Musical instruments |
Music Terms

Musical instruments |

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terms and concepts, musical instruments

Musical Instruments – instruments designed to extract rhythmically organized and fixed in pitch sounds or clearly regulated rhythm, as well as noise. Items that make unorganized sounds and noises (mallet of night watchmen, rattle of hunters, arched bells, whistle), or decoys that imitate birdsong and the cry of animals used in hunting, as well as tools that serve as special equipment. signal purposes, under certain conditions can be used both as M. and. There are also M. and. applied purpose, used for ritual purposes (shaman tambourine, Buddhist ghan-dan and bure, Nivkh partigre); sometimes they are used to accompany bunks. dances (Est. kraatsspill, Latvian, tridexnis, chagana, eglite). This includes devices, with the help of which in symphony. (opera) orchestra reproduce thunder, howling wind, cracking whip, etc. Some of the applied and signal instruments can also perform music. arts. functions, eg. church bells with a freely suspended tongue. To M. and. litas are also included. Toshalya or Latvian. berzstaase, made from birch bark, Mari efi from lilac leaf, Ukrainian. lusk from horn flake, etc.; using similar tools. musicians skillfully whistle quite complex melodies, abundantly equipping them with various passages and melismas.

Each M. and. has an inherent timbre (character, coloring) of sound, specific. dynamic capabilities and a certain range of sounds. Sound quality M. and. depends on the materials used for the manufacture of the tool, the shape given to them (i.e., all dimensional data of parts, assemblies) and can be changed using the add. devices (e.g. mute), decomp. sound extraction techniques (for example, pizzicato, harmonic, etc.).

M. i. It is conventionally accepted to divide into folk and professional. The first are made among the people and are used in everyday life and musical art. performance. The same instruments can belong both to one and to different peoples, ethnically related. kinship or duration. historical and cultural contacts. So, only in Ukraine there is a bandura, and in Georgia – panduri and chonguri. On the other hand, east. Slavs – Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians – had in the past and now partially use common instruments – gusli, sniffle (sniffle, pipe), zhaleika (horn), bagpipe (dudu), wheel lyre, in Azerbaijan and Armenia – saz, tar, kemancha , zurnu, duduk; in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, almost all instruments are the same. Prof. the overwhelming majority of instruments were created as a result of improvement and modification of nar. tools. So, for example, in the distant past, only Nar. the instrument was the violin, the modern violin arose from the simplest folk. flute, from a primitive chalumeau – clarinet, etc. Professional usually include M. and., which are part of the symphony. (opera), wind and estr. orchestras, as well as brass and strings. keyboards (organ, piano, in the past – harpsichord, clavichord). In a number of countries (India, Iran, Turkey, China, etc.) they play almost exclusively folk musical instruments, and the performing arts on such instruments are examples of high professionalism in these countries. However, in the context of European music orchestral and especially keyboard cultures, which are genetically not directly related to folk cultures, are legitimately classified as prof. M. and.; their design, technical-performing and artistic-express. features have been perfected.

M.’s emergence and. belongs to ancient times. Some of them, eg. horns and primitive flutes made of bone, archaeologists find during excavations of human settlements of the Paleolithic era. in Neolithic monuments. era there are one-sided drums, wind reeds (such as a shawl or chalumeau), primitive xylophones and flutes with playing holes. Strings appeared later than others. M. i. – the simplest harps, lute-shaped and tanbur-shaped, but they were also known to certain peoples long before BC. e. There are different hypotheses of M.’s origin and. It is assumed that originally these were signaling instruments and that they were in one way or another connected with the labor processes of primitive man. However, as evidenced by the archaeological materials, already at an early stage in the development of human society, there were tools that performed purely musical and aesthetic. function: flutes with playing holes, allowing you to extract sounds of different heights of a precisely fixed scale (which indicates the emergence of a meaningful musical system), strings. instruments suitable only for performing music, dec. types of castanets accompanying single and group dances, etc. With the help of blowing for music. performances could use signal pipes and horns.

