Musicology |
Music Terms

Musicology |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

The science that studies music as a special art form. development of the world in its specific socio-historical. conditionality, attitude to other types of art. activities and spiritual culture of society as a whole, as well as in terms of its specific. features and internal regularities, to-rymi determines the peculiar nature of the reflection of reality in it. In the general system of scientific M.’s knowledge occupies a place among the humanities, or social sciences, covering all aspects of societies. being and consciousness. M. is divided into several. individual, albeit interconnected, disciplines, according to the variety of forms of music and the vital functions they perform, or the chosen aspect of considering the muses. phenomena.

There are different types of classification of musical and scientific disciplines. In foreign bourgeois M. The classification put forward by the Austrian is common. by the scientist G. Adler in 1884, and then developed by him in his work “The Method of the History of Music” (“Methode der Musikgeschichte”, 1919). It is based on the subdivision of all musicologists. disciplines into two branches: historical and systematic M. Adler refers to the first of them the history of music by eras, countries, schools, and also muses. paleography, systematization of music. forms in the historical plan, instrumentation; to the second – the study and justification of the “higher laws” of the muses. art-va, manifested in the field of harmony, melody, rhythm, aesthetics and psychology of music, music. pedagogy and folklore. The fundamental drawback of this classification is the mechan. separation of the historical and theoretical-systematizing approach to the study of music. phenomena. If the historical M., according to Adler, comes into contact with the sphere of the humanities (general history, the history of literature and certain types of art, linguistics, etc.), then the explanations of the “higher laws” of music studied systematically. M., should be sought, in his opinion, in the field of mathematics, logic, physiology. Hence the dualistic the opposition of the naturally conditioned, permanent and unchanging in its essence foundations of music as an art and its successively changing forms that arise in the course of the historical. development.

The classification put forward by Adler with some additions and corrections is reproduced in a number of later zarubs. works devoted to the methodology of music. science. German music historian H. H. Dreger, preserving the main. division into the history of music and systematic. M., distinguishes as independent. branches of “musical ethnology” (“Musikalische Völks – und Völkerkunde”), that is, music. folkloristics and the study of music outside Europe. peoples, as well as muses. sociology and “applied music”, which includes pedagogy, criticism, and “musical technology” (construction of musical instruments). German musicologist V. Viora divides M. into three main. section: systematic. M. (“studying the basics”), the history of music, music. ethnology and folklore. In addition, he highlights some specials. industries requiring the use of both historical and systematic. learning method, eg. instrumental studies, sound systems, rhythmics, recitative, polyphony, etc. More flexible and broader in scope than the previous ones, Viora’s classification is at the same time eclectic and inconsistent. Division of musicologists. disciplines is based in it on dec. principles; in one case it is a method of examining phenomena (historical or systematic), in others it is the subject of research (folk creativity, non-European musical culture). Among the “research industries” (Forschungszweige) listed by Viora, there are some independent ones. scientific disciplines (instrumental science), and problems of more or less general significance (eg, ethos in music). For Viora, as well as for many others. zarub. scientists, a tendency to oppose the tasks of an objective scientific is characteristic. study of music, evaluation of its arts. qualities. Therefore, he excludes the study of M. from the field itself. works in their individual originality, leaving it for aesthetics. In this regard, he shares the position of Adler, who reduces the task of the history of music to the disclosure of general evolutionary processes, believing that “the identification of artistically beautiful in the art of music” lies beyond its limits. In this sense, music science acquires an objectivist character, cut off from living art. practice, from the struggle of ideological and aesthetic. and creative. directions, and specific products. become for it only a “source” (F. Spitta), material for substantiating more general theoretical. and historical constructions.

Marxist-Leninist scientific. The methodology provides the basis for developing a coherent, complete, and at the same time quite flexible classification of musicologists. disciplines, allowing to cover all branches of the science of music in a single, holistic connection and to determine the special. tasks for each. The fundamental principle of this classification is the ratio of historical. and logical. research methods as general forms of scientific. knowledge. The teaching of Marxism-Leninism does not oppose these methods to each other. Logic the method is, according to F. Engels, “nothing but a reflection of the historical process in an abstract and theoretically consistent form; reflection corrected, but corrected in accordance with the laws that the actual process itself gives, and each moment can be considered at that point in its development where the process reaches full maturity, its classical form ”(K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed. , vol. 13, p. 497). Unlike logic. a method that allows you to focus on the results of the process, distracting from everything random and secondary, historical. the method of research requires consideration of the process not only in the main, defining features, but with all the details and deviations, in that individually unique form in which it manifests itself in a given period of time and in given specific conditions. Thus, logical. the method is “the same historical method, only freed from its historical form and from interfering accidents” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 13, p. 497).

According to these two methods, scientific. research in owls. the science of music has established a division into historical. and theoretical M. Each of these sections includes a set of disciplines more private, special. character. So, along with the general history of music, which should cover the music of all countries and peoples of the world, the history of individual national. cultures or their groups, united on the basis of geographical, ethnic or cultural-historical. communities (for example, the history of Western-European music, music of the peoples of Asia, Latin-Amer. peoples, etc.). Possible division according to history. periods (music of the ancient world, the Middle Ages, etc.), by types and genres (history of opera, oratorio, symphony, chamber music, etc.). From what circle of phenomena or what istorich. the period of time is chosen as the subject of study, to a certain extent the angle of view of the researcher, the emphasis on one or another aspect of the process, also depends. To help. disciplines of the history of music belong to the muses. source study, developing methods of critical. analysis and use decomp. types of sources; music paleography – the science of the development of forms of musical writing; music textology – critical. analysis and study of the history of musical texts. works, methods of their restoration.

Theoretical M. breaks up into a number of disciplines, respectively, DOS. elements of music: harmony, polyphony, rhythm, metrics, melody, instrumentation. The most developed, established as independent. scientific disciplines are the first two and partly the last of those listed. Rhythm and metrics are much less developed. Systematic the doctrine of melody, as a special section of the theoretical. M., began to take shape only in the 20s. 20th century (Swiss scientist E. Kurt in the West, B. V. Asafiev in the USSR). The data of all these special disciplines are used in a more general theoretical. discipline that studies the structure of music. works as a whole. In foreign and Russian prerevolutionary M. there was a special discipline called the doctrine of music. forms. It was limited to the typology of compositional schemes, which is only part of the science of the structure of muses. works developed by owls. theorists: “… the compositional forms themselves should be studied not as abstract non-historical schemes, but as “meaningful forms”, that is, studied in connection with their expressive possibilities, in connection with those requirements and tasks of musical art that led to crystallization and further historical the development of these forms, in connection with their different interpretations in various genres, by various composers, etc. Under such conditions, one of the ways to analyze the content of music opens up – it becomes possible to approach the content of the work through the content side of the form itself ”(Mazel L. , Structure of musical works, 1960, pp. 4).

Theoretical M. enjoys the predominance. logical research method. Studying certain, historically developed systems (for example, the system of classical harmony), it considers them as a relatively stable complex whole, all parts of which are in a regular connection with each other. Dep. elements are not analyzed historically. the sequence of their occurrence, but in accordance with their place and functional significance in a given system. Historical At the same time, the approach is present, as it were, in a “removed” form. The researcher must always remember that any system of muses. thinking is a certain stage istorich. development and its laws cannot have absolute and immutable significance. In addition, any living system does not remain static, but continuously evolves and renews itself, its internal structure and ratio decomp. elements undergo certain changes in the course of development. So, the laws of the classic. the harmonies derived from the analysis of Beethoven’s music as their highest and most complete expression require some adjustments and additions already when applied to the work of romantic composers, although the basics of the system remain the same with them. Forgetfulness of the principles of historicism leads to the dogmatic absolutization of some that have arisen in the course of the historical. development of forms and structural patterns. Such dogmatism was inherent in him. scientist H. Riemann, who reduced the task of the theory of art to clarifying “natural laws that consciously or unconsciously regulate artistic creativity.” Riemann denied development in art as a process of qualitative modification and the birth of a new one. “The true purpose of historical research,” he argues, “is to contribute to the knowledge of the initial laws common to all times, to which all experiences and artistic forms are subject” (from the preface to the anthology “Musikgeschichte in Beispielen”, Lpz., 1912).

Division of musicologists. disciplines in history. and theoretical, proceeding from the predominance of historical in them. or logical. method, to a certain extent conditionally. These methods are rarely applied in a “pure” form. Comprehensive knowledge of any object requires a combination of both methods – both historical and logical – and only at certain stages of research can one or the other of them predominate. Musicologist-theorist, who sets as his task to study the emergence and development of elements of classical music. harmony or polyphonic forms. letters in accordance with how this process actually proceeded, in fact, goes beyond the purely theoretical. research and is in contact with the field of history. On the other hand, a music historian who seeks to determine the general, most characteristic features of any style is forced to resort to the techniques and methods of research inherent in theoretical music. M. Higher generalizations in M., as in all sciences dealing with living, real facts of nature and societies. reality, can only be achieved on the basis of the synthesis of logical. and historical methods. There are many works that cannot be fully classified either as theoretical or historical. M., because they inextricably combine both aspects of the study. Such are not only large problematic works of a generalizing type, but also some analytical works. works devoted to the analysis and study of the department. works. If the author is not limited to the establishment of general structural patterns, features of the muses. language inherent in the analyzed work., but attracts information relating to the time and conditions of its occurrence, seeks to identify the connection of the work with the era and determine. ideological art. and stylistic directions, then thereby he rises, at least partially, on the basis of historical. research.

A special place for some musicologists. disciplines are determined not methodological. principles, but the subject of research. So, the selection of muses. folkloristics in their own right. scientific industry due to specific. forms of existence creativity, different from those conditions in which the products arise, live and spread. written prof. music lawsuit. The study of Nar. music requires special research. techniques and skills for handling material (see Musical Ethnography). However, methodologically, the science of Nar. creativity is not opposed to historical. and theoretical M., in contact with both. In the owls folkloristics, the trend towards the historical is becoming more and more firmly established. consideration of creativity in connection with the complex phenomena of art. culture of one people or another. At the same time, the music folklore uses the methods of system analysis, exploring and classifying certain. types of beds music thinking as a more or less stable complex whole in a naturally conditioned logical. connection and interaction of its constituent elements.

The specifics of the studied material also determines the allocation of a special branch of M. theory and history of musical performance. lawsuit.

