lat. factura – manufacturing, processing, structure, from facio – I do, I carry out, I form; German Faktur, Satz – warehouse, Satzweise, Schreibweise – writing style; French facture, structure, conformation – device, addition; English texture, texture, structure, build-up; ital. structure
In a broad sense – one of the sides of the musical form, is included in the aesthetic and philosophical concept of the musical form in unity with all means of expression; in a narrower and more common sense – the specific design of the musical fabric, the musical presentation.
The term “texture” is revealed in connection with the concept of “musical warehouse”. Monodic. the warehouse assumes only a “horizontal dimension” without any vertical relationship. In strictly unison monodich. samples (Gregorian chant, Znamenny chant) single-headed. music fabric and F. are identical. Rich monodic. F. distinguishes, for example, the music of the East. peoples who did not know polyphony: in Uzbek. and taj. Makome singing dubbed instr. ensemble with the participation of drums performing usul. Monodic. warehouse and F. easily pass into a phenomenon intermediate between monody and polyphony – into a heterophonic presentation, where unison singing in the process of performance becomes more complicated decomp. melodic-textural options.
The essence of polyphony. warehouse – correlation at the same time. sounding melodies. lines are relatively independent. the development of which (more or less independent of the consonances arising along the vertical) constitutes the logic of the muses. forms. In polyphonic music The tissues of the voice show a tendency towards functional equality, but they can also be multifunctional. Among the qualities of polyphonic F. creatures. density and sparseness (“viscosity” and “transparency”) are important, to-rye are regulated by the number of polyphonic. voices (masters of a strict style willingly wrote for 8-12 voices, preserving one type of F. without a sharp change in sonority; however, in masses it was customary to set off magnificent polyphony with light two- or three-voices, for example, Crucifixus in the masses of Palestrina). Palestrina only outlines, and in free writing, polyphonic techniques are widely used. thickening, thickening (especially at the end of the piece) with the help of increase and decrease, stretta (fugue in C-dur from the 1st volume of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier), combinations of different themes (the coda of the finale of Taneyev’s symphony in c-moll). In the example below, the textural thickening due to the rapid pulse of the introductions and the textural growth of the 1st (thirty-second) and 2nd (chords) elements of the theme are characteristic:
J. S. Bach. Fugue in D-dur from the 1st volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier (bars 23-27).
For polyphonic F. is typical of the unity of the pattern, the absence of sharp contrasts in sonority, and a constant number of voices. One of the notable properties of polyphonic P. – fluidity; polyphony. F. is distinguished by constant updating, the absence of literal repetitions while maintaining the full thematic. unity. Defining value for polyphonic. F. has rhythmic. and thematic ratio of votes. With the same durations, a choral F. appears in all voices. This F. is not identical to chord-harmonic, since the movement here is determined by the deployment of melodic. lines in each of the voices, and not by the functional relationships of the harmonics. verticals, for example:
F. d’Ana. An excerpt from the motet.
The opposite case is polyphonic. F., based on the full metrorhythm. independence of voices, as in the mensural canons (see the example in v. Canon, column 692); the most common type of complementary polyphonic. F. is determined thematically. and rhythmic. like themselves. voices (in imitations, canons, fugues, etc.). Polyphonic F. does not exclude a sharp rhythmic. stratification and an unequal ratio of voices: contrapuntal voices moving in relatively short durations form the background for the dominant cantus firmus (in masses and motets of the 15th-16th centuries, in Bach’s organ choral arrangements). In the music of later times (19th and 20th centuries), polyphony of different themes developed, creating unusually picturesque F. (for example, the textured interweaving of the leitmotifs of fire, fate, and Brünnhilde’s dream at the conclusion of Wagner’s opera The Valkyrie). Among the new phenomena of music of the 20th century. should be noted: F. linear polyphony (the movement of harmonically and rhythmically uncorrelated voices, see Milhaud’s Chamber Symphonies); P., associated with complex dissonant duplication of polyphonic. voices and turning into polyphony of layers (often in the work of O. Messiaen); “dematerialized” pointillistic. F. in op. A. Webern and the opposite polygon. severity orc. counterpoint by A. Berg and A. Schoenberg; polyphonic F. aleatory (in V. Lutoslavsky) and sonoristic. effects (by K. Penderecki).
