Strict style |
Music Terms

Strict style |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, trends in art

Strict style, strict writing

Nem. klassische Vokalpoliphonie, lat. ecclesiastical a cappella style

1) Historical. and artistic and stylistic. concept related to chorus. polyphonic music of the Renaissance (15th-16th centuries). In this sense, the term is used by Ch. arr. in Russian classical and owls. musicology. The concept of S. with. covers a wide range of phenomena and has no clearly defined boundaries: it refers to the work of composers from different European countries. schools, first of all – to the Dutch, Roman, as well as Venetian, Spanish; to S.’s area of ​​page. includes music from French, German, English, Czech, Polish composers. S. s. called polyphonic style. prod. for choir a cappella, developed in prof. genres of church (ch. arr. Catholic) and, to a much lesser extent, secular music. The most important and largest among the genres of S. s. there was a mass (the first in European music means a cyclic form) and a motet (on spiritual and secular texts); spiritual and secular polyphonic compositions were composed in many. songs, madrigals (often in lyrical texts). Epoch S. s. put forward many outstanding masters, among whom a special position is occupied by Josquin Despres, O. Lasso and Palestrina. The work of these composers summarizes the aesthetic. and historical and stylistic. music trends. the art of their time, and their legacy is considered in the history of music as a classic of the era of S. with. The result of the development of a whole historical era – the work of Josquin Despres, Lasso and Palestrina, marks the first flowering of the art of polyphony (the work of J. S. Bach is his second culmination already within the free style).

For the figurative system of S. s. concentration and contemplation are typical, here the flow of sublime, even abstract thought is displayed; from a rational, thoughtful interlacing of contrapuntal voices, pure and balanced sounds arise, where expressive growths, dramas, characteristic of later art, do not find a place. contrasts and climaxes. The expression of personal emotions is not very characteristic of S. s.: his music strongly eschews everything transient, random, subjective; in its calculated dimensional movement, the universal, cleared of mundane everyday life, is revealed, uniting all those present at the liturgy, universally significant, objective. Within these limits, wok masters. the polyphonies showed an amazing individual diversity – from the heavy, thick tie of J. Obrecht’s imitation to the coldish-transparent grace of Palestrina. This figurativeness undoubtedly prevails, but it does not exclude s from the sphere of S. other, secular content. Subtle shades of lyric. feelings were embodied in numerous madrigals; the subjects adjoining to S.’s area of ​​page are various. polyphonic secular songs, playful or sad. S. s. – an integral part of the humanistic. cultures of the 15th-16th centuries; in the music of the old masters, there are many points of contact with the art of the Renaissance – with the work of Petrarch, Ronsard and Raphael.

Aesthetic the qualities of S.’s music. the means of expression used in it are adequate. The composers of that time were fluent in contrapuntal. art-tion, created products, saturated with the most complex polyphonic. techniques, such as, for example, the six-sided canon of Josquin Despres, counterpoint with and without pauses in the mass of P. Mulu (see No. 42 in ed. 1 of M. Ivanov-Boretsky’s Musical-Historical Reader), etc. For commitment to the rationality of constructions, behind the increased attention to the technology of the composition, the interest of the masters in the nature of the material, the testing of its technical. and express. opportunities. The main achievement of the masters of the era of S. S., which has an enduring historical. meaning, – the highest level of art-va imitation. Mastery of imitation. technique, the establishment of fundamental equality of voices in the choir are an essentially new quality of the music of the S. s. compared with the claim of the Early Renaissance (ars nova), although not averse to imitation, but still presented by Ch. arr. various (often ostinato) forms on the cantus firmus, rhythmic. the organization of which was decisive for other voices. Polyphonic independence of voices, non-simultaneity of introductions in different registers of the choir. range, the characteristic volume of sound – these phenomena were to a certain extent similar to the opening of perspective in painting. Masters S. s. developed all forms of imitation and the canon of the 1st and 2nd categories (their compositions are dominated by stretta presentation, that is, canonical imitation). In the music prod. find a place for two-headed. and polygon. canons with and without freely contrapunctuating accompanying voices, imitations and canons with two (or more) propostes, endless canons, canonical. sequences (for example, the “Canonical Mass” of Palestrina), i.e., almost all forms that later entered, during the period of change of S. with. era of free writing, in the highest imitation. fugue shape. Masters S. s. used all basic ways to convert polyphonic. themes: increase, decrease, circulation, movement and their decomp. combinations. One of their most important achievements was the development of various types of complex counterpoint and the application of its laws to canonical. forms (for example, in polygonal canons with different directions of voice entry). Other discoveries of the old masters of polyphony should include the principle of complementarity (melodic-rhythmic complementarity of contrapuntal voices), as well as methods of cadence, as well as avoidance (more precisely, masking) of cadences in the midst of muses. construction. Music of the masters of S. s. has varying degrees of polyphony. saturation, and composers were able to skillfully diversify the sound within large forms with the help of flexible alternation of strict canonical. expositions with sections based on inaccurate imitations, on freely contrapuntal voices, and finally with sections where the voices that form polyphonic. texture, move by notes of equal duration. In the latter case, contrapuntal the warehouse is transformed into a choral one (in the music of Palestrina, this kind of succession is especially common).