Music is one of the relatively young scientific disciplines. sociology (see Sociology of Music). The profile of this discipline and the scope of its tasks have not yet been fully determined. In the 20s. emphasized preim. its general theoretical character. A. V. Lunacharsky wrote: “… Broadly speaking, the sociological method in the history of art means considering art as one of the manifestations of social life” (“On the sociological method in the theory and history of music”, in the collection: “Issues of the sociology of music”, 1927 ). In this understanding, the sociology of music is the doctrine of the manifestation of the laws of history. materialism in the development of music as a form of society. consciousness. The subject of modern sociological research becomes Ch. arr. specific forms of society. the existence of music in a certain way. social conditions. This direction is directly addressed to the practice of muses. life and helps to find ways to solve its pressing issues on a rational scientific basis. basis.

In addition to those listed above, branches of M., allocate a number of “boundary” disciplines, to-rye only partially are a part of M. or adjoin to it. This is music. acoustics (see. Musical acoustics) and music. psychology, studying not music as such, but its physical. and psychophysical. prerequisites, ways of reproduction and perception. Music data. acoustics should be taken into account in certain sections of music theory (for example, the theory of musical systems and systems), they are widely used in sound recording and broadcasting, and in the production of music. tools, construction conc. halls, etc. In terms of tasks of music. psychology includes the study of the mechanics of creativity. processes, the performer’s well-being at the conc. stage, the process of perception of music, the classification of muses. abilities. But, despite the fact that all these questions are directly related to the muses. science, and to music. pedagogy, and to the practice of music. life, music psychology should be considered as part of general psychology, and muses. acoustics is assigned to the field of physics. Sciences, and not to M.

Instrumentation belongs to the “borderline” disciplines, located at the junction of mechanical engineering and other areas of science or technology. That section of it, which studies the origin and development of muses. instruments, their importance in music. culture dec. times and peoples, is included in the complex of musical and historical. disciplines. Dr. the branch of instrumental science that deals with the design of instruments and their classification according to the method of sound production and sound source (organology), belongs to the field of music. technology, and not actually M.

Outside the main classification are some disciplines of applied importance, for example. method of teaching the game for different. instruments, singing, music theory (see Music Education), music bibliography (see Music Bibliography), and notography.

The most general of the sciences of music is music. aesthetics (see. Musical aesthetics), based on the findings of all branches of theoretical. and historical M. Based on the main. provisions of aesthetics as a philosophical discipline, it explores the specific. ways and means of reflecting reality in music, its place in the system of decomp. art-in, the structure of music. the image and the means of its creation, the ratio of emotional and rational, expressive and pictorial, etc. In such a broad understanding of music. aesthetics developed on the basis of Marxist-Leninist philosophy in the USSR and other socialist. countries. Burzh. scientists who consider aesthetics only as a science of beauty limit its role to evaluative functions.

M.’s origins date back to antiquity. Other Greek theorists developed a diatonic system. frets (see. Ancient Greek modes), the foundations of the doctrine of rhythm, for the first time a definition and classification of the main. intervals. In the 6th c. BC e. Pythagoras, based on the mathematical relationships between sounds, established pure acoustic. build. Aristoxenus in the 4th c. BC e. subjected some aspects of his teaching to criticism and revision, putting forward as a criterion for evaluating decomp. intervals are not their absolute value, but auditory perception. This was the source of the so-called dispute. canons and harmonicas. An important role in Dr. Greece played the doctrine of ethos, linking decomp. melodic frets and rhythmic. education with a definition types of emotions, characters and moral qualities. Plato and Aristotle based their recommendations on the use of certain types of music in societies based on this teaching. life and education of youth.

Some of the most common in antiquity. the world of music. views arose already in the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylon), Egypt and China, for example. characteristic of Pythagoras and his followers understanding of music as a reflection of the cosmic. order prevailing in nature and in human life. Already in the 7th c. BC e. in whale. the treatise “Guan-tzu” was given a numerical definition of the tones of the 5-step scale. In the 6th-5th centuries. BC e. a 7-speed sound system was theoretically substantiated. Confucius’ teachings about education. the meaning of music in some ways comes into contact with the views of Plato. In the ancient Ind. treatises is established directly. the relationship between the states of the soul of a person (rasa) and certain melodic formulas, or modes, a detailed classification of the latter is given in terms of their expressive meaning.

Music-theoretical. the legacy of antiquity had a decisive influence on the development of the Middle Ages. thoughts about music in Europe. countries, as well as in the Middle and Wed. East. In the writings of the Arab theorists con. 1st – early 2nd millennium reflected the ideas of other Greek. teachings about ethos, the thoughts of Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans in the field of studying sound systems and intervals. At the same time, many of the views of antique. philosophers have been misunderstood and perverted under the influence of Islamic or Christ. ideology. In the countries of the Middle Ages. Europe, the theory of music becomes an abstract scholasticism. discipline divorced from practice. The largest authority of the Middle Ages in the field of music. Science Boethius (5-6 centuries) asserted the primacy of theory over practice in music, comparing the relationship between them with “the superiority of the mind over the body.” The subject of the Middle Ages. theories of music were purely rationalistic. speculation based on mathematics. and cosmological. analogies. Along with arithmetic, geometry and astronomy, music was included among the main, “supreme” sciences. According to Hukbald, “harmony is the daughter of arithmetic”, and Marchetto of Padua belongs to the aphorism “the laws of the universe are the laws of music.” Some Middle Ages. theorists (Cassiodorus, 5th century; Isidore of Seville, 7th century) directly relied on the Pythagorean doctrine of numbers as the basis of the universe.

In the surviving fragment of the theoretical Alcuin’s treatise (8th century) was the first to set out the system of 8 diatonic. frets (4 authentic and 4 plagal), based on a somewhat modified other Greek. modal system (see Medieval modes). The most important for the development of church-singers. Art-va in the era of the late Middle Ages had a reform of musical writing, carried out by Guido d’Arezzo in the 1st half. 11th c. The method of singing he developed according to hexachords with syllabic designations of steps served as the basis of the solmization system (see Solmization), which is preserved in pedagogical. practice even today. Guido was the first of the Middle Ages. theorists brought the theory of music closer to the real needs of the muses. practices. According to the remark of Franco of Cologne (13th century), “the theory was created by Boethius, the practice belongs to Guido.”

The development of polyphony required a more careful study of the nature of intervals, an accurate definition of rhythmic. durations and the establishment of a unified system of their correlation. Irl. philosopher and art theorist John Scotus Eriugena (9th century) for the first time addresses the question of the same time. combination of two melodic lines. Johannes Garlandia and Franco of Cologne expound the rules of the organum, develop the doctrine of the mensur (see Mensural notation). One of the significant innovations was the recognition of the third as an imperfect consonance in the works of Franco of Cologne, Marchetto of Padua, Walter Odington.

Appeared ok. 1320 in France, the treatise “Ars nova” (attributed to Philippe de Vitry) gave its name to a new direction in music associated with the early Renaissance movement. In this work, thirds and sixths were finally legalized as consonant intervals, the legitimacy of using chromaticisms (musica falsa) was recognized, and new, freer forms of polyphony based on the opposite movement of voices were defended as opposed to the organum. The most prominent theorist of Italy. ars nova Marchetto of Padua considered the ear “the best judge in music”, emphasizing the conventionality of all aesthetic. canons. Johannes de Groheo (late 13th – early 14th centuries) criticized the teachings of Boethius and recognized secular music on an equal footing with the church. lawsuit. A wide set of polyphonic rules. The letter is given in the writings of I. Tinktoris, who relied on Ch. arr. on the work of composers of the Netherlands. schools. At the same time, in the works of all these theorists, they continued to play the meaning. the role of the elements of the Middle Ages. scholastics, to-rye more decisively outlived in the Renaissance.

Theoretical the thought of the Renaissance comes close to understanding the foundations of tonal harmony. Fruitful new ideas and observations are contained in the works of a friend of Leonardo da Vinci, Italian. composer and theorist F. Gaffori. Swiss. theorist Glarean in the treatise “Dodecachordon” (1547) criticized. analysis and revision of the Middle Ages. the doctrine of modes, emphasizing the special significance of the Ionian (major) and Aeolian (minor) modes. A further step was taken by J. Zarlino, associated with the crown. polyphonic 16th century school He defined two types of triads depending on the position of the major third in them, thus creating the prerequisites for establishing the concepts of major and minor not only in melodic, but also in harmonic. planes. The most important works of Tsarlino – “Fundamentals of Harmony” (“Le istitutioni harmoniche”, 1558) and “Harmonic Proofs” (“Dimostrationi harmoniche”, 1571) also contain practical. instructions regarding polyphonic technique. letters, the relationship between text and music. His opponent was V. Galilei, the author of the polemic. treatise “Dialogue on old and new music” (“Dialogo … della musica antica e della moderna”, 1581). Appealing to the antique music tradition, Galileo rejected polyphony as a relic of the “mid-century. barbarism” and defended the wok style. monodies with accompaniment. Scientific the value of his works lies in posing the question of the embodiment of the intonations of human speech in music. Galilee’s treatise served as a theoretical substantiation of the new “excited style” (stile concitato), which was expressed in early Italian. opera in the 17th century From aesthetics close to him. positions J. Doni wrote his “Treatise on the types and types of music” (“Trattato de’ Generi e de’ Modi della Musica”, 1635).

In the 17th century A number of encyclopedic works were created. type, covering the range of music-theoretical., Acoustic. and aesthetic problems. These include “Universal Harmony” (“Harmonie universelle”, v. 1-2, 1636-37) by M. Mersenne and “Universal Musical Creativity” (“Musurgia universalis”, t. 1-2, 1650) by A. Kircher. The influence of the rationalist philosophy of R. Descartes, to-ry himself was the author of the theoretical. etude “The Foundations of Music” (“Compendium musicae”, 1618; devoted to the mathematical substantiation of modes and intervals), is combined in them with elements of Christ that have not yet been outlived. cosmogony. The authors of these works explain the ability of music to cause decomp. emotions from the standpoint of the theory of affects (see. Affect theory). “Musical device” (“Syntagma musicum”, t. 1-3, 1615-19) M. Pretorius is of interest as one of the first attempts to give a historical. overview of the development of osn. elements of music. Experience consistent., systematic. presentation of the history of music from biblical times to early. 17th century was the “Historical Description of the Noble Art of Singing and Music” (“Historische Beschreibung der edelen Sing- und Kling-Kunst”, 1690) by V. K. Prince.

