ital. stretta, stretto, from stringere – to compress, reduce, shorten; German eng, gedrängt – concise, closely, Engfuhrung – concise holding
1) Simulation holding (1) polyphonic. themes, characterized by the introduction of the imitating voice or voices before the end of the theme in the beginning voice; in a more general sense, the imitative introduction of a theme with a shorter introductory distance than in the original simulation. S. can be performed in the form of a simple imitation, where the theme contains changes in melodic. drawing or is carried out incompletely (see a, b in the example below), as well as in the canonical form. imitation, canon (see c, d in the same example). A characteristic feature of the emergence of S. is the brevity of the distance of entry, which is obvious to the ear, which determines the intensity of imitation, the acceleration of the process of layering polyphonic. votes.
J. S. Bach. Prelude and Fugue in f minor for organ, BWV 534.
P. I. Tchaikovsky. Suite No 1 for orchestra. Fugue.
P. Hindemith. Ludus tonalis. Fuga secunda in G.
I. S. Bax. The Well-Tempered Clavier, Volume 2. Fugue D-dur.
S. is purely contrapuntal. means of thickening and compacting the sound, highly effective thematic reception. concentration; this predetermines its special semantic richness – it will express the main thing. quality C. It is widely used in decomp. polyphonic forms (as well as in the polyphonized sections of homophonic forms), primarily in the fugue, ricercare. In the fugue S., firstly, one of the main. constituting “building” elements along with the theme, opposition, interlude. Secondly, S. is a technique that serves to reveal the essence of the theme as the leading muses. thoughts in the process of deployment and at the same time marking the key moments of production, i.e., being a driving and at the same time fixing factor polyphonic. form (as a unity of “becoming” and “becoming”). In fugue, S. is optional. In Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier (hereinafter abbreviated as “HTK”), it occurs in approximately half of the fugues. S. is absent most often where there are creatures. the role is played either by tonal (for example, in the e-moll fugue from the 1st volume of the “HTK” – only a semblance of S. in measures 39-40), or contrapuntal. development carried out in addition to S. (for example, in the c-moll fugue from the 1st volume, where a system of derivative compounds is formed in interludes and conductions of the theme with retained counterpositions). In fugues, where the moment of tonal development is accentuated, the segue, if any, is usually located in tonal stable reprise sections and is often combined with the climax, emphasizing it. So, in the f-moll fugue from the 2nd volume (three-part with sonata relations of keys), S. sounds only in the conclusion. parts; in the developing part of the fugue in g-moll from the 1st volume (bar 17), the S. is relatively unobtrusive, while the reprise 3-goal. S. (measure 28) forms the true climax; in a three-part fugue in C-dur op. 87 No 1 by Shostakovich with its peculiar harmony. S.’s development was introduced only in reprise: the 1st with the second counterposition retained, the 2nd with a horizontal displacement (see Movable counterpoint). Tonal development does not exclude the use of S., however, contrapuntal. the nature of S. determines its more important role in those fugues in which the composer’s intention involves complex contrapuntal. development of the material (for example, in fugues C-dur and dis-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”, c-moll, Cis-dur, D-dur from the 2nd volume). In them, S. can be located in any section of the form, not excluding exposition (E-dur fugue from the 1st volume, No 7 from Bach’s Art of Fugue – S. enlarged and in circulation). Fugues, expositions to-rykh are made in the form of S., are called stretta. The pairwise introductions in the stretta fugue from Bach’s 2nd motet (BWV 226) are reminiscent of the practice of austere masters who widely used such presentation (for example, Kyrie from Palestrina’s “Ut Re Mi Fa Sol La” mass).