Harmonic type. combinations in S.’s music with. characterized as full-sounding, consonant-trisound. The use of dissonant intervals only depending on consonant ones is one of the most essential features of S. s.: in most cases, dissonance arises as a result of the use of passing, auxiliary sounds or delays, which are usually resolved in the future (freely taken dissonances are still not uncommon with smooth movement of short durations, especially in cadences). Thus, in the music of S. s. dissonance is always surrounded by consonant harmonies. Chords formed inside the polyphonic fabrics are not subject to functional connection, i.e., each chord can be followed by any other in the same diatonic. system. The direction, the certainty of gravitation in the succession of consonances arises only in cadences (at different steps).

Music S. s. relied on a system of natural modes (see mode). Muses. the theory of that time distinguished at first 8, later 12 frets; in practice, composers used 5 modes: Dorian, Phrygian, Mixolydian, as well as Ionian and Aeolian. The last two were fixed by theory later than the others (in the treatise “Dodecachordon” by Glarean, 1547), although their influence on the rest of the modes was constant, active and subsequently led to the crystallization of the major and minor modal moods. The frets were used in two pitch positions: the fret in the basic position (Dorian d, Phrygian e, Mixolydian G, Ionian C, Aeolian a) and the fret transposed a fourth up or fifth down (Dorian g, Phrygian a, etc.) with with the help of a flat at the key – the only constantly used sign. In addition, in practice, choirmasters, in accordance with the capabilities of the performers, transposed compositions by a second or a third up or down. The widespread opinion about the inviolable diatonicity in the music of S. s. (possibly due to the fact that random accidentals were not written out) is inaccurate: in singing practice, many typical cases of chromatic were legitimized. step changes. So, in the modes of a minor mood, for the stability of the sound, the third concludes always rose. chord; in the Dorian and Mixolydian modes, the XNUMXth degree rose in the cadence, and in the Aeolian also the XNUMXth degree (the opening tone of the Phrygian mode usually did not increase, but the XNUMXnd degree rose to reach the major third in the final chord during the ascending movement). The sound h was often changed to b in the downward movement, whereby the Dorian and Lydian modes, where such a change was common, were essentially transformed into transposed Aeolian and Ionian; the sound h (or f), if it served as an auxiliary, was replaced by the sound b (or fis) to avoid unwanted tritone sonority in melodic. sequence of type f – g – a – h(b) – a or h – a – g – f (fis) – g. As a result, something unusual for modern times easily arose. hearing a mixture of major and minor thirds in the Mixolydian mode, as well as the list (especially in cadences).