The most important stage in the formation of M. as independent. science was the Age of Enlightenment. In the 18th century M. is completely freed from connection with theology, abstract moralization and idealistic. philosophical speculation, becoming on the basis of a specific scientific. research. Ideas will enlighten. philosophy and aesthetics had a fruitful impact on the development of scientific. music thoughts and suggested the way to solving important issues of music. theory and practice. In this respect, the works of the French encyclopedists J. J. Rousseau, D. Diderot, M. d’Alembert, who considered music as an imitation of nature, considering the simplicity and naturalness of human expression as its main qualities. the senses. Rousseau was the author of articles on music in the Encyclopedia, which he later combined in his own self-published Dictionary of Music (Dictionnaire de musique, 1768). The theory of imitation from different angles of view is expounded in the works of Morelle “On Expression in Music” (“De l’expression en musique”, 1759), M. Chabanon “Observations on Music and the Metaphysics of Arts” (“Observations sur la musique et principalement sur la métaphisique de l’art”, 1779), B. Lasepeda “The Poetics of Music” (“La poétique de la musique”, v. 1-2, 1785). Trends similar to the views of the French. encyclopedists, appeared in muses. aesthetics of England and Germany. The largest German music the scientist and writer I. Mattheson approaches Rousseau in recognizing melody as the most important element of music; he assigned a decisive role in judgments about music to nature, taste and feeling. English writer D. Brown, proceeding from the Rousseau idea of ​​a simple, “natural” person, directly close to nature, saw the key to the future flourishing of music in the restoration of its original. close connection with poetry. word.

In the field of music theory, the works of J. F. Rameau on harmony played a particularly important role (the first of them was the Treatise on Harmony (Traité de l’harmonie, 1722)). Having established the principle of reversal of chords and the presence of three fundamentals. tonal functions (tonic, dominant and subdominant), Rameau laid the foundation for the classic. doctrine of harmony. His views were developed by d’Alembert in his work “Theoretical and practical elements of music according to the principles of Rameau” (“Elements de musique théorique et pratique, suivant les principes de m. Rameau”, 1752), translated on it. lang. F. Marpurg. Questions of harmony attracted in the 2nd floor. 18th century attention pl. theorists, to-rye sought to find a rational scientific. explanation of the phenomena observed in the work of composers of the classical and pre-classical era. In the well-known manual by I. I. Fuchs “The Step to Parnassus” (“Gradus ad Parnassum”, 1725) and “Treatise on Counterpoint” (1774) by G. Martini, an extensive summary and systematization of basic information on polyphony is given.

In the 18th century the first things appear. works on the history of music, based not on the legendary and anecdotal. information, but on the desire for critical. analysis and coverage of authentic documentary material. “History of Music” Italian. researcher J. Martini (“Storia della musica”, v. 1-3, 1757-81), in which the exposition is brought to the beginning of the Middle Ages, is not yet free from the influence of Christ.-theological. representations. More consistent scientific. character are the capital works of the English C. Burney (vols. 1-4, 1776-89) and J. Hawkins (vols. 1-5, 1776), imbued with enlightenment. the idea of ​​progress; the phenomena of the past are evaluated by the authors in terms of advanced aesthetic. ideals of the present. Author of “The General History of Music” on it. lang. (“Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik”, Bd 1-2, 1788-1801) I. N. Forkel saw the task in tracing the development of the muses. claims from the “original sources” to the “highest perfection”. The horizons of researchers of the 18th century. was mainly limited to the music of Western Europe. countries; true French. the scientist J. B. Laborde in his “Essay on old and new music” (“Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne”, v. 1-4, 1780) also refers to the non-European art. peoples. M. Herbert in his edition of the Middle Ages. treatises (1784) marked the beginning of the publication of documentary materials on the history of music. The first serious works on music. lexicographies were “Musical Dictionary” (“Dictionnaire de musique”, 1703) by S. Brossard, “Musical Dictionary, or Musical Library” (“Musikalisches Lexicon oder Musikalische Bibliothek”, 1732) by I. G. Walter, “Foundations of the Triumphal Gates” ( “Grundlage der Ehrenpforten”, 1740) Matteson.

In the 19th century along with general historical many monographic works appear. research about composers, which was associated with a growing interest in personality and individual creativity. the appearance of outstanding creators of art. The first major work of this kind was I. N. Forkel’s book “On the Life, Art and Works of J. S. Bach” (“Lber JS Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke”, 1802). Classic the monographs of J. Baini on Palestrina (vols. 1-2, 1828), O. Jan on Mozart (vols. 1-4, 1856-59), K. F. Krisander on Handel (vols. 1-3, 1858) acquired importance -67), F. Spitta on Bach (vols. 1-2, 1873-80). The value of these works is determined primarily by the abundant documentary and biographical content contained in them. material.

The discovery and accumulation of a large amount of new information made it possible to more fully and broadly present the overall picture of the development of music. A. V. Ambros wrote in 1862: “The spirit of collecting and reconnaissance contributed to the accumulation of new material almost every day, and it is extremely tempting to try to bring order to the existing material and combine it into a foreseeable whole” (“Geschichte der Musik”, Bd 1 , 1862, 1887). Attempts to holistic coverage muz.-historical. process were undertaken with decomp. methodological positions. If the work of R. G. Kizewetter with the characteristic title “History of Western European or Our Present Music” (“Geschichte der europdisch-abendländischen oder unserer heutigen Musik”, 1834) contains more echoes, it will enlighten. ideas about history as a process of continuous progress and ascent, then the head of the French. and Belg. M. in the middle. 19th century F. J. Fetis sees in the “doctrine of progress” DOS. an obstacle to a correct understanding of the claim. His monumental works The Universal Biography of Musicians and the General Bibliography of Music (Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie générale de la musique, v. 1-8, 1837-44) and The General History of Music (Histoire générale de la musique depuis les temps les plus anciens jusqu’а nos jours”, v. 1-5, 1869-76) represent a large source of research. value. At the same time, the conservative positions of the author, who found his own aesthetic, appeared in them. ideal in the past and considered the development of music as an immanent process of changing decomp. sound design principles. The opposite trend is expressed in F. Brendel’s History of Music in Italy, Germany and France… connection with the most important phenomena of the common spiritual life. The same broad cultural and historical point of view is characteristic of Ambros, although the role of music in the general historical. process was considered by him from the standpoint of romantic-idealistic. ideas about the “spirit of peoples”. His multi-volume “History of Music” (“Geschichte der Musik”, Bd 1852-1, 4-1862) belongs to one of the most prominent places in music. historiography of the 78th century.

Great attention to methodological problems of music-historical. research showed at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. G. Kretschmar, G. Adler, X. Riemann. Kretzschmar stressed the importance of music history for esthetic value judgments, defining it as “applied musical aesthetics viewed from a perspective.” A necessary prerequisite for a true, comprehensive understanding of the arts. phenomena, he considered the knowledge of the era and istorich. conditions in which a particular phenomenon arose. In contrast to him, Adler emphasized the elucidation of the general evolutionary laws of the development of music, putting forward as the basis. music-historical category concept style. But this concept was interpreted by him formally. Change and alternation diff. styles is, according to Adler, organic. a process independent of any factors outside of it. Similar abstract-naturalistic. understanding of the history of music found its extreme expression in Riemann, who actually denied the development of music, considering the evolution of the muses. lawsuit as a manifestation of general immutable laws.

A special place in the app. music historiography beginning. 20th century occupy the work of R. Rolland. Considering music as one of the important factors in the spiritual life of mankind, he considered it necessary to study it in close connection with the economic, political. and cultural history of peoples. “Everything is interconnected,” Rolland wrote, “every political revolution finds its continuation in an artistic revolution, and the life of a nation is an organism where everything interacts with each other: economic phenomena and artistic phenomena.” “Every form of music is associated with a certain form of society and allows us to better understand it” (Rollan R., Sobranie musikistoricheskih soobshcheniya, vol. 4, 1938, pp. 8, 10). The tasks put forward by Rolland for the history of music could be consistently solved only on the basis of the methodology of the historical. materialism.

In the 2nd floor. 19th century unfolding work on scientific-critical. publication of monuments of music of the past. Sh. E. Kusmaker published in 1864-76 a number of Middle Ages. treatises on music. In 1861-71, under the hands of. F. Krizander, the publication of the series “Monuments of Musical Art” (“Denkmäler der Tonkunst”) was started, which then continued from 1900 under the name. “Monuments of German musical art” (“Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst”). In 1894, ed. Adler began to publish the monumental publication “Monuments of Musical Art in Austria” (“Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich”). In the same year, the publication of a series of publications “Masters of Music of the French Renaissance” (“Les maоtres musiciens de la renaissance française”) began under the hands of. A. Expert. O. Chilesotti in Italy published in 1883-1915 9 vols. “Libraries of musical rarities” (“Biblioteca di rarita musicali”), in which samples of lute music of the 16th-18th centuries are given. Publications of the same type were founded in a number of other countries. Along with this, multi-volume editions of the works of the great classics are being undertaken. masters: Bach (59 vols., 1851-1900), Handel (100 vols., 1859-94), Mozart (24 series, 1876-86).

In the development of music lexicography means. music played a role. dictionaries J. Grove (1879-90) and X. Riemann (1882), distinguished by high scientific. level, breadth and variety of information they report. Both works were subsequently reprinted several times in supplemented and revised form. In 1900-04, the 10-volume Bio-Bibliographic Dictionary of Sources about Musicians and Musical Scholars… .

In connection with the wide development of music. education in the 19th century. many are created. allowances for various theoretical disciplines. Such are the works on harmony by S. Catel (1802), F. J. Fetis (1844), F. E. Richter (1863), M. Hauptmann (1868), on polyphony – L. Cherubini (1835), I. G. G. Bellerman (1868). Independent. the doctrine of music becomes a branch of music theory. forms. The first great systematizing work in this area is X. Koch’s “Experience in Composition Guide” (“Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition”, Tl 1-3, 1782-93). Later, similar works by A. Reich and A. B. Marx appeared. Having Ch. arr. educational goals, these works are devoid of broad theoretical. generalizations and based on stylistic. classical norms. era. Dep. new thoughts and positions related to particular moments (for example, the original principle of classification of chords by Katel).

An important stage in the development of Europe. theoretical M. is associated with the activities of X. Riemann, a scientist of great erudition and versatile scientific. interests, who contributed to the decomp. sections of music theory. Riemann introduced and substantiated the concept of harmonics. functions, giving a new classification of chords in terms of their belonging to one or another functional group, revealed the formative value of modulation. In the study of music forms, he proceeded not only from purely architectonic. moments (location of parts, their relationship to the whole and to each other), but also from motive-thematic. connections. However, excessive categoricalness, with which Riemann expressed his scientific. views, gives a number of his theoretical. dogmatic provisions. character. Based on the structural principles and laws of the classic. music style, he attributed to them an absolute, universal significance, and with the criteria of this style he approached the music of all times and peoples. Riemann’s doctrine of meter and rhythm is especially vulnerable in this sense. The functional school of harmony was introduced at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. also by the works of E. Prout and F. O. Gevart.