The evolution of M. and., the enrichment of tools went directly. connection with the general development of mankind, its culture, music, perform. claims and production techniques. At the same time, some M. and., due to the peculiarities of their design, have come down to us in their original form (for example, Uzbek stone castanets – kayrak), others have been improved, some M. and. and aesthetic needs, fell into disuse and were replaced by new ones. Number and variety of M. and. more and more increased. Muses. art, while developing, required appropriate means of expression, and more advanced musical instruments, in turn, contributed to the further development of music. creativity and performance. lawsuit. However, not always the degree of diversity and technical. M.’s states and. can serve as a measure of the level of music. culture. Some peoples, preferring wok. music, created M. and. in limited quantities and used them Ch. arr. as an accompanying choir. singing. Such, for example, cargo. chonguri and panduri, or the only ones, in essence, kurai among the Bashkirs and khomys among the Yakuts. At the same time, the skill of playing the kurai and khomys, and the music performed on them, reached great perfection among these peoples.

Most distinctly M.’s connection and. with creativity and performance, their selection and improvement can be traced in the field of prof. music (in folk music, these processes proceed much more slowly, and musical instruments remain unchanged or little changed for centuries). So, in the 15-16 centuries. fidels (viels) with their rough sound were replaced by gentle-sounding, matte timbre, “aristocratic” viols. In the 17-18 centuries. in connection with the development of homophonic harmonic. style and the emergence of music requiring dynamically varied performance, the viola was replaced by the violin and its family, which have a bright, expressive sound and opportunities for virtuoso playing. Simultaneously with violas, the soft, but “lifeless” in sound, longitudinal flute fell into disuse, giving way to a more sonorous and technically mobile transverse flute. At the same time, European music was no longer used in ensemble and orchestral practice. the lute and its varieties – the theorbo and chitarron (arch-lute), and in home music-making the lute was replaced by the vihuela, then the guitar. To con. 18th century the harpsichord was superseded by the new M. and. – piano.

Prof. Musical music, in view of the complexity of their design, depends more on folk music in its development on the state of the exact sciences and production techniques—the presence of muses. factories and plants with their experimental laboratories and skilled tool makers. The only exceptions are violin instruments. families requiring individual production. Violins, cellos, double basses improved on the basis of folk samples by the famous Brescia and Cremonese masters of the 16th-18th centuries. (G. da Salo, G. Magini, N. Amati, A. Stradivari, Guarneri del Gesù, and others) remain unsurpassed in their merits. The most intensive development of prof. M. i. took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. The creation by T. Böhm of a new design of a flute with a valve system (the first model appeared in 1832) expanded the creative possibilities of composers and contributed to the development of solo concert performance art. A real revolution was brought about by the appearance at the beginning of the 19th century. valve mechanics in brass instruments. Thanks to this, they turned from the so-called. natural M. and. (with a limited number of sounds and hence limited possibilities) into chromatic, capable, like woodwinds, of reproducing any music. Root stylist. a change in the music of all genres for stringed keyboard instruments occurred with the advent of the hammer-piano, which replaced the harpsichord and clavichord. With the invention of electricity and radio, the construction of electric musical instruments became possible.

To a lesser extent (due to individual dressing) they depend on the level of technology. M. i. However, even here, without a sufficiently developed handicraft and factory production, it is impossible to mass-produce harmonicas, improved “Andreev” balalaikas and domras (Russia), tamburash instruments (Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia), tarogata (Hungary and Romania), etc. The development of people. M. i. is directly dependent on the social conditions of society. In the USSR, thanks to the development of nat. art-va, as well as the general rise in the economy and culture of broad bunks. masses in the republics and autonomous regions began to create numerous. instr. collectives, work began on the revival, reconstruction and improvement of bunks. M. and., designing their families for ensemble and orchestral performance, to-rogo did not know before. peoples. Firmly entrenched not only in prof. and do-it-yourselfers. solo and collective performance, but also in folk. music life such M. and. improved system, like the bandura in Ukraine, cymbals in Belarus, kankles and birbin in Lithuania, various types of kannels in Estonia, dutar, Kashgar rubab and chang in Uzbekistan, dombra in Kazakhstan, etc.

In connection with the expansion of the repertoire of amateurs. and prof. ensembles and orchestras instruments, the inclusion of music in it. classics and productions modern composers (including large forms), as well as due to the general rise in the musical culture of the peoples of the USSR, performers, ensembles and orchestras of the people. tools began to use mass and prof. M. i. – guitar, button accordion, accordion, violin, clarinet, and in otd. cases – flute, trumpet and trombone.