Most of the production S. s. intended for a cappella choir (boys’ and men’s choir; women were not allowed to participate in the choir by the Catholic Church). The a cappella choir is a performing apparatus that ideally corresponds to the figurative essence of S.’s music. and ideally adapted to detect any, even the most complex polyphonic. composer’s intentions. Masters of the era of S. with. (for the most part, the choristers and choirmasters themselves) masterfully owned express. the means of the choir. The art of placing sounds in a chord to create a special evenness and “purity” of sound, the masterful use of contrasts of different registers of voices, the diverse techniques of “turning on” and “turning off” voices, the technique of crossing and timbre variation in many cases are combined with a picturesque interpretation of the choir (for example ., in the famous 8-voice madrigal “Echo” by Lasso) and even genre representation (for example, in Lasso’s polyphonic songs). Composers S. s. they were famous for their ability to write spectacular multi-choir compositions (the 36-head canon attributed to J. Okegem still remains an exception); in their production quite often a 5-voice was used (usually with a separation of a high voice in CL from the choir groups – a tenor in a male, a soprano, more precisely a treble, in a boys’ choir). Choral 2- and 3-voices were often used to shade more complex (four to eight voices) writing (see, for example, Benedictus in masses). Masters S. s. (in particular, the Dutch, Venetian) allowed the participation of muses. instruments in the performance of their polygonal. wok. works. Many of them (Izak, Josquin Despres, Lasso, etc.) created music specifically for instr. ensembles. However, instrumentalism as such is one of the main historical achievements in music of the era of free writing.

Polyphony S. with. is based on neutral thematism, and the very concept of “polyphonic theme” as a thesis, as a relief melody to be developed, was not known: the individualization of intonations is found in the process of polyphonic. music development. Melodich. fundamental S. with. – Gregorian chant (cf. Gregorian chant) – throughout the history of the church. music was subjected to the strongest influence of Nar. songliness. The use of Nar. songs as cantus firmus is a common phenomenon, and composers of different nationalities – Italians, Dutch, Czechs, Poles – were often chosen for polyphonic. processing the melodies of his people. Some particularly popular songs were repeatedly used by different composers: for example, masses were written for the song L’homme armé by Obrecht, G. Dufay, Ockeghem, Josquin Despres, Palestrina and others. Specific features of melody and metrorhythm in the music of S. with. largely determined by its vocal-choral nature. Composers-polyphonists carefully eliminate from their compositions everything that could interfere with nature. the movement of the voice, the continuous deployment of melodic lines, everything that seems too sharp, capable of drawing attention to particulars, to details. The outlines of the melodies are smooth, sometimes they contain moments of a declamatory nature (for example, a sound repeated several times in a row). In melodic there are no jumps in the lines into difficult-to-tone dissonant and wide intervals; progressive movement predominates (without moves to chromatic semitone; chromatisms found, for example, in the madrigal Solo e pensoso by L. Marenzio on Petrarch’s poems, given in the anthology by A. Schering (Schering A., Geschichte der Musik in Beispielen, 1931, 1954), take this work beyond S. c), and jumps – immediately or at a distance – are balanced by movement in the opposite direction. melodic type. movements – soaring, bright culminations are unusual for him. For rhythmic organizations are not typically adjacent to sounds that differ significantly in duration, for example. eighths and brevis; in order to achieve rhythmic evenness of two ligated notes, the second is usually either equal to the first or shorter than it by half (but not four times). Jumps in melodic. lines are more common between notes of large duration (brevis, whole, half); notes of shorter duration (quarter notes, eighth notes) are usually used in smooth motion. The smooth movement of small notes often ends with a “white” note at a strong time or a “white” note, which is taken in syncopation (at a weak time). Melodich. constructions are formed (depending on the text) from the sequence of phrases decomp. length, so music is not characterized by squareness, but its metric. the pulsation appears smoothed and even amorphous (prod. C. with. were recorded and published without barlines and only by voices, without information in the score). This is compensated by rhythmic. autonomy of votes, in otd. cases of polymetry reaching the level (in particular, in the rhythmically bold Op. Josken Depre). Accurate information about the tempo in the music of S. with. No; however, the tradition of performance in the Sistine Chapel, in the Cathedral of St. Strict style | = 60 to MM Strict style | = 112).