In the 20th century M. finally develops and receives recognition as independent. a science that solves special problems and has its own research methods. M. is included in the system of higher education in the humanities, in most countries of Europe and America at high fur boots are created special departments or in-you M. Activation of scientific. works in the field of music contribute to numerous. musicologist. about-va and associations, to-rye sometimes have their own. press organs, publish a series of documentary and research. publications. In 1899 the Intern. music society, which set the task of uniting musicologists dec. countries. In 1914, in connection with the outbreak of the 1st World War, it ceased its activities. In 1927, the International Society for Musicology was created, in which scientists from more than 40 countries (including the USSR) are represented.

The general scope of work in the area of ​​M. in the 20th century. have increased significantly, its range of problems has expanded, new research has appeared. industries and directions. The so-called. compare. M., having the task of studying music. non-European cultures. peoples. The fundamental principles of this direction were developed in the beginning. 20th century German scientists K. Stumpf, E. M. Hornbostel, K. Sachs, R. Lachman, V. Viora belong to its most prominent representatives. Comparison methods. M., which were based on the search for identical elements in the suit-ve decomp. peoples of the world, were subsequently criticized and the very name of the discipline was found to be inaccurate. In the 40s. the concept of “ethnomusicology” was introduced. Unlike compare. M., this discipline seeks to study music. culture peoples as a whole, in the aggregate of all its aspects.

Scientists Zap. Europe and the United States achieved valuable results in the study of East. music cultures. If in the 19th century carried out only separately, more or less episodic. excursions into this area (for example, the works of R. G. Kizevetter, as well as F. Salvador-Daniel, a member of the Paris Commune on Arabic music), then in the 20th century. music Orientalism becomes independent. scientific discipline. Capital works on the music of the Arab. countries and Iran were created by G. Farmer, according to the classic. Indian music – A. Daniel, Indonesian music – J. Kunst. But with an abundance of positive scientific. data, these works are often vulnerable in direction and methodological. principles. Thus, in the works of Danielou, there is a tendency to preserve traditions. east cultures and underestimation of modern. their development processes.

In the beginning. 20th century J. B. Thibaut and O. Fleischer laid the foundations of the modern. music Byzantine studies. Decisive successes in this area are associated with the discoveries of H. Tilliard, K. Høeg, and E. Welles.

An extensive literature on the history of music covers a diverse range of phenomena and decomp. era – from the ancient east. cultures and antiquity to our time. Equally diverse are the types of music-historical. works: this is a monographic. research dedicated to outstanding creative. figures or music. genres, and general reviews of the development of music by country, era, stylistic. periods. In the history of music, Western-European. There are almost no “white places” and lacunae, dubious, documented but confirmed facts left among the peoples. To the most important musicologists-historians of the 20th century. belong to: G. Abert, A. Shering, A. Einstein in Germany; J. G. Prodomme, A. Prunier, R. Rolland, J. Tiersot in France; O. E. Deutsch, E. Shenk in Austria; A. Bonaventure, A. Della Corte, F. Torrefranca in Italy; E. Blom, E. Dent in England; P. Lang, G. Rees in the USA, and others. Musicologist. schools have developed in Czechoslovakia, Poland and other Eastern countries. Europe. The founder of modern Czech M. is O. Gostinskiy, his successors were such prominent scientists as V. Gelfert, Z. Neyedly. At the head of the school of Polish musicologists are A. Khybinsky and Z. Jachymetsky. The work of these scientists laid the foundation for an in-depth systematic the study of national music cultures. Collected folklore gained scope in these countries. Job. The Polish ethnographer O. G. Kolberg created a monumental work describing the bunk beds. customs, songs, dances (“Lud, jego zwyczaje, sposüb zycia, mowa, podania, przyslowia, obrzedy, gusla, zabawy, piesni, muzyka i tance”, t. 1-33, 1865-90). He also owns a 23-volume collection of Polish bunks. songs. Fundamental to music. Folkloristics of South Slavs. peoples had the works of F. K. Kukhach. A. Pann and T. Brediceanu laid the foundation for systematic. collecting and researching rum. music folklore. In the beginning. 20th century scientific-collective is being deployed. the activities of B. Bartok, to-ry discovered previously unknown layers of Hung. and rum. nar. music, contributed a lot to the development of methodological. fundamentals of music folklore.

It became widespread in the 20th century. work on the publication of monuments of music. culture. A huge number of publications genus (facsimile editions of old manuscripts, deciphering of records in non-mental and mensural notation, editing and processing, made taking into account modern fulfillment requirements) not only made it possible to cover many things in a new way, with much greater completeness and reliability. historical periods of music development, but also contributed to the restoration of many forgotten works in the concert and opera repertoire. The ubiquitous expansion of the historical horizons of modern the listener is in direct connection with the achievements of the historical. M. and intensive publishing activities in the field of music.

Large generalizing works on the history of music in the 20th century are, as a rule, written by teams of scientists. This is due to the enormous growth of material, which cannot be covered by one researcher, and the growing specialization. After the publication by Riemann of his Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (Bd 1, Tl 1-2, Bd 2, Tl 1-3, 1904-13) and the publication of the History of Music (Histoire de la musique”, v. 1-3, 1913-19) J. Combarier in Zarub. musicologist. there were no major original works on the general history of music written by one author. By the most means. collective works in this area are “The Oxford history of music” (“The Oxford history of music”, v. 1-6, 1 ed. 1901-1905), “Guide to the history of music” (1924) ed. G. Adler, a series of books under the general title. “Guide to Musicology” (“Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft”), published ed. E. Buecken in 1927-34, “The Norton history of music” (“The Norton history of music”), published in the USA since 1940. In works on music of the 20th century. X. Mersman, G. Werner, P. Koller, X. Stuckenschmidt, W. Austin and others made an attempt to historically comprehend the processes of music. development in an era that is in direct contact with modernity. However, many of these works suffer from a lack of genuine historicism, a tendentious bias in the selection and coverage of material. Defending the position of K.-l. one creative directions, their authors sometimes completely exclude a number of important and characteristic phenomena of modern times from their field of vision. music. Significant impact on a number of zarub. researchers were provided by the views of T. Adorno, who in the book Philosophy of New Music (Philosophie der neuen Musik, 1949) and other works proclaims the path of the new Viennese school as the only true path for the development of muses. lawsuit in the 20th century.

The abundance of information and materials accumulated in all areas of Moscow made it possible to create such monumental encyclopedias. collections, such as the “Encyclopedia of Music of the Paris Conservatory” (“Encyclopédie de la musique et Dictionnaire du conservatoire”, pt. 1, v. 1-5, pt. 2, v. 1-6, 1913-31) ed. A. Lavignac and L. de La Laurencie and “Music in the past and present” (“Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart”, Bd 1-14, 1949-68, an addition has been published since 1970), ed. P. Blume.

Along with indisputable achievements in the development of special. problems of the history of music, the expansion of source studies. base, the discovery of new, previously unknown materials in modern. zarub. story. M. with special sharpness were shown also nek-ry deny. tendencies: weakness of generalizations, lack of a broad cultural and historical perspectives, formal relation to sources. The danger of refinement, blind and wingless empiricism is also pointed out by the most far-sighted of the representatives of the Western. M. Even at the turn of the 20th century. V. Gurlitt said that the growing flow of new publications and source studies. meetings cannot cover up “the impoverishment of the creative creative thinking power.” At the 10th Congress of the Intern. Society of Musicology (1967) F. Blume sharply raised the question of excessive specialization and “neopositivism” as threatening symptoms of modern. historical M., about the “progressive isolation of the history of music from the general history.” In the development of methodological problems of the history of music after G. Adler, G. Krechmar, A. Schering, no significant new results were achieved. The division according to stylistic periods accepted in large consolidated works on the history of music b. h. is a purely external formal scheme, which does not reflect the entire diversity and complexity of musical history. process. The accumulation of facts often becomes an end in itself and is not subject to the tasks of a broader scientific. order.

General direction of development theoretical. M. in the 20th century. characterized by a tendency to overcome Riemannian dogmatism and approach living creativity. modern practice. Created a lot of works on harmony, in which the main. the principles of functional theory are interpreted more broadly and freely, to illustrate the methods of harmonics. The letters draw on samples from con music. 19 – beg. 20th century One of the most fundamental works of this type is “Treatise on Harmony” (“Traité d’harmonie”, t. 1-3, 1928-30) by C. Keklen.

A new milestone in the development of theoretical thoughts about music were the works of E. Kurt, among which the Fundamentals of Linear Counterpoint (Grundlagen des linearen Kontrapunkts, 1917) and Romantic Harmony and Its Crisis in Wagner’s Tristan (Romantische Harmonik und ihre Krise in Wagner’s “Tristan”, 1920). Kurt proceeds from the understanding of music as a manifestation of a special kind of “psychic. energy”, emphasizing its dynamic, procedural side. It was Kurt who struck the most sensitive. a blow to dogmatism and metaphysical classicism. music theory. At the same time subjective-idealistic. the nature of Kurt’s views leads him to an abstract and essentially formal idea of ​​movement in music as something self-contained and independent of the real figurative-emotional content.

Many of the leading composers of the 20th century the authors of the theoretical works, in which they not only expound and substantiate creativity. and aesthetic principles, but are more specific. music questions. technology. In “The Doctrine of Harmony” (“Harmonielehre”, 1911) by A. Schoenberg, a new look is put forward on the meaning of the concepts of consonance and dissonance, the advantage of the fourth principle of constructing chords over the third principle is proved, although the author still does not leave the soil of tonal harmony here. A new, expanded understanding of tonality is expounded by P. Hindemith in “Instructions in Composition” (“Unterweisung in Tonsatz”, 1st, theoretical, part, 1937). A series of lectures by A. Webern, published posthumously under the title. “Ways to new music” (“Wege zur neuen Musik”, 1960), contains theoretical and aesthetic. substantiation of the principles of dodecaphony and serialism. Statement of technology. foundations of dodecaphony is devoted to extensive literature on decomp. languages ​​(works by R. Leibovitz, H. Jelinek, H. Eimert and others).