O. Messiaen. Epouvante (Rhythmic canon. Example No 50 from his book “The Technique of My Musical Language”).
Most often, the term “F.” applied to harmonica music. warehouse. In an immeasurable variety of harmonic types. F. The first and simplest is its division into homophonic-harmonic and proper chordal (which is considered as a special case of homophonic-harmonic). Chordal F. is monorhythmic: all voices are set out in sounds of the same duration (the beginning of Tchaikovsky’s overture-fantasy Romeo and Juliet). In homophonic harmonic. F. drawings of melody, bass and complementary voices are clearly separated (the beginning of Chopin’s c-moll nocturne). The following are distinguished. harmonic presentation types. consonances (Tyulin, 1976, ch. 3rd, 4th): a) harmonic. a figuration of a chord-figurative type, representing one or another form of sequential presentation of chord sounds (prelude C-dur from the 1st volume of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier); b) rhythmic. figuration – the repetition of a sound or chord (poem D-dur op. 32 No 2 by Scriabin); c) diff. duplicates, eg. in an octave with orc. presentation (a minuet from Mozart’s symphony in g-moll) or a long doubling into a third, sixth, etc., forming a “tape movement” (“Musical Moment” op. 16 No 3 by Rachmaninov); d) various types of melodic. figurations, the essence of which is in the introduction of melodic. movements in harmony. voices – complication of chord figuration by passing and auxiliary. sounds (etude c-moll op. 10 No 12 by Chopin), melodicization (choir and orchestra presentation of the main theme at the beginning of the 4th painting “Sadko” by Rimsky-Korsakov) and polyphonization of voices (introduction to “Lohengrin” by Wagner), melodic-rhythmic “revitalization” org. point (4th painting “Sadko”, number 151). The given systematization of harmonic types. F. is the most common. In music, there are many specific textural techniques, the appearance of which and the methods of use are determined by stylistic. the norms of this music-historical. eras; therefore, the history of F. is inseparable from the history of harmony, orchestration (more broadly, instrumentalism), and performance.
Harmonic. warehouse and F. originate in polyphony; for example, Palestrina, who perfectly felt the beauty of soberness, could use the figuration of emerging chords over many measures with the help of complex polyphonic (canons) and the chorus itself. means (crossings, duplications), admiring the harmony, like a jeweler with a stone (Kyrie from the mass of Pope Marcello, bars 9-11, 12-15 – five counterpoint). For a long time in instr. prod. composers of the 17th century chorus addiction. F. strict writing was obvious (e.g., in org. Op. Ya Sweelinka), and composers were content with relatively simple techniques and drawings of mixed harmonica. and polyphonic. F. (ex. J. Frescobaldi). The expressive role of F. intensifies in production. 2nd gender 17 in. (in particular, the spatial-textural juxtapositions of solo and tutti in Op. A. Corelli). Music I. C. Bach is marked by the highest development of F. (chaconne d-moll for violin solo, “Goldberg Variations”, “Brandenburg Concertos”), and in some virtuoso Op. (“Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue”; Fantasy G-dur for organ, BWV 572) Bach makes textural discoveries, subsequently widely used by romantics. The music of the Viennese classics is characterized by the clarity of harmony and, accordingly, the clarity of textured patterns. Composers used relatively simple textural means and were based on general forms of movement (for example, figures such as passages or arpeggios), which did not conflict with the attitude towards F. as a thematically significant element (see, for example, the middle in the 4th variation from the 1st movement of Mozart’s sonata No 11 A-dur, K.-V. 331); in the presentation and development of the themes from Allegri sonatas, motivic development occurs in parallel with textural development (for example, in the main and connecting parts of the 1st movement of Beethoven’s Sonata No 1). In the music of the 19th century, primarily among the Romantic composers, exceptions are observed. variety of F. – sometimes lush and multi-layered, sometimes cozy at home, sometimes fantastically quirky; strong textural and stylistic differences arise even in the work of one master (cf. diverse and powerful F. sonatas in h-moll for piano. and impressionistically refined drawing fp. play “Grey Clouds” by Liszt). One of the most important trends in music of the 19th century. – individualization of textured drawings: the interest in the extraordinary, unique, characteristic of the art of romanticism, made it natural to reject typical figures in F. Special methods were found for the multi-octave selection of a melody (Liszt); opportunity to upgrade F. musicians