J. S. Bach. Motet.
Quite often in a fugue several S. are formed, developing in a certain. system (fugues dis-moll and b-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”; fugue c-moll Mozart, K.-V. 426; fugue from the introduction to the opera “Ivan Susanin” by Glinka). The norm is a gradual enrichment, the complication of stretta conducts. For example, in the fugue in b-moll from the 2nd volume of the “HTK”, the 1st (bar 27) and 2nd (bar 33) S. are written on a theme in direct movement, the 3rd (bar 67) and 4- I (bar 73) – in full reversible counterpoint, 5th (bar 80) and 6th (bar 89) – in incomplete reversible counterpoint, final 7th (bar 96) – in incomplete reversible with doubling voices; S. of this fugue acquire similarities with dispersed polyphonic. variational cycle (and thus the meaning of “form of the 2nd order”). In fugues containing more than one S., it is natural to consider these S. as the original and derivative compounds (see Complex counterpoint). In some productions. the most complex S. is in fact the original combination, and the rest of the S. are, as it were, simplified derivatives, “extractions” from the original. For example, in the fugue C-dur from the 1st volume of the “HTK”, the original is 4-goal. S. in bars 16-19 (golden section zone), derivatives – 2-, 3-goal. S. (see bars 7, 10, 14, 19, 21, 24) with vertical and horizontal permutations; it can be assumed that the composer began composing this fugue precisely with the design of the most complex fugue. The position of the fugue, its functions in the fugue are diverse and essentially universal; in addition to the cases mentioned, one can point to the S., which completely determine the form (the two-part fugue in c-moll from the 2nd volume, where in the transparent, almost 3-head. 1st part of the S. with a predominance of viscous four-parts, it consists entirely of S.), as well as in S., performing the role of development (fugue from Tchaikovsky’s 2st orchestral suite) and active predicate (Kyrie in Mozart’s Requiem, bars 14-1). Voices in S. can enter into any interval (see the example below), however, simple ratios – entry into an octave, a fifth and a fourth – are most common, since in these cases the tone of the theme is preserved.
I. F. Stravinsky. Concerto for two pianos, 4th movement.
S.’s activity depends on many circumstances – on the pace, dynamic. level, the number of introductions, but to the greatest extent – from contrapuntal. the complexity of the S. and the distance of the entry of voices (the smaller it is, the more effective the S., all other things being equal). Two-headed canon on a theme in direct motion – the most common form of C. In 3-goal. S. The 3rd voice often enters after the end of the theme in the beginning voice, and such S. are formed as a chain of canons:
J. S. Bach. The Well-Tempered Clavier, Volume 1. Fugue F-dur.
S. are relatively few, in which the theme is carried out in full in all voices in the form of a canon (the last risposta enters until the end of the proposta); S. of this kind are called main (stretto maestrale), that is, masterfully made (for example, in fugues C-dur and b-moll from the 1st volume, D-dur from the 2nd volume of the “HTK”). Composers willingly use S. with decomp. polyphonic transformations. Topics; conversion is used more often (for example, fugues in d-moll from the 1st volume, Cis-dur from the 2nd volume; inversion in S. is typical for the fugues of W. A. Mozart, for example, g-moll, K.-V. 401, c-moll, K.-V. 426) and increase, occasionally decrease (E-dur fugue from the 2nd volume of the “HTK”), and often several are combined. ways of transformation (fugue c-moll from the 2nd volume, bars 14-15 – in direct movement, in circulation and increase; dis-moll from the 1st volume, in bars 77-83 – a kind of stretto maestrale: in direct movement, in an increase and with a change in rhythmic ratios). The sound of S. is replenished with counterpoints (for example, the C-dur fugue from the 1st volume in measures 7-8); sometimes the counter-addition or its fragments are retained in S. (bar 28 in the g-moll fugue from the 1st volume). S. are especially weighty, where the theme and the retained opposition or themes of a complex fugue are simultaneously imitated (bar 94 and further in the cis-moll fugue from the 1st volume of the CTC; reprise – number 35 – fugue from the quintet op. 57 by Shostakovich). In the cited S., he will add on two topics. votes omitted (see col. 325).