In the 50-70s. in Western Europe and Amer. M. the method of the so-called. structural analysis. The concept of sound structure, which can denote any relatively stable unity of elements, replaces the muses in this system. analysis of the main classical categories. the doctrine of forms. Accordingly, diff. “dimensions” of sound space and time (height, duration, strength, coloring of sound) are determined. “structural parameters”. This type of analysis reduces the idea of ​​the form of the muses. prod. to a set of purely quantitative, numerical relations. The principles of structural analysis are developed by Ch. arr. music theorists. avant-garde based on serial and some types of post-serial music. Attempts to apply this method to products based on the principles of tonal thinking did not give positive results. results. Structural analysis can help to clarify certain constructive laws in music, but it completely abstracts from the expressive meaning of the elements of art. forms and specific historical and stylistic. connections.

In the 20th century musicological schools begin to take shape in the countries of Lat. America, Asia and Africa. Their focus is on national issues. music cultures. L. E. Correa di Azevedo is the author of major works on br. nar. and prof. music, in 1943 he created the Center for Folklore Research at the Nat. school of music. One of the most prominent representatives of Argent. M. – K. Vega, who published the most valuable collections of bunks. melodies based on own. records. In Japan, starting from con. 19th century a number of extensive scientifically commented collections of Nar. and classic. music, created a large research. liter according to diff. problems of history and theory of Japan. music. Means. success has been reached ind. M. in the field of studying nat. music traditions. Among its prominent representatives is N. Menon. In the 50-60s. the activity of the tour has intensified. musicologists; great importance for the study of Nar. tour. music and its history. the works of A. A. Saigun and others had the past. Music Committee. Research at the Council of Arts, Literature and Social Sciences. Major musicians came forward. scientists in some countries of Negro Africa: K. Nketiya (Ghana), A. Yuba (Nigeria).

In Russia, M. began to take shape in the con. 17th century already in existence in the 15th century. guides for the study of hook writing, the so-called. ABCs (see. Musical ABC), had a purely applied value and do not contain information on the theory of music proper. Only in the works of supporters of partes singing I. T. Korenev (Musikia, 60s of the 17th century) and N. P. Diletsky (Musikia Grammar, 70s of the 17th century) was an attempt made to create a rationalistic harmonious and complete doctrine of music. In the 18th century Russian the thought of music is freed from religion. dependence and touches on a diverse range of issues related to the formation and development of the secular nat. music culture. But M. has not yet become independent in this century. branch of the science of art-ve. A number contain. statements about the relationship between music and poetry, about the nature of the muses. genres is contained in the production. the founders of the Russian lit. classicism M. V. Lomonosov, A. P. Sumarokov. Lomonosov owns a special sketch “A letter about the action produced by music in the human heart.” In the journals published by I. A. Krylov and his literature. associates in con. 18th century, the strict normativity of classicist aesthetics is criticized, the idea of ​​the possibility of creating a Rus. nat. operas based on folk creativity. A belated echo of classicism was G. R. Derzhavin’s “Discourse on Lyric Poetry or an Ode” (1811-15), in which spec. sections are devoted to opera, song genres, cantata. All prominent representatives of the Russian. lit-ry 18 century. – from V. K. Trediakovsky to A. N. Radishchev – showed a deep interest in Nar. song. In the last thurs. 18th century the first printed collections of Russian. nar. songs with musical notes of melodies by V. F. Trutovsky, N. A. Lvov and I. Prach. N. A. Lvov’s article “On Russian Folk Singing”, published as a preface in the 2nd of these collections, marked the beginning of the Russian. music folklore. By the 18th century also applies to the birth of fatherlands. music historiography. A valuable source of information about Russian. music life beginning. and ser. 18th century is a detailed and conscientious chronicle work by J. Shtelin “News about Music in Russia” (1770). In 1778 it was published in French. lang. A. M. Beloselsky’s book “On Music in Italy”, which caused a number of responses abroad. At the Academy of Sciences and Arts, some questions of the theory of music in physics and acoustics were developed. and mathematical aspects. European L. Euler’s work “The Experience of a New Theory of Music Set forth on the Basis of the Immutable Laws of Harmony” (published in 1739) received recognition. J. Sarti proposed a new tuning fork, approved by the Academy of Sciences and Arts in 1796 and almost completely coinciding with the one that was adopted in 1885 as an international. standard.

In the 19th century development of music and science. thought in was closely connected with the struggle for advanced ways of the fatherlands. music lawsuit, protection and justification of his creativity. and aesthetic ideals. In relation to this period, it is difficult to draw a clear line between M. and muses. criticism. The most important fundamental problems of the theoretical. and aesthetic plan were put and decided in the sphere of journalistic activity, often in sharp clashes of opinions and polemics. contractions. In connection with the appearance of operas by M. I. Glinka in the 30s and 40s. in the articles of V. F. Odoevsky, N. A. Melgunov, and other critics, for the first time, questions about the nationality of music, about the characteristic differences, begin to be widely discussed. features of Russian music school and its relation to other nat. schools (Italian, German, French). Serious scientific. V. P. Botkin’s articles “Italian and German Music”, “On the Aesthetic Significance of the New Piano School” (dedicated to F. Chopin) are of great importance. Departments are being created. large monographs. research work. such as: “A New Biography of Mozart” (1843) by A. D. Ulybyshev, “Beethoven and His Three Styles” (1852) by V. Lenz. Both of these works have received recognition abroad.

A new stage in the development of Russian. M. determined the activities of A. N. Serov, V. V. Stasov, G. A. Larosh, which unfolded in the 50s and 60s. 19th century Serov first introduced the term musicology. In the program article “Music, Musical Science, Musical Pedagogics” (1864), he sharply criticizes the dogmatism of foreign countries. theorists seeking to establish the unshakable, “eternal” laws of music, and argues that the basis of musicology as a science should be the study of historical. the development process of music. language and forms of music. creativity. The same idea is defended by Laroche in the article “The Historical Method of Teaching Music Theory” (1872-73), although aesthetic conservatism. the author’s position led him to a one-sided interpretation of the concept of historicism as an antidote to the “misconceptions” of modern times. What Serov and Laroche had in common was that they strove to consider the muses. phenomena in a wide historical background, resorting to various parallels both from the field of music and from related fields of art. creativity. Both critics paid special attention to the question of the origins and development of Rus. music schools (“Mermaid”. Opera by A. S. Dargomyzhsky by Serov, “Glinka and its significance in the history of music” by Laroche, etc.). In the analytical sketches “The experience of technical criticism of the music of M. I. Glinka”, “Thematism of the overture” Leonore “,” Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony “Serov sought to identify the figurative content of music on the basis of thematic. analysis. Stasov, who appeared in the press as an ardent propagandist of the new Rus. art-va, a fighter for the advanced ideals of realism and nationality, at the same time laid the foundation for a systematic. collecting and publishing documentary materials about Russian. composers, was the author of the first detailed biographies of M. I. Glinka, M. P. Mussorgsky, A. P. Borodin.

In the creation of sources. bases for the history of Russian. music, especially of the early, pre-Glinka period, the activity of HP Findeisen played an important role. Many previously unknown documentary materials in Russian. music – from the Middle Ages to the 19th century. – was published in the Russian Musical Newspaper, osn. Findeisen in 1894, as well as in the collections “Musical Antiquity”, published under his editorship. in 1903-11. Findeisen owns the first extensive publications of the letters of Glinka, Dargomyzhsky and other Rus. composers. A number of valuable materials and studies in Russian. music was published in the magazine. “Musical Contemporary”, published under the editorship of. A. N. Rimsky-Korsakov in 1915-17; specialist. issues of this magazine are dedicated to Mussorgsky, Scriabin, Taneyev. From the general works of the pre-revolutionary. years in the history of music, the largest in volume is the “History of the Musical Development of Russia” (vols. 1-2, 1910-12) MM Ivanov, but reaction. prejudice of the author’s judgments means. degree devalues ​​the useful factual available in this work. material. The works of A. S. Famintsyn “Buffoons in Russia” (1889), “Gusli. Russian folk musical instrument” (1890), “Domra and related instruments of the Russian people” (1891), N. I. Privalova “Beep, an ancient Russian musical instrument” (1904), “Musical wind instruments of the Russian people” (1908), etc. .provide valuable material for the illumination of secular music-making in Dr. Russia. New information is reported in the essays by S. K. Bulich in Russian. wok. music 18 and early. 19th centuries Among the monographic works about the classics of Russian. music is distinguished by the completeness of information and the abundance of documentary material “The Life of P. I. Tchaikovsky” (vols. 1-3, 1900-02), written by the composer’s brother M. I. Tchaikovsky. In the 1900s becomes the subject of science. studies of the work of composers of the younger generation: A. K. Lyadov, S. I. Taneeva, A. K. Glazunov, A. N. Skryabin, S. V. Rakhmaninov, a number of critical biographical works are devoted to Crimea. and analytic the works of V. G. Karatygin, G. P. Prokofiev, A. V. Ossovsky, Yu. D. Engel, who began his career as B. V. Asafiev.

A special industry pre-revolutionary. historical M. are works on other Russian. church music. A number of interesting considerations and conjectures about this side of the fatherlands. music heritage was expressed by E. Bolkhovitinov in the beginning. 19th century In the 40s. there are publications of N. D. Gorchakov, V. M. Undolsky, I. V. Sakharov, containing excerpts from the theoretical. treatises and other documentary materials about singers. claim-ve Russia. V. F. Odoevsky in the 60s. published several. research. sketches according to other Russian. music, in which churches. singing is compared with Nar. song. At the same time, a generalizing work by D. V. Razumovsky “Church singing in Russia” was created (issues 1-3, 1867-69). In the further development of questions Rus. church S. V. Smolensky, I. I. Voznesensky, V. M. Metallov, A. V. Preobrazhensky made a valuable contribution to singing. However, in most of these works, the church. singing is considered in isolation, in isolation from the general ways of development of Russian. arts. culture, which sometimes leads to one-sided, historically insufficiently substantiated conclusions.

