic-ariose style prevails.

In the 17th century, originally in Italy, the principle of “competition”, “competition” of several solo (“concert”) voices penetrates instr. music – in the suite and church. sonata, preparing the appearance of the genre of instrumental cinema (Balletto concertata P. Melli, 1616; Sonata concertata D. Castello, 1629). The contrasting juxtaposition (“competition”) of the orchestra (tutti) and soloists (solo) or the group of solo instruments and the orchestra (in the concerto grosso) is the basis for those that emerged at the end of the 17th century. the first examples of instrumental K. (Concerti da camera a 3 con il cembalo G. Bononcini, 1685; Concerto da camera a 2 violini e Basso continuo G. Torelli, 1686). However, the concertos of Bononchini and Torelli were only a transitional form from the sonata to the K., which actually developed into the 1st floor. 18th century in the work of A. Vivaldi. K. of this time was a three-part composition with two fast extreme parts and a slow middle part. The fast parts were usually based on one theme (rarely on 2 topics); this theme was played in the orchestra unchanged as a refrain-ritornello (a monotemic allegro of the rondal type). Vivaldi created both concerti grossi and solo concertos for violin, cello, viol d’amour, and various spirits. tools. The part of the solo instrument in solo concertos at first performed mainly binding functions, but as the genre evolved, it acquired an increasingly pronounced concert and thematic character. independence. The development of music was based on the opposition of tutti and solo, the contrasts of which were emphasized by the dynamic. means. The figurative texture of the smooth movement of a purely homophonic or polyphonic warehouse prevailed. The soloist’s concerts, as a rule, had the character of ornamental virtuosity. The middle part was written in the ariose style (usually the soloist’s pathetic aria against the chordal accompaniment of the orchestra). This type of K. received in the 1st floor. 18th century general distribution. Clavier concertos created by J. S. Bach also belong to him (some of them are arrangements of his own violin concertos and Vivaldi’s violin concertos for 1, 2 and 4 claviers). These works by J. S. Bach, as well as K. for clavier and orchestra by G. F. Handel, marked the beginning of the development of the piano. concert. Handel is also the ancestor of the organ k. As solo instruments, in addition to the violin and clavier, the cello, viol d’amour, oboe (which often served as a substitute for the violin), trumpet, bassoon, transverse flute, etc. were used.

In the 2nd floor. 18th century formed a classic a type of solo instrumental k., clearly crystallized in the Viennese classics.

In K. the form of sonata-symphony was established. cycle, but in a peculiar refraction. The concert cycle, as a rule, consisted of only 3 parts; it lacked the 3rd part of a complete, four-movement cycle, that is, the minuet or (later) scherzo (later, the scherzo is sometimes included in K. – instead of the slow part, as, for example, , in the 1st K. for violin and orchestra by Prokofiev, or as part of a complete four-movement cycle, as, for example, in concertos for piano and orchestra by A. Litolf, I. Brahms, in the 1st K. for violin and orchestra Shostakovich). Certain features were also established in the construction of individual parts of K. In the 1st part, the principle of double exposure was applied – at first the themes of the main and side parts sounded in the orchestra in the main. keys, and only after that in the 2nd exposition they were presented with the leading role of the soloist – the main theme in the same main. tonality, and the side one – in another, corresponding to the sonata allegro scheme. Comparison, competition between the soloist and the orchestra took place mainly in development. Compared to preclassic samples, the very principle of concert performance has changed significantly, a cut has become more closely connected with the thematic. development. K. provided for the improvisation of the soloist on the themes of the composition, the so-called. cadenza, which was located at the transition to the code. In Mozart, the texture of K., remaining predominantly figurative, is melodic, transparent, plastic, in Beethoven it is filled with tension in accordance with the general dramatization of style. Both Mozart and Beethoven avoid any cliché in the construction of their paintings, often deviating from the principle of double exposure described above. The concertos of Mozart and Beethoven constitute the highest peaks in the development of this genre.

