Two-part form |
Music Terms

Two-part form |

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Two-part form – music. a form characterized by the union of two parts into a single whole (scheme AB). It is divided into simple and complex. In simple D. f. both parts do not exceed a period. Of these, the 1st part (period) performs exposition. function – it sets out the initial thematic. material. 2nd part can perform decomp. functions, in connection with which there are two varieties of simple D. f. – non-reprisal and reprise. Non-reprise simple D. f. can be both double-dark and single-dark. In the first case, the function of the 2nd part is also a presentation of the topic. This ratio is most common in the form of the “singal – chorus” type. The refrain may not contrast with the melody, but make it logical. continuation (Hymn of the Soviet Union). In other cases, the refrain contrasts with the refrain (the song “May Moscow” by Dan. and Dm. Pokrass). However, the contrast (as well as the similarity) of the two themes can also arise outside the ratio of “singal – chorus” (the romance “Spruce and Palm Tree” by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov). In one-dark D. f. the function of the 2nd part is the development of the thematic. the material of the 1st movement (the theme of the variations of the 2nd movement of the Beethoven sonata for piano No. 23 of the Appassionata, many of Schubert’s waltzes). In the reprise simple D. t. development of the initial thematic. material within the 2nd part ends with its partial reprise – the reproduction of one sentence of the 1st period (scheme aa1ba2). With an equal length of all components of such a form, its most clear pattern appears, almost always the so-called. “square” structure (4 + 4 + 4 + 4 or 8 + 8 cycles). Meet and diff. violations of this strict periodicity, especially in the 2nd part. However, the expansion possibilities sections in D. f. are limited, since when the middle and reprise are doubled, a simple three-part form appears (see. Three-part form). Each of the two parts of D. t. can be repeated (schemes ||: A :||: B :|| or A ||: B :||). The repetition of parts makes the form clearer, emphasizing its division into 2 sections. Such repetition is typical for motor genres – dance and march. In the lyric genres, as a rule, it is not used, which makes the form more fluid and flexible. Parts may change when repeated. In these cases, the composer writes out the repetition in the musical text. (In analysis, a varied repetition should not be considered as the appearance of a new part.) In D. f. of the “singal – chorus” type, the whole form as a whole is usually repeated several times (without repeating its parts separately). As a result, a couplet form appears (see Couplet). Simple D. f. can be represented as a whole product. (song, romance, instr. miniature), and its part, in both cases it is tonally closed.

The types of simple D. described above f. in prof. art has developed in music homophonic-harmonic. warehouse approximately in the 2nd floor. 18th century They were preceded by the so-called. old D. f., in which the otd. parts of suites (allemande, courante), sometimes preludes. This form is characterized by a clear division into 2 parts, in the dance. genres tend to be repetitive. Its 1st part is a period of the unfolding type. harmonic development is directed in it from the main key to its dominant (and in minor works – to the key of the parallel). The 2nd part, starting from a dominant or parallel key (or from this harmony), leads to a reprise of the main key. The function of the topic in this form is performed by what is stated at the beginning of the work. thematic nucleus.

In a complex D.f. 2 parts are combined, of which at least one goes beyond the period and forms a simple two- or three-part form. Sections of complex D. f., as a rule, are contrasting. Most often, this form is used in opera arias. In this case, the 1st part can be an extended introduction. recitative, 2nd – the actual aria or song (“Fortune telling of Martha” from the opera “Khovanshchina” by MP Mussorgsky). In other cases, both parts are equal, and their contrast is associated with the development of the action, with a change in the hero’s state of mind (Liza’s aria “Where do these tears come from” from the 2nd scene of P. I. Tchaikovsky’s opera The Queen of Spades). There is also a complex D. f., the 2nd part of which is a developed coda (the duet of Don Giovanni and Zerlina from W. A. ​​Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni). In instr. music complex D. f. is used less often, and both parts of it usually contrast little (F. Chopin’s nocturne H-dur op. 32 No 1). An example of a contrasting complex two-part form in instr. music – author’s arrangement for orchestra “Songs of Solveig” by E. Grieg.

References: see at Art. Musical form.

V. P. Bobrovsky

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