Much attention was paid to the leading figures of the Russian. music of the 19th century the study of folk songs. Valuable thoughts on the arts. Russian nature. nar. songs, the characteristic features of its melodic. warehouse, its significance for composer creativity belong to the outstanding masters of the fatherlands. music classics. VF Odoevsky noted that in his works on Nar. a lot was suggested to the song by Glinka. In the articles of Stasov, Laroche and other prominent representatives of Russian. music critical thoughts meet contain. excursions to the area creativity. Accumulated to ser. 19th century recording material songs and live observations of its existence required scientific. generalizations and systematizations. Serov’s article “Russian folk song as a subject of science” (1869-71) was an experience of criticism. comprehension and evaluation of all this material with a definition. theoretical positions. The author tries to outline the main circle of tasks and ways of development of muses. folklore as a special scientific. disciplines. However, expressing a number of correct analytical observations and considerations of the general methodological. order, Serov adhered to the erroneous opinion widespread at that time that the basis of Russian. folk-song melody lies other Greek. fret system. This view, which originated in the 18th century. under the influence of the ideas of classicism, received its extreme expression in the works of Yu. K. Arnold (“The Theory of Old Russian Church and Folk Singing”, 1880, etc.). One of the most important achievements of the fatherlands. and music. folkloristics in the 2nd half. 19th century was the opening of the Russian nar. polyphony (Yu. N. Melgunov, HE Palchikov). HM Lopatin in the introduction to the collection, published by him together with V. P. Prokunin (1889), reveals the variant nature of Nar. lyric songs. In the 60s. systematic begins. epic study. song tradition. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. E. E. Lineva first began to use Nar for recording. songs phonograph. This made it possible to establish and fix certain features of their live sound, which are difficult to hear by ear. Music-ethnographic. commission at Moscow. un-te, created in 1902, became the main. center for the study and propaganda of Nar. songs in the beginning 20th century; along with folklore researchers (A. A. Maslov, N. A. Yanchuk, and others), major composers (Rimsky-Korsakov, Taneyev, Lyadov, Grechaninov) participated in its work.

Although the focus of most Russian. musicologists 19 and early. 20th century there were questions of the fatherlands. music culture, however, they sought to determine their attitude to the most important phenomena of zarub. music of the present. Numerous sharp and insightful. remarks on the work of Western European. composers, characteristics otd. prod. found in articles by Serov, Laroche, Tchaikovsky, and other critics and writers about music. On the pages of periodicals. print published essays of a popular nature, documentary biographical. materials, translations of foreign works. authors. From among the original works are independent. scientific the books of HP Khristianovich “Letters about Chopin, Schubert and Schumann” (1876), R. V. Genika “Shuman and his piano work” (1907), V. V. Paskhalov “Chopin and Polish Folk Music” (1916-17) are of great importance ). One of the pioneers of Russian music A. F. Khristianovich appeared in Oriental studies, to which the work on the bunk belongs. music of Algeria, published abroad (“Esquisse historique de la musique arabe aux temps anciens…”, 1863). General reviews of the history of music by P. D. Perepelitsyn, A. S. Razmadze, and L. A. Sakketi are of a compilation nature. In 1908, the Musical Theoretical Library Society was founded in Moscow, which set one of its tasks to develop questions of classical music. heritage and the creation of scientific. collections of literature on the history and theory of music. M. V. Ivanov-Boretsky and V. A. Bulychev made a great contribution to the implementation of this task.

Peru the largest Russian composers belong to the works by diff. music-theoretical. disciplines: Glinka’s “Notes on Instrumentation” recorded under his dictation by Serov (ed. 1856), Tchaikovsky’s and Rimsky-Korsakov’s harmony textbooks (1872 and 1885), Rimsky-Korsakov’s “Fundamentals of Orchestration” (ed. see by M. O. Steinberg in 1913). These works were mainly caused by the needs of the pedagogical practice, but they also formulated some fundamental provisions of the theoretical. and aesthetic order. Mathematical S. I. Taneyev’s monumental work “Mobile counterpoint of strict writing” (ed. 1909) is distinguished by the harmony and completeness of the concept. An addition to it is the posthumously published (1929) “Teaching about the Canon”. Taneyev also expressed deep thoughts and remarks on questions of form, modulation, etc. One of the most daring and original achievements of Rus. music theoretical pre-revolutionary thoughts years was the theory of the modal rhythm of B. L. Yavorsky, DOS. the provisions of which were first set forth by him in the work “The Structure of Musical Speech” (parts 1-3, 1908).

In con. 19 – beg. 20th century a number of the peoples of Russia are developing work to study their nat. music cultures, interesting and original-minded researchers come forward. The founder of the Ukrainian M. was N. V. Lysenko, who created valuable works on Nar. music instruments of Ukraine, about speakers of Ukrainian. nar. creativity – kobzars and their works. In 1888, a theoretical paper was published. P. P. Sokalsky’s work “Russian Folk Music Great Russian and Little Russian”, in which a consistent, although suffering from a certain schematism, picture of the development of modes in the song art of the East is given. glory. peoples. In the 1900s the first works of one of the most prominent researchers of fame appear. music folklore F. M. Kolessa. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Komitas laid the foundations of the Arm. scientific folklore. D. I. Arakishvili, along with a wide folklore collection. published work in the 1900s. basic research about cargo. nar. song and its existence. V. D. Korganov, who won fame biographic. works on Mozart, Beethoven, Verdi, also touched upon in his works dec. music questions. cultures of the Caucasus. A. Yuryan and E. Melngailis were the first major collectors and researchers of Letts. nar. songs.

Musicology in the USSR. Great Oct. socialist. the revolution created the conditions for the broad development of scientific. activities in the field of music among all the peoples of the USSR. For the first time in the Soviet country M. received recognition as independent. discipline. Specialists were created scientific institutions that develop the problems of dec. types of art, including music. In 1921 in Petrograd on the basis of scientific. library on the art of V.P. Zubov, which existed since 1912, the Russian Institute of the History of Art was founded with a department of the history of music (after a series of reorganizations it was turned into a scientific research department of the Leningrad Institute of Theater, Music and Cinematography) . In the same year, the State Department was created in Moscow. Institute of Music Science (HYMN) and State. academy of arts. Sciences (GAKhN). The largest modern art historian establishment of complex type — Ying t of history of arts, H.-i. in-you with special There are music departments in most of the Union republics. M. as a specialty is included in the system of higher music. education, in conservatories, and other muses. universities there are departments of theory and history of music, to-rye are research. work in accordance areas.

Soviet mathematics, which develops on the basis of Marxist-Leninist methodology, plays an active role in the construction of the socialist movement. music culture, helps to solve urgent practical problems. tasks put forward by life, participates in the work on aesthetic. education of the people. At the same time, owls musicologists develop the most important fundamental problems of the theory and history of music, solving them in a new way in the light of the main. provisions of the dialectic. and historical materialism. In the works of the 20s and 30s. vulgar sociological mistakes were made. order, resulting from a too straightforward and schematic interpretation of the connections of the claim-va with the socio-economic. basis. Overcoming these mistakes and strengthening the methodological positions of owls. M. contributed to the activities of A. V. Lunacharsky as a musician. writer. Criticizing the “premature callous orthodoxy” of the vulgarizers of Marxism, he gave in his musical and historical. sketches and performances are examples of subtle penetration into the social essence of dec. music phenomena. An extensive and versatile program for the development of owls. M. was put forward by B. V. Asafiev in the report “Modern Russian Musicology and Its Historical Tasks” (1925). Speaking about the need to combine a broad methodological problems with in-depth concrete research, Asafiev especially emphasized that the science of music should be sensitive to the demands of life and become a fructifying and guiding force of the muses. practices. A scientist of great outlook, he enriched with his works decomp. areas of history and theoretical M., heading one of the largest owls. musicologist. schools. He owns many valuable works on Russian. and zarub. classical heritage and music of the 20th century, distinguished by the freshness of observations and the subtlety of the aesthetic. analysis. Asafiev was the first to fully reveal the significance of the work of Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Stravinsky and other composers. Overcoming the subjective-idealistic tendencies characteristic of him in his early years. mistakes, he came to the creation of materialistic. the theory of intonation, which helps to reveal a specific mechanism for reflecting reality in music. This theory is one of the most significant achievements of the Marxist musical theory. and aesthetic thoughts.

In the 20s. a number of theoretical concepts that claimed to be universal (the theory of metrotectonism by G. E. Konyus, the theory of multi-basic modes and consonances by N. A. Garbuzov), although they explained only certain particular aspects of formative and harmonic. patterns in music. Discussions about these theories have contributed to the growth of owls. theoretical M. The discussion about the theory of modal rhythm (1930) acquired a particularly wide scale. It criticized the contradictory, subjectivist aspects of this theory and singled out its fruitful elements, which could enrich the owls. the science of music. One of the most important tasks of the owls. theoretical M. was the development of new methods of analysis, helping to reveal the ideological and figurative content of the muses. prod. The works of L. A. Mazel and V. A. Zukkerman were of fundamental importance in this area. Based on the principles of Marxist-Leninist aesthetics, they developed the so-called method. holistic analysis, exploring the form of muses. prod. as a system of organization of all will express. means that serve to implement the defined. contain. intent. A valuable contribution to the development of this method was also made by S. S. Skrebkov, V. V. Protopopov, I. Ya. Ryzhkin, and V. P. Bobrovsky. Simultaneously are being developed by theoretical branches. M. The work of G. L. Catoire “Theoretical course of harmony” (parts 1-2, 1924-25), based on the principles of the functional school, gives a new, original interpretation of some of its aspects. Dep. the provisions of this school are further developed in the works of I. V. Sposobina, S. V. Evseev and others. development. The theory of variable functions created by Yu. N. Tyulin gives the key to understanding many. new harmonies. phenomena in the music of the 20th century. Questions of modern works of S. S. Skrebkov, Yu. N. Kholopov and other authors are also devoted to harmony. In the capital work of L. A. Mazel “Problems of classical harmony” (1972), combining theoretical. aspect of research with the historical and aesthetic, the evolution of harmonics is widely covered. thinking since the 18th century.

S. S. Bogatyrev developed and supplemented certain aspects of S. I. Taneyev’s teachings on mobile counterpoint.

B. V. Protopopov created a series of works on the history of polyphony. Questions of polyphony with dec. sides are covered in the works of A. N. Dmitriev, S. V. Evseev, S. S. Skrebkov.

A special direction in the owls. M. are the works of N. A. Garbuzov and his scientific. schools that stand on the verge of the theory of music and acoustics. The theory of the zone nature of hearing developed by Garbuzov (see. Zone) is important for solving some musical-theoretical. problems. This direction is also partially in contact with the area of ​​muses. psychology, presented in owls. science of music by the studies of E. A. Maltseva, B. M. Teplov, E. V. Nazaykinsky and others.