Typological variety of M.’s existing in the world and. huge. Systematizing M. and., they are combined into groups according to c.-l. characteristic features. The oldest systems of classification are Indian and Chinese; the first classifies M. and. according to the method of excitation of sound, the second – according to the type of material from which the instrument is made. It is usually accepted to divide M. and. into 3 groups: wind, strings and percussion. Groups, in turn, are divided into subgroups: wind – into wood and copper, and string – into plucked and bowed. The sound source of wind instruments is a column of air enclosed in the barrel channel, string instruments – a stretched string; The percussion group is made up of instruments on which sound is produced by a blow. To prof. spirit. wooden instruments include flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and their varieties (piccolo flute, English horn, bassclarinet, contrabassoon), as well as a family of saxophones and sarisophones. Despite the fact that some instruments (modern flute and piccolo flute, saxophones, sarusophones) are made of metal, while others (clarinet, oboe) are sometimes made of plastic, they fully correspond to woodwinds in terms of sound extraction and general musical characteristics. Among the folk instruments of this subgroup is the Uzbek-Taj. Nai, Karelian Lira and Luddu, Latvian. ganurags, Buryat. bishkur. The subgroup of brass wind instruments (they are also called embouchure or mouthpiece) includes trumpet, horn, trombone, tuba, and spirit instruments. orchestra (byugelhorns and flugelhorns), from nar. – Uzbek-Taj. Karnay, Ukrainian (Hutsul) trembita, Mold. buchum, est. sarv, rus. Vladimir horns. Although almost all of them are wooden, in terms of the way the sound is extracted and its character, they do not differ much from brass ones. A subgroup of plucked strings consists of harp, guitar, mandolin, Kazakh. dombra, Turkm. dutar, rus. gusli and the same type of est. Kannel, Latvian. kokle, lit. kankles, Karelian kantele. The bowed ones include the violin and its family (viola, cello, double bass), Azeri. kemancha, kirg. kyyak, Tuvan byzanchi, Mari kovyzh. The percussion group is made up of numerous and various M. and. with a leather membrane (timpani, drums, tambourines) or made of material that is capable of sounding itself (cymbals, gong, triangle, xylophone, castanets, etc.). Keyboard names harpsichord, pianoforte (grand piano, upright piano), organ, harmonium, etc.

In scientific instrumental literature use more complex, but also more accurate classification systems (see. more details in Art. Instrumentation), allowing to more fully and comprehensively reveal the essence of each type of M. and. The most famous is the system, the basis of which was laid by F. Gevaart (“Nouveau traité d’instrumentation”, P. – Brux., 1885) and then developed by V. Маийоном (“Descriptive and analytical catalog of the Instrumental Museum of the Royal Conservatory of Music in Brussels”, v. 1-5, Ghent 1893-1922). The defining features of the classification in the system are the source of the sound and the way it is extracted; further gradation M. and. produced in accordance with their design features. Main the principles of classification of Gevaart and Mayon, in the mean. degrees accepted and scrupulously developed later by E. Hornbostel and K. Sachs (“Systematik der Musikinstrumente”, “Zeitschrift für Ethnologie”, 1914, (Jahrg.) 46), are most often used in Sov. instrumentation (without excessive crushing of instruments into types and varieties). According to the system adopted in the USSR, M. and. are divided according to the sound source into 4 groups: wind (aerophones), strings (chordophones), membrane (membranophones) and self-sounding (idiophones or autophones). Membrane sound source is the stretched skin or bladder of an animal, self-sounding – internally stressed material from which the instrument or its sounding part is made. According to the method of extracting sound, wind instruments are divided into flute, reed, mouthpiece and flute-reed keyboards. Flutes include all types of flutes: ocarina-shaped, longitudinal (the instrument is held in a longitudinal position) and transverse (the instrument is held in a transverse position). Ocarinoid – these are all types of vascular whistles and ocarinas; longitudinal are subdivided into open ones, in which both ends of the trunk are open (bashk. Kuray, Turkmen. tuyduk, Adyghe kamyl, abkh. apkhertsa), whistling (block-flyer, Belarusian. pipe, Russian sopel, dag. kshul, Altai shogur), multi-barreled pan flute type (gr. larchemi or soinari, mold. most, Ukrainian svyril, kuim-chipsan of the Komi people); among the most famous transverse modern. prof. flutes, Uzbek-Taj. nai, tuvinskaya lembi, buryat. limbo. Reed instruments are divided into instruments with a free tongue (Mari lyshtash from a bird cherry leaf, Adjarian sapratsuna from a walnut leaf, Ukrainian. luska from horn otschen, Latvian. birzstaase in the form of a birch bark plate), with a single beating tongue (clarinet, saxophone, Rus. bagpipe, bagpipe or bagpipe, est. roopill, lit. birbin), with a double beating tongue (oboe, bassoon, saryusophone, azerb. and arm. Duduk i zurna, Uzb.-taj. trumpet, buryat. bishkur), with a slipping reed (all types of harmonicas and harmonium; these instruments are essentially self-sounding, i.e. because they have the tongue itself, but according to tradition they are classified as wind instruments). Mouthpieces consist of instruments, in which the exciter of the oscillations of the air column is the lips of the performer, attached to the mouth (mouthpiece) of the barrel and, accordingly, tense (prof. copper instruments, folk – horns, horns and pipes). Flute-reed keyboards include dec.