In the music of S. with. verbal text and imitation played the most important role in shaping; on this basis, deployed polyphonics were created. works. In the work of masters S. with. various muses have developed. forms that do not lend themselves to typification, which is typical, for example, for forms in the music of the Viennese classical school. Forms of vocal polyphony in the most general terms are divided into those where the cantus firmus is used and those where it is not. AT. AT. Protopopov considers the most important in the systematics of forms S. with. variational principle and distinguishes the following polyphonic. forms: 1) ostinato type, 2) developing according to the type of germination of motifs, 3) strophic. In the 1st case, the form is based on the repetition of the cantus firmus (originated as a polyphonic. processing couplet nar. songs); contrapuntal voices are added to the ostinato melody, which can be repeated in a vertical permutation, pass in circulation, decrease, etc. n (e.g. Duo for bass and tenor Lasso, Sobr. op., vol. 1). Numerous works, written in forms of the 2nd type, represent a variational development of the same theme with abundant use of imitations, contrapuntal voices, complication of texture according to the scheme: a – a1 – b – a2 – c …. Due to the fluidity of transitions (mismatch of cadences in different voices, mismatch of upper and lower climaxes), the boundaries between variational constructions often become fuzzy (for example, Kyrie from the mass “Aeterna Christi munera” Palestrina, Sobr. op., vol. XIV; Kyrie from the mass “Pange lingua” by Josquin Despres, see в кн.: Ambros A., «History of Music», Vol. 5, Lpz., 1882, 1911, p. 80). In forms of the 3rd kind melodic. the material changes depending on the text according to the scheme: a – b – c – d … (prop. motet form), which gives grounds to define the form as strophic. The melody of the sections is usually non-contrasting, often related, but their structure and structure are different. The multi-theme form of the motet suggests at the same time. and thematic. renewal, and relatedness of themes necessary to create a unified art. image (for example, the famous madrigal “Mori quasi il mio core” of Palestrina, Sobr. op., vol. XXVIII). Different types of forms are very often combined in one work. The principles of their organization served as the basis for the emergence and development of later polyphonics. and homophonic forms; so, the motet form passed into instr. music and was used in the canzone and later in the fugue; pl. the features of ostinato forms are borrowed by the ricercar (a form without interludes, using various transformations of the theme); repetitions of parts in the mass (Kyrie after Christe eleison, Osanna after Benedictus) could serve as a prototype of a three-part reprise form; polyphonic songs with a couplet-variation structure approach the structure of a rondo. In production C. with. the process of functional differentiation of parts began, which was fully manifested in the classical. forms, eg.

The major theorists of the era of strict writing were J. Tinctoris, G. Glarean, N. Vicentipo (1511-1572; see his book: L’antica musica ridotta alla moderna prattica, 1555), J. Zarlino.

The most important achievements of the masters of S. s. – polyphonic. independence of voices, the unity of renewal and repetition in the development of music, a high level of development of imitation and canonical. forms, the technique of complex counterpoint, the use of various methods of transforming the theme, the crystallization of cadence techniques, etc., are fundamental to music. art-va and retain (on a different intonation basis) of fundamental importance for all subsequent eras.