A. Berg. “Wozzek”, 3rd act, 1st picture (fugue).
As a particular manifestation of the general trend in the development of new polyphony, there is a further complication of stretto technique (including the combination of incomplete reversible and doubly movable counterpoint). Impressive examples are S. in the triple fugue No. 3 from the cantata “After reading the Psalm” by Taneyev, in the fugue from the suite “The Tomb of Couperin” by Ravel, in the double fugue in A (bars 58-68) from Hindemith’s Ludus tonalis cycle, in the double fugue e -moll op. 87 No 4 by Shostakovich (a system of reprise S. with a double canon in measure 111), in a fugue from a concerto for 2 fp. Stravinsky. In production Shostakovich S., as a rule, are concentrated in reprises, which distinguishes their playwright. role. High level technical sophistication reaches S. in products based on serial technology. For example, the reprise S. fugue from the finale of K. Karaev’s 3rd symphony contains the theme in a rakish movement; the climactic chant in the Prologue from Lutosławski’s Funeral Music is an imitation of ten and eleven voices with magnification and reversal; the idea of a polyphonic stretta is brought to its logical end in many modern compositions, when the incoming voices are “compressed” into an integral mass (for example, the four-voice endless canon of the 2nd category at the beginning of the 3rd part of K. Khachaturian’s string quartet).
The generally accepted classification of S. does not exist. S., in which only the beginning of the topic or the topic with means is used. melodic changes are sometimes called incomplete or partial. Since the fundamental basis of S. are canonical. forms, for the S.’s characteristic application of osn is justified. definitions of these forms. S. on two topics can be called double; to the category of “exceptional” forms (according to the terminology of S. I. Taneev) are S., the technique of which goes beyond the range of phenomena of mobile counterpoint, i.e. S., where increase, decrease, raked movement are used; by analogy with the canons, S. is distinguished in direct movement, in circulation, combined, 1st and 2nd categories, etc.
In homophonic forms, there are polyphonic constructions, which are not S. in the full sense (due to the chordal context, origin from the homophonic period, position in the form, etc.), but in sound they resemble it; examples of such stretta introductions or stretta-like constructions can serve as the main. theme of the 2nd movement of the 1st symphony, the beginning of the trio of the 3rd movement of the 5th symphony by Beethoven, a minuet fragment from the symphony C-dur (“Jupiter”) by Mozart (bar 44 onwards), fugato in the development of the 1st movement ( see number 19) of Shostakovich’s 5th symphony. In homophonic and mixed homophonic-polyphonic. forms a certain analogy of S. are contrapunally complicated concludes. constructions (the canon in the reprise of Gorislava’s cavatina from the opera Ruslan and Lyudmila by Glinka) and complex combinations of themes that previously sounded separately (the beginning of the reprise of the overture from the opera The Mastersingers of Nuremberg by Wagner, concludes part of the coda in the bargaining scene from the 4th scene of the opera- the epic “Sadko” by Rimsky-Korsakov, the coda of the finale of Taneyev’s symphony in c-moll).
2) The rapid acceleration of movement, an increase in the pace Ch. arr. in concluding. section of major music. prod. (in the musical text it is indicated piъ stretto; sometimes only a change in tempo is indicated: piъ mosso, prestissimo, etc.). S. – simple and in the arts. relation is a very effective tool used to create a dynamic. culmination of products, often accompanied by the activation of rhythmic. start. The earliest of all, they became widespread and became an almost obligatory genre feature in Italian. opera (more rarely in a cantata, oratorio) of the time of G. Paisiello and D. Cimarosa as the last section of the ensemble (or with the participation of the choir) finale (for example, the final ensemble after Paolino’s aria in Cimarosa’s The Secret Marriage). Outstanding examples belong to W.A. Mozart (for example, prestissimo in the finale of the 2nd act of the opera Le nozze di Figaro as the culminating episode in the development of a comedic situation; in the finale of the 1st act of the opera Don Giovanni, piъ stretto is enhanced by stretta imitation ). S. in the final is also typical for the product. ital. composers of the 19th century – G. Rossini, B. Bellini, G. Verdi (for example, piъ mosso in the finale of the 2nd act of the opera “Aida”; in the special section, the composer singles out C. in the introduction of the opera “La Traviata”). S. was also often used in comedic arias and duets (for example, accelerando in Basilio’s famous aria about slander from the opera The Barber of Seville by Rossini), as well as lyrically passionate (for example, vivacissimo in the duet of Gilda and the Duke in the 2nd scene opera “Rigoletto” by Verdi) or drama. character (for example, in the duet of Amneris and Radames from the 4th act of the opera Aida by Verdi). A small aria or duet of song character with repetitive melodic-rhythmic. turns, where S. is used, is called cabaletta. S. as a special means of expression was used not only by Italian. composers, but also masters of other European countries. In particular, S. in Op. M. I. Glinka (see, for example, prestissimo and piъ stretto in the Introduction, piъ mosso in Farlaf’s rondo from the opera Ruslan and Lyudmila).