The development of music-historical. science in the 20s. was complicated and delayed by the Rapmov-proletkult nihilistic. inheritance trends. Criticism of these tendencies in a number of party documents and speeches by leading figures of the party and government helped the owls. historical M. clearly define their tasks and methodological. principles. After Oct. revolution for the first time acquired a wide and systematic. character work on the study of fatherlands. heritage. Asafiev’s works “Symphonic Etudes” (1922), “Russian Music from the Beginning of the 1930th Century” (18) and his monographic cycle. essays and research on the work of outstanding masters of Rus. music the classics defined a new stage in this area, although not everything in them was indisputable and some of the points of view expressed then were subsequently corrected and partially revised by the author. On the initiative and at the hands. Asafiev, a series of studies was carried out in Russian. music of the 1927th century, included in Sat. “Music and musical life of old Russia” (1928). In 29-1922, HP Findeisen’s fundamental work “Essays on the History of Music in Russia from Ancient Times to the End of the 1th Century” was published. A number of valuable research and documentary-biographical. materials was published in the collections “Orpheus” (3, edited by A. V. Ossovsky), “Musical Chronicle” (issues 1922-25, edited by A. N. Rimsky-Korsakov, 1-4), “History of Russian Music in Research and Materials” (vols. 1924-27, edited by K. A. Kuznetsov, XNUMX-XNUMX). Diff. the sides of the Russian music V. V. Yakovlev’s studies, based on a thorough study of primary sources, are devoted to culture. Thanks to the thoughtful and scrupulous textual the work carried out by P. A. Lamm managed to restore the original author’s texts of Mussorgsky, shedding new light on the work of this composer.

The study of the history of Russian. music continued to be intensively conducted in the subsequent period. Promotion of new scientific. forces contributed to the expansion of the front of research, covering decomp. epochs and a diverse range of phenomena Rus. music of the past. Major monographs were created. works on the classics of Russian. music (B. V. Asafiev about Glinka, M. S. Pekelis about Dargomyzhsky, N. V. Tumanina about Tchaikovsky, A. N. Sohora about Borodino, G. N. Khubov about Mussorgsky, A. A. Solovtsov about Korsakov, L. A. Barenboim about A. G. Rubinstein, etc.), collections (in 2 vols. about Glazunov, in 3 vols. about Balakirev, etc.), reference publications such as “chronicles of life and work”. The search for new materials in Russian continued. music of the pre-Glinka period. The works of B. V. Dobrokhotov, B. S. Steinpress, A. S. Rozanov and others were introduced into the scientific. the use of many previously unknown facts contributed to the return to life of unfairly forgotten products. The fundamental works of T. N. Livanova “Russian musical culture of the 1th century” (vols. 2-1952, 53-3), A. A. Gozenpud “Russian opera theater of the 1969th century” (72 books, 17-1). The works of M. V. Brazhnikov, V. M. Belyaev, N. D. Uspensky are an important step in the study of written music. heritage of ancient Russia. Muses. culture of the 3th century received new coverage in the works of T. N. Livanova, S. S. Skrebkov, V. V. Protopopov. Stories The works of A. D. Alekseev and V. I. Muzalevsky (piano music), V. A. Vasina-Grossman and O. E. Levasheva (chamber vocal lyrics), A. S. Rabinovich (opera of the pre-Glinka period) are devoted to genres , A. A. Gozenpud (a cycle of books about Russian operatic music), I. M. Yampolsky (violin art), L. S. Ginzburg (cello art), L. N. Raaben (chamber instr. Ensemble), etc. The development of music-critical. and aesthetic thought in Russia is covered in the works of Yu. A. Kremlev “Russian thought about music” (vols. 1954-60, 1-1) and T. N. Livanova “Opera criticism in Russia” (vol. 2, issue 2-3 ; v. 4, issue 1966-73, 1-1; v. 1, issue 3, jointly with V. V. Protopopov). Means. there are achievements in the publication of documentary materials and sources in Russian. music. The extensive anthology The History of Russian Music in Musical Samples (vols. 1-1940, 52st ed., 18-19) presents a number of little-known works. 1972 and early 18th centuries Since XNUMX, the series “Monuments of Russian Musical Art” has been published, the task of which is a systematic. development and publication of the manuscript heritage of Rus. music from ancient times to the end. XNUMXth century Big research. and textological. work preceded the publication of academic. collected works of Glinka, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky (in the musical part, excluding the collected works of Mussorgsky, they are all completed).

Thanks to the many newly discovered and made available materials accumulated factually. information, in-depth study and analysis creative phenomena history rus. music received a new light. The myth about its provincialism and backwardness, which arose in the pre-revolutionary period, was dispelled. time. These achievements of owls. historical M. served as the basis for collective works on the history of Russian. music, ed. M. S. Pekelis (vol. 1-2, 1940), N. V. Tumanina (vol. 1-3, 1957-60), A. I. Kandinsky (vol. 1, 1972), “History of Russian Music” Yu. V. Keldysh (parts 1-3, 1947-54). The listed works are intended for use in the university pedagogical. practice as textbooks or uch. benefits, but some of them contain and research. material.

In the 40s. there are first attempts to present the passed owls. music is the path of development in a holistic historical. perspective, critically analyze and evaluate all its achievements and shortcomings. In some works on the history of owls. music was affected by the negative impact of dogmatic. installations, which led to an incorrect, distorted assessment means. creative phenomena and belittling the overall achievements of owls. music culture. In the light of the decisions of the 20th Congress of the CPSU and the unfolding in the 2nd half. 50s broad creativity. discussions, these erroneous judgments were revised, a more objective view was achieved on the processes of formation and development of owls. music as a socialist art. realism. In 1956-63, The History of Russian Soviet Music (vols. 1-4) was published, created by a team of employees of the Institute of the History of Arts. It was the first fundamental historical work on the history of owls. music, characterized by abundance, breadth of coverage of material and thoroughness of presentation. Development owl genres. music The works of V. M. Bogdanov-Berezovsky (opera), A. N. Sohor (song), and others are devoted to creativity. A large number of monographic works have been written. research, critical and biographical. and analytic essays on the work of outstanding owls. composers. Among them are the works of I.V. Livanova about Myaskovsky, G. N. Khubov about Khachaturian, A. N. Sohor about Sviridov and others.

In most of the Union republics, cadres of musicologists have been formed, developing issues related to the study of dec. nat. cultures. In 1922, a historical essay on the development of Ukrainian. music by N. A. Grinchenko. He also owns a number of monographs. essays about Ukrainian older composers. In 1925, a short historical book was published. essay cargo. music by D. I. Arakishvili. An extensive literature on the history of nat. music cultures of the USSR, covering decomp. stages of their formation and development. This was the result of intense research. labor pl. scientists and scientific teams. Creatures. contribution to the study of the music of the peoples of the USSR, both Soviet and pre-revolutionary. periods were introduced by L. B. Arkhimovich, N. M. Gordeychuk, V. D. Dovzhenko, A. Ya. Shreer-Tkachenko (Ukraine), V. G. Donadze, A. G. Tsulukidze, G. Z. Chkhikvadze, G Sh. Ordzhonikidze (Georgia), R. A. Atayan, G. Sh. Geodakyan, G. G. Tigranov, A. I. Shaverdyan (Armenia), E. A. Abasova, K. A. Kasimov (Azerbaijan), Ya. Ya. Vitolin (Latvia), Yu. K. Gaudrimas (Lithuania), F. M. Karomatov, T. S. Vyzgo (Uzbekistan), A. K. Zhubanov, B. G. Erzakovich (Kazakhstan), etc. Through the efforts of many The group of authors, including musicologists from all the Union republics, created the fundamental work “The History of Music of the Peoples of the USSR from 1917” (5 vols., 1970-74), in which an attempt was made to present the development of multinational. owls. music as a single complex process based on continuously growing stronger and deeper ties between art decomp. peoples of the country.

Owls. M. contributed to the development of questions abroad. music history. In this area has played an important role scientific. and pedagogical the activities of M. V. Ivanov-Boretsky and K. A. Kuznetsov, scientists of great culture and erudition, who created numerous. research schools. From con. 20s brilliant essays by I. I. Sollertinsky appear, in which bright portraits of a number of Western Europeans are drawn. composers – from the classical. masters of the 18th century to Mahler and R. Strauss. Various music-historical. the problems were reflected in the works of M. S. Druskin, V. D. Konen, T. N. Livanova, V. E. Ferman. Creativity of the largest foreign countries. composers devoted to numerous. monographic research, among to-rykh in scale and scientific. A. A. Alschwang’s works on Beethoven, D. V. Zhitomirsky on Schumann, V. D. Konen on Monteverdi, Yu. A. Kremlev on Debussy, O. E. Levasheva on Grieg, and Ya. I. Milshtein on Liszt , I. V. Nestyev about Bartok, Yu. N. Khokhlova about Schubert, A. A. Khokhlovkina about Berlioz. Large scientific An event was the publication of Beethoven’s sketchbook stored in Moscow, prepared by N. L. Fishman and published together with his detailed analytical. research. Interest in the problems of music of the 20th century is growing, a number of collections, studies and monographs are devoted to it, including the works of M. S. Druskin, I. V. Nestyev, G. M. Schneerson, B. M. Yarustovsky. Special attention to owls. musicologists give music. socialist culture. countries. Capital works on the history of Czech and Polish music were created by I. F. Belza. I. M. Martynov, L. V. Polyakova, and others also work in this area. Among the general works on the history of foreign countries. music is distinguished by the breadth of the idea, the abundance and variety of material “The History of Musical Culture” by R. I. Gruber (vol. 1, part 1-2, vol. 2, part 1-2, 1941-59), in which the author sought to highlight the global process of development of muses. lawsuits from Marxist positions (exposition brought to the 16th century).

On a wide historical The material is based on works on the theory of decomp. genres. Questions of opera dramaturgy are developed in books and articles by V. E. Ferman, M. S. Druskin, B. M. Yarustovsky. In the studies of V. A. Vasina-Grossman, the problems of the relationship between music and poetry are considered. words on the material of the chamber wok. creativity. In the work of V. D. Konen “Theatre and Symphony” (1968), the influence of operatic music on the formation of thematic and formative principles of classical music is traced. symphonies.