Reaching the highest flowering in the 2nd half. 16th century, the music of strict writing gave way to the latest art of the 17th century. Masters of free style (J. Frescobaldi, J. Legrenzi, I. Ya. Froberger and others) were based on creative. achievements of the old polyphonists. The art of the High Renaissance is reflected in concentrated and majestic works. J. S. Bach (e.g., 6-ch. org. chorale “Aus tiefer Not”, BWV 686, 7-ch., with 8 accompanying bass voice, Credo No 12 from Mass in h-moll, 8-ch. Motet for choir a cappella, BWV 229). W. A. ​​Mozart was well acquainted with the traditions of the old contrapuntalists, and without taking into account the influence of their culture, it is difficult to assess such essentially close S. s. his masterpieces, like the finale of the symphony C-dur (“Jupiter”), the finale of the quartet G-dur, K.-V. 387, Recordare from Requiem. Creatures. features of the music of the era of S. with. on a new basis are reborn in sublimely contemplative Op. L. Beethoven of the late period (in particular, in the Solemn Mass). In the 19th century many composers used strict contrapuntal. technique for creating a special old color, and in some cases – mystic. shade; celebrations. the sound and characteristic techniques of strict writing are reproduced by R. Wagner in Parsifal, A. Bruckner in symphonies and choirs. writings, G. Fauré in Requiem, etc. Authoritative editions of production appear. old masters (Palestrina, Lasso), their serious study begins (A. Ambros). From Russian musicians have a particular interest in the polyphony of S. s. exhibited by M. I. Glinka, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, G. A. Larosh; a whole epoch in the study of counterpoint was made up of the works of S. I. Taneev. Nowadays, interest in early music has increased dramatically; in the USSR and abroad, a large number of publications containing products. old masters of polyphony; music S. s. becomes the object of careful study, it is included in the repertoire of the best performing groups. Composers of the 20th century They make extensive use of the techniques found by the composers of the S. s. (in particular, on a dodecaphone basis); the influence of the work of the old contrapuntalists is felt, for example, in a number of Op. I. F. Stravinsky of the neoclassical and late periods (“Symphony of Psalms”, “Canticum sacrum”), in some owls. composers.

2) The initial part of the practical. polyphony course (German strenger Satz), fundamentally oriented towards the work of composers of the 15th-16th centuries, ch. arr. on the work of Palestrina. This course teaches the basics of simple and complex counterpoint, imitation, canon and fugue. Relative stylistic. the unity of the music of the era of S. with. allows you to present the basics of counterpoint in the form of a relatively small number of precise rules and formulas, and the simplicity of melodic harmonic. and rhythmic. norms makes S. s. the most expedient system for studying the principles of polyphony. thinking. The most important for pedagogical. practice had the work of G. Tsarlino “Istitutioni harmoniche”, as well as a number of works by other muses. theorists of the 16th century. Methodical the basics of the course of polyphony S. s. were defined by I. Fuchs in the textbook “Gradus ad Parnassum” (1725). The system of counterpoint discharges developed by Fuchs is preserved in all subsequent practical works. guides, eg. in the textbooks of L. Cherubini, G. Bellerman, in the 20th century. – K. Eppesen (Kph.-Lpz., 1930; last ed. – Lpz., 1971). Great attention to the development of S.’s theory of page. gave Russian. musicians; for example, Tchaikovsky’s Guide to the Practical Study of Harmony (1872) includes a chapter devoted to this topic. The first special book on S. s. in Russian lang. was a textbook by L. Busler, published in the translation of S. I. Taneyev in 1885. S.’s teaching was. major musicians were engaged – S. I. Taneev, A. K. Lyadov, R. M. Glier; pedagogical S.’s value with. noted by P. Hindemith, I. F. Stravinsky and other composers. Over time, the Fuchs system of discharges ceased to meet the established views on the nature of counterpoint (its criticism was given by E. Kurt in the book “Fundamentals of Linear Counterpoint”), and after scientific. Taneyev’s studies, the need to replace it became obvious. A new method of teaching S. s., where the main. attention is paid to the study of imitative forms and complex counterpoint in polyphonic conditions. polyphony, created owls. researchers S. S. Bogatyrev, Kh. S. Kushnarev, G. I. Litinsky, V. V. Protopopov, and S. S. Skrebkov; written a number of textbooks, reflecting adopted in the Soviet. uch. institutions, the practice of teaching S. s., in the construction of courses to-rogo, two trends stand out: the creation of a rational pedagogical. system aimed primarily at practical. mastering composing skills (represented, in particular, in the textbooks of G. I. Litinsky); a course focusing on practical as well as theoretical. mastering strict writing based on the study of art. samples of music of the 15th-16th centuries. (for example, in the textbooks of T. F. Muller and S. S. Grigoriev, S. A. Pavlyuchenko).