found, first of all, in the melody of wide harmonies. figurations (incl. h in such an unusual form as in the final fp. sonata b-moll Chopin), sometimes turning almost into polyphonic. presentation (the theme of a side part in the exposition of the 1st ballad for piano. Chopin). Textured variety supported the interest of the listener in the wok. and instr. cycles of miniatures, it to a certain extent stimulated the composition of music in genres directly dependent on F. – etudes, variations, rhapsodies. Happy Birthday. hand, there was polyphonization of F. in general (the finale of Frank’s violin sonata) and the harmonica. figurations in particular (8-ch. canon in the introduction to Wagner’s Rhine Gold). Rus. musicians discovered a source of new sonorities in the textural techniques of the East. music (see, in particular, Balakirev’s “Islamei”). One of the most important. achievements of the 19th century in the area of F. – strengthening its motivic richness, thematic. concentration (R. Wagner, I. Brahms): in some Op. in fact, there is not a single measure of non-thematic. material (e.g. symphony in c-moll, piano. Taneyev Quintet, Rimsky-Korsakov’s late operas). The extreme point of development of individualized F. was the emergence of P.-harmony and F.-timbre. The essence of this phenomenon is that at a certain Under conditions, harmony, as it were, passes into Ph., expressiveness is determined not so much by the sound composition as by the picturesque arrangement: the correlation of the “floors” of the chord with each other, with the registers of the piano, with the orchestra takes precedence. groups; more important is not the height, but the texture filling of the chord, i.e. e. how it is taken. Examples of F.-harmony are contained in Op. М. AP Mussorgsky (for example, “Clock with chimes” from the 2nd act. opera “Boris Godunov”). But in general, this phenomenon is more typical of the music of the 20th century: F.-harmony is often found in the production of. A. N. Scriabin (the beginning of the reprise of the 1st part of the 4th fp. sonatas; culmination of the 7th fp. sonatas; last chord fp. poem “To the Flame”), K. Debussy, S. AT. Rachmaninov. In other cases, the merger of F. and harmony determines the timbre (fp. play “Skarbo” by Ravel), which is especially pronounced in orc. the technique of “combining similar figures”, when the sound arises from the combination of rhythmic. variants of one textured figure (a technique known for a long time, but brilliantly developed in the scores of I. F. Stravinsky; cm.
In the claim of the 20th century. different ways of updating the F. coexist. As the most general trends are noted: the strengthening of the role of F. in general, including polyphonic. F., in connection with the predominance of polyphony in the music of the 20th century. (in particular, as a restoration of F. of past eras in the production of the neoclassical direction); further individualization of textural techniques (F. is essentially “composed” for each new work, just as an individual form and harmony are created for them); discovery – in connection with new harmonics. norms – dissonant duplications (3 etudes op. 65 by Scriabin), the contrast of especially complex and “refinedly simple” F. (1st part of Prokofiev’s 5th piano concerto), and improvisational drawings. type (No 24 “Horizontal and Vertical” from Shchedrin’s “Polyphonic Notebook”); combination of original textural features of nat. music with the latest harmony. and orc. technique prof. art-va (brightly colorful “Symphonic Dances” Mold. Comp. P. Rivilis and other works); continuous thematization of F. c) in particular, in serial and serial works), leading to the identity of thematism and F.
Emergence in the new music of the 20th century. non-traditional warehouse, not related to either harmonic or polyphonic, determines the corresponding varieties of Ph.: the following fragment of the product. shows the discontinuity that is characteristic of this music, the incoherence of F. – register stratification (independence), dynamic. and articulation. differentiation:
P. Boulez. Piano Sonata No 1, beginning of the 1st movement.
The value of F. in the art of music. avant-garde is brought to logic. limit, when F. becomes almost the only one (in a number of works by K. Penderetsky) or unities. the goal of the actual composer’s work (vocal. Stockhausen’s “Stimmungen” sextet is a texture-timbre variation of one B-dur triad). F. improvisation in given pitch or rhythmic. within – main. reception of controlled aleatorics (op. V. Lutoslavsky); the field of F. includes an uncountable set of sonoristic. inventions (a collection of sonoristic techniques – “Coloristic fantasy” for the opera Slonimsky). To electronic and concrete music created without tradition. tools and means of execution, the concept of F., apparently, is not applicable.
