Affect theory |
AFFECT THEORY (from lat. affectus – emotional excitement, passion) – musical and aesthetic. a concept that became widespread in the 18th century; according to this theory, the main (or even the only) content of music is the expression, or “image”, human. feelings, passions. A. t. originates from the ancient (Aristotle) and the Middle Ages. aesthetics (“Musica movet affectus” – “Music moves passions,” said Blessed Augustine). An important role in the formation of A. t. was played by the philosophy of R. Descartes – his treatise “Emotional passions” (“Les passions de l’vme”, 1649). Main installations of A. t. are set out by I. Mattheson. “It is possible to perfectly depict with the help of simple tools the nobility of the soul, love, jealousy. You can convey all the movements of the soul with simple chords or their consequences, ”he wrote in The Newest Study of the Singspiel (“Die neueste Untersuchung der Singspiele”, 1744). This general provision was concretized by means of a detailed definition (often normative) of what it would express. By means of melody, rhythm, harmony, one or another feeling can be conveyed. Even J. Tsarlino (“Istitetioni harmoniche”, 1558) wrote about the connection with certain affects decomp. intervals and major and minor triads. A. Werkmeister (late 17th century) expanded the range of muses associated with certain affects. means, introducing into it tonality, tempo, dissonance and consonance, register. Based on the premise of V. Galilee, in this regard, the timbres and performing capabilities of the instruments were also considered. In all such works the affects themselves were classified; A. Kircher in 1650 (“Musurgia universalis”) has 8 of their types, and F. W. Marpurg in 1758 – already 27. The question of constancy and change of affects was also considered. Most supporters of A. t. believed that the muses. a work can express only one affect, demonstrating in decomp. parts of the composition of its gradations and shades. A. t. has developed partly as a generalization of the trends emerging in Italian, French. and German. music ser. 18 century, partly was aesthetic. anticipation of the “sensitive” direction in music. creativity 2nd floor. 18th century (N. Piccinni, sons of J. S. Bach, J. J. Rousseau and others). A. t. adhered to many. major musicians, philosophers, aesthetics of that time: I. Mattheson, G. F. Telemann, J. G. Walter (“Musical Lexicon”), F. E. Bach, I. I. Kvanz, partly G. E. Lessing, Abbot J. B. Dubos, J. J. Rousseau, D. Diderot (“Ramo’s Nephew”), C. A. Helvetius (“On the Mind”), A. E. M. Grétry (“Memoirs”). In the 2nd floor. 18th century A. t. loses its influence.
Defending the principle of natures. and true emotion. expressiveness of music, supporters of A. t. opposed narrow technicalism, against the stilted German. classicist school, against the detachment from the earthly, often cultivated in the chants of the Catholic. and evangelical. church, as well as against the idealistic. aesthetics, which rejected the theory of imitation and sought to prove the “inexpressibility” of the feelings and passions of the muses. means.
At the same time, A. t. was characterized by limited, mechanistic nature. Reducing the content of music to the expression of passions, she belittled the importance of the intellectual element in it. Considering affects as the same spiritual movements for all people, A. t. inclined composers to express certain generalized types of feelings, and not their uniquely individual manifestations. Attempts to systematize intervals, keys, rhythms, tempos, etc. according to their emotional-express. effect often led to schematism and one-sidedness.
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K. K. Rosenshield