In the era of romanticism, there is a departure from the classical. the ratio of parts in k. Romantics created a one-part k. of two types: a small form – the so-called. a concert piece (later also called a concertino), and a large form, corresponding in construction to a symphonic poem, in one part translating the features of a four-part sonata-symphony cycle. In the classic K. intonation and thematic. connections between the parts, as a rule, were absent, in the romantic. K. monothematism, leitmotif connections, the principle of “through development” acquired the most important significance. Vivid examples of romanticism. poetic one-part K. was created by F. Liszt. Romantic. claim in the 1st floor. 19th century developed a special kind of colorful and decorative virtuosity, which became a stylistic feature of the entire trend of romanticism (N. Paganini, F. Liszt and others).

After Beethoven, there were two varieties (two types) of K. – “virtuoso” and “symphonized”. In virtuoso K. instr. virtuosity and concert performance form the basis of the development of music; on the 1st plan is not thematic. development, and the principle of contrast between cantilena and motility, decomp. texture types, timbres, etc. In many virtuoso K. thematic. development is completely absent (Viotti’s violin concertos, Romberg’s cello concertos) or occupies a subordinate position (1st part of Paganini’s 1st concerto for violin and orchestra). In the symphonized K., the development of music is based on the symphony. dramaturgy, thematic principles. development, on the opposition figuratively-thematic. spheres. The introduction of the symbol dramaturgy in K. was due to its convergence with the symphony in the figurative, artistic, ideological sense (concerts of I. Brahms). Both types of K. differ in dramaturgy. main functions components: virtuoso K. is characterized by the complete hegemony of the soloist and the subordinate (accompanying) role of the orchestra; for symphonized K. – dramaturgy. the activity of the orchestra (the development of thematic material is carried out jointly by the soloist and the orchestra), leading to relative equality of the part of the soloist and the orchestra. In symphonic K. virtuosity has become a means of drama. development. The symphonization embraced in it even such a specific virtuoso element of the genre as the cadenza. If in virtuoso K. the cadenza was intended to show technical. the skill of the soloist, in the symphony she joined in the overall development of music. Since the time of Beethoven, composers themselves began to write cadenzas; in the 5th fp. Beethoven’s concerto cadence becomes organic. part of the form of the work.

A clear distinction between virtuosic and symphonic k. is not always possible. The K. type has become widespread, in which the concert and symphonic qualities are in close unity. For example, in the concerts of F. Liszt, P. I. Tchaikovsky, A. K. Glazunov, S. V. Rachmaninov symphonic. dramaturgy is combined with the brilliant virtuoso character of the solo part. In the 20th century the predominance of virtuoso concert performance is typical for the concertos of S. S. Prokofiev, B. Bartok, the predominance of symphonic. qualities are observed, for example, in the 1st violin concerto by Shostakovich.

Having had a significant influence on the symphony, the symphony, in turn, was influenced by the symphony. At the end of the 19th century. a special “concert” variety of symphonism arose, presented by the work. R. Strauss (“Don Quixote”), N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov (“Spanish Capriccio”). In the 20th century Quite a few concertos for the orchestra also appeared based on the principle of concert performance (for example, in Soviet music, by the Azerbaijani composer S. Gadzhibekov, the Estonian composer J. Ryaets, and others).

Practically K. are created for all Europe. instruments – piano, violin, cello, viola, double bass, woodwinds and brass. R. M. Gliere owns the very popular K. for voice and orchestra. Owls. composers wrote K. for nar. instruments – balalaika, domra (K. P. Barchunova and others), Armenian tar (G. Mirzoyan), Latvian kokle (J. Medin), etc. In the owls music genre K. has become widespread in decomp. typical forms and is widely represented in the work of many composers (S. S. Prokofiev, D. D. Shostakovich, A. I. Khachaturian, D. B. Kabalevsky, N. Ya. Myaskovsky, T. N. Khrennikov, S. F. Tsintsadze and others).

References: Orlov G. A., Soviet Piano Concerto, L., 1954; Khokhlov Yu., Soviet Violin Concerto, M., 1956; Alekseev A., Concerto and chamber genres of instrumental music, in the book: History of Russian Soviet Music, vol. 1, M., 1956, pp. 267-97; Raaben L., Soviet Instrumental Concerto, L., 1967.

L. H. Raaben

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