F. disposes means. shaping possibilities (Mazel, Zuckerman, 1967, pp. 331-342). The connection between the form and the form is expressed in the fact that the preservation of a given pattern of the form contributes to the unity of the construction, its change promotes dismemberment. F. has long served as the most important transformative tool in sec. ostinato and neostinatny variational forms, revealing in some cases large dynamic. opportunities (“Bolero” by Ravel). F. is able to decisively change the appearance and essence of the muses. image (carrying out the leitmotif in the 1st part, in the development and code of the 2nd part of the 4th piano sonata by Scriabin); textural changes are often used in reprises of three-movement forms (2nd part of the 16th piano sonata of Beethoven; nocturne c-moll op. 48 by Chopin), in the refrain in the rondo (finale of the piano sonata No. 25 of Beethoven). The formative role of F. is significant in the development of sonata forms (especially orc. compositions), in which the boundaries of sections are determined by a change in the method of processing and, consequently, F. thematic. material. F.’s change becomes one of the main. means of dividing the form in the works of the 20th century. (“Pacific 231” by Honegger). In some new compositions, the form turns out to be decisive for the construction of the form (for example, in the so-called repetitive forms based on the variable return of one construction).
F.’s types are quite often connected with def. genres (eg, dance music), which is the basis for combining in production. different genre features that give the music an artistically effective ambiguity (expressive examples of this kind in Chopin’s music: for example, Prelude No. 20 c-moll – a mixture of the features of a chorale, a funeral march and a passacaglia). F. retains signs of one or another historical or individual muses. style (and, by association, era): so-called. guitar accompaniment enables S.I. Taneev to create a subtle stylization of early Russian. elegies in the romance “When, whirling, autumn leaves”; G. Berlioz in the 3rd part of the symphony “Romeo and Julia” to create a national. and historical color skillfully reproduces the sound of the madrigal a cappella of the 16th century; R. Schumann writes authentic music in Carnival. portraits of F. Chopin and N. Paganini. F. is the main source of music. descriptiveness, especially convincing in cases where k.-l. traffic. With the help of F. visual clarity of music is achieved (introduction to Wagner’s Gold of the Rhine), at the same time. full of mystery and beauty (“Praise of the Desert” from “The Tale of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia” by Rimsky-Korsakov), and sometimes of amazing trembling (“the heart beats in rapture” in M. I. Glinka’s romance “I Remember a Wonderful Moment” ).
References: Sposobin I., Evseev S., Dubovsky I., Practical course of harmony, part 2, M., 1935; Skrebkov S. S., Textbook of polyphony, parts 1-2, M.-L., 1951, 1965; his own, Analysis of musical works, M., 1958; Milstein Ya., F. List, part 2, M., 1956, 1971; Grigoriev S. S., On the melody of Rimsky-Korsakov, M., 1961; Grigoriev S., Muller T., Textbook of polyphony, M., 1961, 1977; Mazel L. A., Zukkerman V. A., Analysis of musical works, M., 1967; Shchurov V., Features of the polyphonic texture of the songs of South Russia, in collection: From the history of Russian and Soviet music, M., 1971; Zukkerman V.A., Analysis of musical works. Variation form, M., 1974; Zavgorodnyaya G., Some features of texture in the works of A. Onegger, “SM”, 1975, No 6; Shaltuper Yu., On the style of Lutoslavsky in the 60s, in: Problems of Musical Science, vol. 3, M., 1975; Tyulin Yu., The doctrine of musical texture and melodic figuration. Musical texture, M., 1976; Pankratov S., On the melodic basis of the texture of Scriabin’s piano compositions, in: Issues of polyphony and analysis of musical works (Proceedings of the Gnesins State Musical and Pedagogical Institute, issue 20), M., 1976; his, Principles of textured dramaturgy of Scriabin’s piano compositions, ibid.; Bershadskaya T., Lectures on harmony, L., 1978; Kholopova V., Faktura, M., 1979.
V. P. Frayonov