Ashug |
Music Terms

Ashug |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

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People’s professional poet and singer among Azerbaijanis, Armenians and neighboring peoples of the USSR and foreign countries. The suit of A. is synthetic. He creates melodies, poems, epic. legends (dastans), sings, accompanying himself on saz (Azerbaijan), tar or kemancha (Armenia). In the performance of A. there are also elements of dramas. claims (facial expressions, gestures, etc.). Some A. are only performers. The predecessors of A. in Azerbaijan were ozans (other names – Shuara, Dede, Yangshag, etc.); in Armenia – gusans (mtrup-gusans, tagerku).

The earliest information about A. is contained in the arm. historians Movses Khorenatsi, Pavstos Buzand, Yeghishe and others, in Azerbaijan. legend “Kitabi-Dede Korkud” (10-11 centuries).

Main part of the work of A. are songs. Prerevolutionary ashug songs denounced the dark sides of the feud. life, sang heroic. struggle against tyranny, instilled in the people love for the motherland. After the establishment of the Soviet the power of A.’s song is filled with new content associated with great transformations in society. way of life, with the socialist. construction.

Ashug melodies are usually of a narrow range and are presented in a high register. Melodich. movement is smooth; small jumps (per third, fourth) are followed by their filling. Typical repetition, variance of chants and whole constructions, metro-rhythm. wealth. Sometimes melodies are subject to a clear time signature, for example:

Sometimes they differ in recitative-improvisation. freedom. Known ca. 80 classic melodies that make up the permanent repertoire of A. Their names are determined by the poetic. forms (“gerayly”, “sofas”, “mukhammes”, etc.), areas where they are most common (“Goyche gulu”), dastans, in which they are included (“Keremi”, “Ker-ogly “) etc. These tunes, while maintaining their main. intonation rod, constantly enriched melodically and rhythmically. Various songs are performed to the same melody. poetic texts. Ashug songs are couplet. Instr play a big role in them. interludes. In the music of A. there are elements of harmonica. polyphony – quarto-fifth, terts-quarte, and other consonances (in saz).

Major Azerbaijanis. The archeologists of the past are Gurbani, Abbas Tufarganly (16th century), Dilgam, Valekh, Shikeste Shirin (18th century), and Alesker (19th century). A. of our time – Asad Rzayev, Mirza Bayramov, Islam Yusifov, Avak, Gara Movlayev, Talyb Mammadov, Shamshir Gojayev, Akper Jafarov, Adalet (virtuoso performer on saz); I. Yusifov organized a chorus of ashugs from 25-30 singers and balaman performers.

The most prominent arm. A. of the past – Sayat-Nova, Jivani, Sheram, Nagash Ovnatan, Shirin, Miskin Burji, modern A. – Grigor, Huseyn, Seron, Avasi, Ashot and others.

Stylistic features of music A. found implementation in a number of Op. prof. composers, for example. in the operas “Almast” by Spendiarov, “Shakhsenem” by Gliere, “Kor-oglu” by Gadzhibekov, “Veten” by Karaev and Gadzhiev, in the suite “Azerbaijan” by Amirov, in the Third Symphony by Karaev.

References: Poetry of Armenia from ancient times to the present day, ed. and with enter. essay and notes. V. Ya. Bryusova. Moscow, 1916. Torjyan X., Armenian folk singers-ashugs, “SM”, 1937, No 7; Krivonosov V., Ashugs of Azerbaijan, “SM”, 1938, No 4; Anthology of Azerbaijani poetry, M., 1939; Anthology of Armenian poetry, M., 1940; Eldarova E., Some questions of ashug art, in collection: Art of Azerbaijan, vol. I, Baku, 1949; her, Some questions of the musical creativity of the ashugs, in collection: Azerbaijan music, M., 1961; her own, The Art of the Ashugs of Azerbaijan (historical essay), in the collection: The Art of Azerbaijan, vol. VIII, Baku, 1962 (in Azeri); her own, Musical and poetic terminological dictionary of Azerbaijani ashugs, in collection: Art of Azerbaijan, vol. XII, Baku, 1968; Seyidov M., Sayat-Nova, Baki, 1954; Kushnarev X. S., Questions of the history and theory of Armenian monodic music, L., 1958; Belyaev V., Essays on the history of music of the peoples of the USSR, vol. 2, M., 1963.

E. Abasova

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