The string group consists of plucked, bowed and percussion instruments. At first, the sound is extracted by plucking the string with a pen, finger, plectrum (spinet, harpsichord, harp, guitar, balalaika, Kazakh dombra, mandolin); on bowed ones – either with a bow (instruments of the violin family, Armenian kamani, Georgian chuniri, Ossetian kissyn-fandyr, Kirg. kyyak, Kazakh. kobyz), or a friction wheel (wheel lyre), and on percussion – by hitting the string with a hammer or sticks (clavichord, fp., cymbals, Armenian and Georgian santur or santuri).

The membrane group consists of instruments with a tightly stretched membrane, on which they strike with a hand, a mallet, or make a sound in a frictional way (tambourine, timpani, drums, Ukrainian bugay and Mold. thump). The membrane also includes mirlitons – instruments with a membrane, which amplifies and colors the singer’s voice in a special timbre (Ukrainian Ocheretyna, Chuvash. Turana sea otters, an ordinary comb wrapped in tissue paper for combing hair). Numerous the group of self-sounding instruments is subdivided into plucked (vargan in all its modifications), percussion (xylophone, metallophone, celesta, gong, cymbals, triangle, orc. bells, Lithuanian jingulis, Kabardino-Balkarian and Adyghe pkhachich), friction (Est. kraatspill and pingipill, Abkh akunjjapkhyartsa, Dag chang-chugur).

Special groups are mechanical and electrophonic instruments. On mechanical ones, the game is played using a winding or electric mechanism, the rotation of the shaft by hand, electrophonic ones are divided into adapted (ordinary instruments equipped with a device for amplifying sound) and electronic ones, the sound source of which is electrical vibrations (see Electric musical instruments).