Less often S. call acceleration in the conclusion. instr. product written at a fast pace. Vivid examples are found in Op. L. Beethoven (for example, presto complicated by the canon in the coda of the finale of the 5th symphony, “multi-stage” S. in the coda of the finale of the 9th symphony), fp. music by R. Schumann (e.g., remarks schneller, noch schneller before the coda and in the coda of the 1st part of the piano sonata g-moll op. 22 or prestissimo and immer schneller und schneller in the finale of the same sonata; in the 1st and last parts of Carnival, the introduction of new themes is accompanied by an acceleration of movement up to the final piъ stretto), Op. P. Liszt (symphonic poem “Hungary”), etc. The widespread opinion that in the era after G. Verdi S. disappears from composer practice is not entirely true; in music con. 19th century and in production 20th century Pages are applied extremely variously; However, the technique is modified so strongly that composers, making extensive use of the principle of S., have almost ceased to use the term itself. Among the numerous examples can be pointed to the finals of the 1st and 2nd parts of the opera “Oresteia” by Taneyev, where the composer is clearly guided by the classical. tradition. A vivid example of the use of S. in music is deeply psychological. plan – the scene of Inol and Golo (end of the 3rd act) in the opera Pelléas et Mélisande by Debussy; the term “S.” occurs in the score of Berg’s Wozzeck (2nd act, interlude, number 160). In the music of the 20th century S., by tradition, often serves as a way to convey comic. situations (e.g. No 14 “In taberna guando sumus” (“When we sit in a tavern”) from Orff’s “Carmina burana”, where acceleration, combined with unrelenting crescendo, produces an effect that is almost overwhelming in its spontaneity). With cheerful irony, he uses the classic. reception by S. S. Prokofiev in Chelia’s monologue from the beginning of the 2nd act of the opera “Love for Three Oranges” (on the single word “Farfarello”), in the “Champagne Scene” by Don Jerome and Mendoza (end of the 2nd act opera “Betrothal in a Monastery”). As a particular manifestation of the neoclassical style should be considered quasi stretto (measure 512) in the ballet “Agon”, Anne’s cabaletta at the end of the 1st act of the opera “The Rake’s Progress” by Stravinsky.
3) Imitation in reduction (Italian: Imitazione alla stretta); the term is not commonly used in this sense.
References: Zolotarev V. A. Fugue. Guide to practical study, M., 1932, 1965; Skrebkov S. S., Polyphonic analysis, M.-L., 1940; his own, Textbook of polyphony, M.-L., 1951, M., 1965; Mazel L. A., Structure of musical works, M., 1960; Dmitriev A. N., Polyphony as a factor of shaping, L., 1962; Protopopov VV, The history of polyphony in its most important phenomena. Russian classical and Soviet music, M., 1962; his, History of polyphony in its most important phenomena. Western European classics of the 18th-19th centuries, M., 1965; Dolzhansky A.N., 24 preludes and fugues by D. Shostakovich, L., 1963, 1970; Yuzhak K., Some features of the structure of the fugue by J. S. Bach, M., 1965; Chugaev A. G., Features of the structure of Bach’s clavier fugues, M., 1975; Richter E., Lehrbuch der Fuge, Lpz., 1859, 1921 (Russian translation – Richter E., Fugue Textbook, St. Petersburg, 1873); Buss1er L., Kontrapunkt und Fuge im freien Tonsatz…, V., 1878, 1912 (Russian translation – Bussler L., Strict style. Textbook of counterpoint and fugue, M., 1885); Prout E., Fugue, L., 1891 (Russian translation – Prout E., Fugue, M., 1922); see also lit. at Art. Polyphony.
V. P. Frayonov