The emergence and growth of new national. schools in the music of the peoples of the USSR determined a great interest in folklore as one of the sources of their originality and vitality. Work on collecting and studying bunks. ice creativity gained wide scope in all owls. republics. New layers of folklore were raised, cultures were discovered for the first time, which remained almost unknown until Oct. revolution. A. AT. Zataevich, folklorist. activity to-rogo began in the 20s., turned out to be a pioneer in the systematic. collecting and recording Kazakh. Nar music. The works of V. A. Uspensky and E. E. Romanovskaya were of fundamental importance for the study of Uzbek. and Turkmen. folklore. C. A. Malikyan, who published in 1931 the most valuable records of the Arm. Nar songs made by Komitas in the beginning. 20th century, continued to work in this area and made more than a thousand new recordings. Fruitful results were given by folklore-gathering. and research. activity G. Z. Chkhikvadze in Georgia, Ya. Churlyonite in Lithuania, X. Tampere in Estonia, B. G. Erzakovich in Kazakhstan, G. AND. Tsytovich in Belarus and others. To the most significant new publications Rus. folklore includes the monumental collection of A. М. Listopadov “Songs of the Don Cossacks” (vol. 1-5, 1949-54). In parallel with the accumulation of new materials, work is underway on their scientific, theoretical. comprehension. The focus of the owls folklore are questions related to the study of the signs and origins of nat. peculiarities of music peoples, the evolution of genres in their specific social and everyday conditionality, the formation of elements of muses. language. Historical plays an important role in this. and sociologist. Aspects. As one of the central and most important, the problem of the interaction of decomp. nat. cultures. In the works of A. D. Kastalsky “Features of the folk-Russian musical system” (1923) and “Fundamentals of folk polyphony” (published posthumously, ed. AT. М. Belyaeva, 1948) summarized the results of his long-term observations on harmonics. phenomena arising from polygonal. poison. performance of the Russian Nar songs as a result of its inherent peculiar methods of voice leading. With horse. 20s Russian ice folklore developed along the path of the differential. study of regional styles. This direction is presented in the works of E. AT. Gippius and Z. AT. Ewald, in the future it is continued by F. A. Rubtsova A. AT. Rudneva and others. The subject of special study is the working song, which is devoted to the research of E. AT. Gippius, L. L. Christiansen and others. Created work on the modern. owls. folklore – Russian (T. AT. Popov), Belarusian (L. C. Mukharinskaya) and others. Outstanding Ukrainian. musicologist-folklorist K. AT. Kvitka back in the 20s. put forward and substantiated the method of comparison. study of folklore. peoples. This method is of great importance for the development of historical. problems associated with the development of song genres and types of melodic. thinking. Following Kvitka, it is successfully used in the works of V. L. Goshovsky in Ukraine, F. A. Rubtsov in the RSFSR. Large scientific value are generalizing theoretical. the works of W. Gadzhibekov “Fundamentals of Azerbaijani Folk Music” (1945), X. C. Kushnarev “Questions of the history and theory of Armenian monodic music” (1958). In numerous the works of V. М. Belyaev is illuminated by Nar. creativity misc. nationalities of the Soviet Union, developed general theoretical. music problems. folklore; he made a particularly valuable contribution to the study of music. cultures Wed. Asia. One of the most prominent researchers of the music of the Central Asian peoples (chap. arr. Kyrgyz) is V. C. Vinogradov, who also owns a number of works on zarub music. peoples of Asia and Africa. Specialist. works are devoted to Nar. ice tools, to-rye studied owls. researchers in close connection with the creative. and perform. practice, with a common culture and way of life of different nationalities. Richness and diversity of music. multinational toolkit. countries of the Soviets is reflected in the fundamental work “Atlas of Musical Instruments of the Peoples of the USSR” (1963), created under the guidance of the most prominent owl. a specialist in the field of instrumentation K. A.

In the field of theory and history of musical-performing. works of fundamental importance are the works of B. A. Struve (bowed instruments) and G. M. Kogan (fp.). Diff. music issues. The works of A. D. Alekseev, L. A. Barenboim, L. S. Ginzburg, Ya. I. Milshtein, A. A. Nikolaev, L. N. Raaben, S. I. Savshinsky, I. M. Yampolsky and others. Important theoretical. provisions are expressed in the works of outstanding masters-performers A. B. Goldenweiser, G. G. Neuhaus, S. E. Feinberg, summarizing their creative work. and pedagogical an experience.

Great importance in the USSR is attached to work in the field of music. bibliography (see Music Bibliography) and lexicography. In the pre-revolutionary In Russia, such works were not numerous and were created only by individuals (N. M. Lisovsky, HP Findeisen). After Oct. revolution mus.-bibliographic. work becomes more systematic. character, relying on the funds of the largest book and music depositories and archival collections. In the 20s and 30s. a number of valuable works in the field of music. bibliography was created by Z. F. Savyolova, A. N. Rimsky-Korsakov, and others. But this work was especially widely developed starting from the 50s. There were such fundamental works as “Musical Bibliography of the Russian Periodical Press of the 1960th Century” by T. N. Livanova (published in separate editions since 1), biobibliographic. dictionary “Who wrote about music” by G. B. Bernandt and I. M. Yampolsky (vols. 2-1971, 74-XNUMX). Means. contribution to the development of owls. music Bibliographies and lexicographies were contributed by H. H. Grigorovich, A. N. Dolzhansky, G. B. Koltypina, S. L. Uspenskaya, B. S. Steinpress, and others.

In the 60-70s. attention pl. owls. musicologists were attracted to the sociological. problems, a number of works on the issues of music appeared. sociology (A. N. Sohora and others), experiments were carried out in the field of specific sociological. research.

Marxist-Leninist scientific. the idea of ​​music is successfully developing in all socialist. countries. Musicologists of these countries have created valuable works on dec. questions of theory and history of music, music. aesthetics. Among the most prominent representatives of M. socialist. countries – B. Sabolci, J. Maroti, J. Uyfalushshi (Hungary), Z. Lissa, Y. Khominsky (Poland), A. Sykhra, J. Ratsek (Czechoslovakia), V. Cosma, O. Cosma (Romania), E. Mayer, G. Knepler (GDR), V. Krystev, S. Stoyanov, D. Hristov (Bulgaria), J. Andrejs, S. Djurich-Kline, D. Cvetko (Yugoslavia) and others. contribute to the constant close communication of socialist musicologists. countries, regular exchange of experience, joint conferences and symposia on topical theoretical. questions.

References: Serov A. N., Music, music science, music pedagogy, in his book: Critical articles, vol. 4, St. Petersburg, 1895; Laroche H. A., The Historical Method of Teaching Music Theory, in his book: Collection of Music Critical Articles, vol. 1, M., 1913; Kashkin N. D., Music and Musical Science, “Russian Will”, 1917, No 10; Kuznetsov K. A., Introduction to the history of music, ch. 1, M.-P., 1923; Glebov Igor (Asafiev B. V.), The theory of the musical-historical process, as the basis of musical-historical knowledge, in the book: Tasks and methods of studying the arts, P., 1924; his own, Modern Russian Musicology and Its Historical Tasks, in: De musica, no. 1, L., 1925; his own, Tasks of Modern Musicology, in Sat: Our Musical Front, M., 1930; his own, the Crisis of Western European Musical Studies, in Sat: Musical and Scientific Notes, book. 1, Kharkiv, 1931; Lunacharsky A. V., On the sociological method in the theory and history of music, “Print and Revolution”, 1925, book. 3; his, One of the shifts in art criticism, “Bulletin of the Communist Academy”, 1926, book. fifteen; Ryzhkin I. I., Mazel L. A., Essays on the History of Theoretical Musicology, vol. 1-2, M., 1934-39; Alshvang A., On the analysis of musical works, “SM”, 1938, No 7; Kremlev Yu., Russian thought about music, vol. 1-3, L., 1954-60; Keldysh Yu., Some questions of the history of Soviet music, in: Questions of Musicology, vol. 3, M., 1960; History of European Art History, ed. B. R. Vipper and T. N. Livanova: From Antiquity to the End of the 1963th Century, M., 1965; the same, First half of the 1966th century, M., XNUMX; the same, Second half of the XNUMXth century, M., XNUMX; the same, Second half of the XNUMXth — beginning of the XNUMXth century, book. 1-2, M., 1969; Modern art history abroad. Essays, M., 1964; Mazel L., Aesthetics and Analysis, “SM”, 1966, No 12; his, Musicology and the achievements of other sciences, ibid., 1974, No 4; Konen V., In defense of historical science, ibid., 1967, No 6; History and modernity. Editorial conversations, ibid., 1968, No 3; Zemtsovsky I. I., Russian Soviet Musical Folkloristics, in: Questions of Theory and Aesthetics of Music, vol. 6-7, L., 1967; Teaching B. AND. Lenin and questions of musicology, (sb.), L., 1969; Zukkerman V., On theoretical musicology, in his book: Musical-theoretical essays and etudes, M., 1970; Musical Art and Science, vol. 1-3, M., 1970-76; Adler G., Scope, method and goal of musicology, “Quarterly journal for musicology”, 1885, vol. 1; eго же, Method of Music History, Lpz., 1919; Spitta Ph., Kunstwissenschaft and Kunst, в его сб.: Zur Musik, В., 1892; Riemann H., History of Music Theory in the IX. to XIX. Century, Lpz., 1898, Hildesheim, 1961; его же, outline of musicology, Lpz., 1908, 1928; Kretzschmar H., Collected essays from the yearbooks of the music library Peters, Lpz., 1911 (reprint, 1973); его же, Introduction to the History of Music, Lpz., 1920; Abert H., on the tasks and goals of music biography, «AfMw», 1919-20, vol. 2; Sachs C., Music in the context of general art history, «AfMw», 1924, vol. 6, H. 3; Вьcken E., Basic Questions of Music History as a Humanities Science, «JbP», 1928, vol. 34; Vetter W., The humanistic concept of education in music and musicology, Langesalza, 1928; Fellerer K. G., Introduction to musicology, В., 1942, 1953; Wiora W., Historical and systematic music research, «Mf», 1948, vol. 1; Musicology and universal history, «Acta musicologica», 1961, v. 33, fasc. 2-4; Westrup J. A., An introduction to musical history, L., (1955); Drдger H. H., Musikwissenschaft, в кн.: Universitas litterarum. Handbook of Science Studies, В., 1955; Mendel A., Sachs C., Pratt C. С., Some aspects of musicology, N. Y., 1957; Garrett A. M., An introduction to research in music, Wash., 1958; Prйcis de musicologie, sous la direction de J. Chailley, P., 1958; Husmann H., Introduction to Musicology, Hdlb., 1958; Lissa Z., On the periodization of music history, «Contributions to musicology», 1960, vol. 2, H. 1; Machabey A., La musicologie, P., 1962; Blume F., Historical music research in the present, в сб.: Report of the tenth congress, Ljubljana, 1967; Heinz R., Historical Concept and Scientific Character of Musicology in the Second Half of the 19th Century. Century, Regensburg, 1968; The spread of historicism through music, ed. by W

Yu.V. Keldysh

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