References: Famintsyn A. S., Gusli – Russian folk musical instrument, St. Petersburg, 1890; his own, Domra and related musical instruments of the Russian people, St. Petersburg, 1891; Privalov N. I., Tanbur-shaped musical instruments of the Russian people, “Proceedings of the St. Petersburg Society of Musical Meetings”, 1905, no. 4-6, 1906, no. 2; his, Musical wind instruments of the Russian people, vol. 1-2, St. Petersburg, 1907-08; Maslov A., Illustrated description of musical instruments stored in the Dashkovo Ethnographic Museum in Moscow, in Proceedings of the Musical and Ethnographic Commission of the Society of Natural Science, Anthropology and Ethnography Lovers, vol. 2, M., 1911; Rindeizen N., Essays on the history of music in Russia…, vol. 1, no. 2, M.-L., 1928; Privalau N., Folk musical instruments of Belarus in the book: Institute of Belarusian Culture. Notes of the Department of Humanities, book. 4. Proceedings of the Department of Ethnography, Vol. 1, Mensk, 1928; Uspensky V., Belyaev V., Turkmen music …, M., 1928; Khotkevich R., Musical instruments of the Ukrainian people, Kharkiv, 1930; Zaks K., Modern musical orchestral instruments, trans. from German., M.-L., 1932; Belyaev V., Musical instruments of Uzbekistan, M., 1933; his, Folk Musical Instruments of Azerbaijan, in the collection: Art of the Azerbaijani people, M.-L., 1938; Novoselsky A., The book about the harmonica, M.-L., 1936; Arakishvili D., Description and measurement of folk musical instruments, Tb., 1940 (on cargo. lang.); Agazhanov A., Russian folk musical instruments, M.-L., 1949; Rogal-Levitsky D. R., Contemporary Orchestra, vol. 1-4, M., 1953-56; his own, Conversations about the orchestra, M., 1961; Lisenko M. V., Folk musical instruments in Ukraine, Kipv, 1955; Gizatov B., Kazakh State Orchestra of Folk Instruments. Kurmangazy, A.-A., 1957; Vinogradov V. S., Kyrgyz folk music, P., 1958; Zhinovich I., Belarusian State Folk Orchestra, Minsk, 1958; Nikiforv P. N., Mari folk musical instruments, Yoshkar-Ola, 1959; (Рaliulis S.), Lietuviu liaudies instrumentine muzika, Vilnius, 1959; Struve B. A., The process of formation of violas and violins, M., 1959; Modr A., ​​Musical instruments, trans. from Czech., M., 1959; Nyurnberg N., Symphony orchestra and its instruments, L.-M., 1959; Blagodatov G., Russian harmonica, L., 1960; his own, Musical Instruments of the Peoples of Siberia, in the book: Collection of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the USSR Academy of Sciences, vol. 18, Moscow, 1968; Vyzgo T., Petrosyants A., Uzbek orchestra of folk instruments, Tash., 1962; Sokolov V. F., W. AT. Andreev and his orchestra, L., 1962; Chulaki M., Symphony Orchestra Instruments, M., 1962; Vertkov K., Blagodatov G., Yazovitskaya E., Atlas of Musical Instruments of the Peoples of the USSR, M., 1963, 1975; Raev A. M., Altai folk musical instruments, Gorno-Altaisk, 1963; Eichhorn A., Musical and ethnographic materials (trans. with him. ed. AT. М. Belyaev), Tash., 1963 (Musical folklore in Uzbekistan); Aksenov A. N., Tuvan folk music. Materials and researches, M., 1964; Berov L. S., Moldavian folk musical instruments, Kish., 1964; Smirnov B., Art of Vladimir horn players, M., 1965; his own, Mongolian folk music, M., 1971; Tritus M. L., Musical culture of the Kalmyk ASSR, M., 1965; Gumenyuk A., Ukrainian folk musical instruments, Kipv, 1967; Mirek A., From the history of the accordion and button accordion, M., 1967; Khashba I. M., Abkhaz folk musical instruments, Sukhumi, 1967; Levin S. Ya., On the musical instruments of the Adyghe people, in: Scientific notes of the Adyghe Research Institute of Language, Literature and History, vol. 7, Maikop, 1968; his, Wind instruments in the history of musical culture, L., 1973; Richugin P., Folk music of Argentina. M., 1971; Mahillon V. Сh., Descriptive and analytical catalog of the Instrumental Museum of the Royal Conservatory of Music in Brussels, c. 1-5, Gand, 1893-1922; Saсhs C., Reallexikon der Musikinstrumente, В., 1913, reprint, Hildesheim, 1962 (ANGL. ed., N. Y., (1964)); его же, Handbuch der Musikinstrumentenkunde, Lpz., 1920, 1930, reprint, (Lpz., 1966); его же, Spirit and becoming of musical instruments, В., 1928, reprint, Hilvcrsum, 1965; его же, The History of Museal instruments, N. Y., (1940); Вaines A., Woodwind instruments and their history, N. Y., (1963); Bachmann W., The Beginnings of String Instrument Playing, Lpz., 1964; Buchner A., ​​Musical Instruments of Nations, Prague, 1968; его же, From Glockenspiel to Pianola, (Prague, 1959); Studia instrumentorum musicae popularis, Stockh., 1969. See also lit. at Art.

K. A. Vertkov, S. Ya. Levin

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