References: Bulychev V. A., Music of a strict style and the classical period as a subject of activity of the Moscow Symphony Chapel, M., 1909; Taneev S. I., Movable counterpoint of strict writing, Leipzig, 1909, M., 1959; Sokolov H. A., Imitations on cantus firmus, L., 1928; Konyus G. E., Course of counterpoint of strict writing in frets, M., 1930; Skrebkov C. S., Textbook of polyphony, M.-L., 1951, M., 1965; his, Artistic principles of musical styles, M., 1973; Grigoriev S. S., Muller T. F., Textbook of polyphony, M., 1961, 1969; Pavlyuchenko S. A., A practical guide to the counterpoint of strict writing, L., 1963; Protopopov V. V., The history of polyphony in its most important phenomena, (vol. 2) – Western European classics of the XVIII-XIX centuries, M., 1965; his, Problems of form in polyphonic works of strict style, “SM”, 1977, No 3; his, On the question of formation in polyphonic works of a strict style, in the book: S. C. Scrapers. Articles and memories, M., 1979; Konen V. D., Etudes about foreign music, M., 1968, 1975; Ivanov-Boretsky M. V., On the modal basis of polyphonic music, Proletarian Musician, 1929, No. 5, same, in: Questions of Music Theory, vol. 2, M., 1970; Kushnarev X. S., O polyphony, M., 1971; Litinsky G. I., The formation of imitations of strict writing, M., 1971; Tyulin Yu. N., Natural and alteration modes, M., 1971; Stepanov A., Chugaev A., Polyphony, M., 1972; Milka A., Concerning functionality in polyphony, in collection: Polyphony, M., 1975; Chugaev A., Some issues of teaching polyphony in a music school, part XNUMX. 1, Strict letter, M., 1976; Evdokimova Yu. K., The Problem of the Primary Source, “SM”, 1977, No 3; Theoretical observations on the history of music. (Sb. Art.), M., 1978; Fraenov V. P., Counterpoint of strict writing in the school course of polyphony, in the book: Methodical notes on music education, vol. 2, М., 1979; Viсеntino N., Ancient music reduced to modern practice, Rome, 1555, Zarlino G., Istitutioni harmoniche, Venice, 1558, факсимиле в изд .: Monuments of music and music literature in facsimile, 2 ser. — Music literature, 1, N. Y., 1965; Artusy G. M., The art of counterpoint, 1-2, Venice, 1586-89, 1598; Bernardi S., Musical door for which in the beginning…, Venice, 1682; Berardi A., Harmonic documents, Bologna, 1687; Fux J. J., Gradus ad Parnassus, W., 1725 (English per. – NOT. Y., 1943); Сcherubini L., Cours de contrepoint et de fugue, P., 1835; Bellermann H., Der Contrapunkt, V., 1862, 1901; Vubler L., Der strenge Satz, V., 1877, 1905 (rus. per. C. AND. Taneeva — L. Busler, Strict style. Textbook of simple and complex counterpoint …, M., 1885, 1925); Kurth E., Grundlagen des linearen Kontrapunkts. Introduction to the style and technique of Bach’s melodic polyphony, Bern, 1917, 1956 (рус. per. — Fundamentals of linear counterpoint. Bach’s melodic polyphony, with a preface. and under order. B. AT. Асафьева, М., 1931); Jeppesen К., The Palestrina style and dissonance, Lpz., 1925; его же, counterpoint, Kph., 1930, Lpz., 1935; Меrritt A., Sixteen-century poliphony, Camb., 1939; Lang P, Music of western civilization, N. Y., 1942; Reese G., Music of the Renaissance, N. Y., 1954; Chominski J. M., Musical Forms, vol.

V. P. Frayonov

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