Sonata |
Music Terms

Sonata |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, musical genres

ital. sonata, from sonare – to sound

One of the main genres of solo or chamber-ensemble instr. music. Classic S., as a rule, many-part production. with fast extreme parts (the first – in the so-called sonata form) and slow middle; sometimes a minuet or scherzo is also included in the cycle. With the exception of the old varieties (trio sonata), S., in contrast to some other chamber genres (trio, quartet, quintet, etc.), involves no more than 2 performers. These norms were formed in the era of classicism (see the Vienna Classical School).

The emergence of the term “S.” dates back to the time of the formation of independent. instr. genres. Initially, S. were called wok. pieces with instruments or on their own. instr. works, which, however, were still closely connected with the wok. manner of writing and were preim. simple wok transcriptions. plays. As an instr. plays the term “S.” found already in the 13th century. More widely called “sonata” or “sonado” begins to be used only in the era of the Late Renaissance (16th century) in Spain in decomp. tablature (for example, in El Maestro by L. Milan, 1535; in Sila de Sirenas by E. Valderrabano, 1547), then in Italy. Often there is a double name. – canzona da sonar or canzona per sonare (for example, y H. Vicentino, A. Bankieri and others).

To con. 16th century in Italy (chief arr. in the work of F. Maskera), the understanding of the term “S.” as a designation of an independent instr. plays (as opposed to cantata as wok. plays). At the same time, especially in con. 16 – beg. 17th century, the term “S.” applied to the most diverse in form and function instr. essays. Sometimes S. were called instr. parts of the church services (the titles “Alla devozione” – “In a pious character” or “Graduale” in Banchieri’s sonatas are noteworthy, the name of one of the works in this genre by K. Monteverdi is “Sonata sopra Sancta Maria” – “Sonata-liturgy of the Virgin Mary”), as well as opera overtures (for example, the introduction to M. A. Honor’s opera The Golden Apple, called by S. – Il porno d’oro, 1667). For a long time there was no clear distinction between the designations “S.”, “symphony” and “concert”. To the beginning 17th century (Early Baroque), 2 types of S. were formed: sonata da chiesa (church. S.) and sonata da camera (chamber, front. S.). For the first time these designations are found in “Canzoni, overo sonate concertate per chiesa e camera” by T. Merula (1637). Sonata da chiesa relied more on polyphonic. form, sonata da camera was distinguished by the predominance of a homophonic warehouse and reliance on danceability.

In the beginning. 17th century the so-called. trio sonata for 2 or 3 players with basso continuo accompaniment. It was a transitional form from the polyphony of the 16th century. to solo S. 17-18 centuries. In perform. compositions of S. at this time the leading place is occupied by strings. bowed instruments with their large melodic. opportunities.

In the 2nd floor. 17th century there is a tendency to S.’s dismemberment into parts (usually 3-5). They are separated from each other by a double line or special designations. The 5-part cycle is represented by many sonatas by G. Legrenzi. As an exception, single-part S. are also found (in Sat: Sonate da organo di varii autori, ed. Arresti). The most typical is a 4-part cycle with a sequence of parts: slow – fast – slow – fast (or: fast – slow – fast – fast). 1st slow part – introductory; it is usually based on imitations (sometimes of a homophonic warehouse), has improvisation. character, often includes dotted rhythms; the 2nd fast part is fugue, the 3rd slow part is homophonic, as a rule, in the spirit of a sarabande; concludes. the fast part is also fugue. Sonata da camera was a free study of dances. rooms, like a suite: allemande – courant – sarabande – gigue (or gavotte). This scheme could be supplemented by other dances. parts.

The definition of sonata da camera was often replaced by the name. – “suite”, “partita”, “French. overture”, “order”, etc. In con. 17th century in Germany there are products. mixed type, combining the properties of both types of S. (D. Becker, I. Rosenmüller, D. Buxtehude, and others). To church. S. penetrate parts that are close in nature to dance (gigue, minuet, gavotte), into the chamber – free preluded parts from the church. S. Sometimes this led to a complete merger of both types (G. F. Teleman, A. Vivaldi).

Parts are combined in S. by means of thematic. connections (especially between the extreme parts, for example, in C. op. 3 No 2 Corelli), with the help of a harmonious tonal plan (the extreme parts in the main key, the middle parts in the secondary), sometimes with the help of a program design (S. “Biblical Stories” Kunau).

In the 2nd floor. 17th century along with trio sonatas, the dominant position is occupied by S. for violin – an instrument that is experiencing its first and highest flowering at this time. Genre skr. S. was developed in the work of G. Torelli, J. Vitali, A. Corelli, A. Vivaldi, J. Tartini. A number of composers have the 1st floor. 18th century (J. S. Bach, G. F. Teleman and others) there is a tendency to enlarge the parts and reduce their number to 2 or 3 – usually due to the rejection of one of the 2 slow parts of the church. S. (for example, I. A. Sheibe). The indications of the tempo and nature of the parts become more detailed (“Andante”, “Grazioso”, “Affettuoso”, “Allegro ma non troppo”, etc.). S. for violin with a developed part of the clavier first appear in J. S. Bach. Name “FROM.” in relation to the solo clavier piece, I. Kunau was the first to use it.

In the early classic period (mid-18th century) S. is gradually recognized as the richest and most complex genre of chamber music. In 1775, I. A. Schultz defined S. as a form that “encompasses all characters and all expressions.” D. G. Türk noted in 1789: “Among the pieces written for the clavier, the sonata rightfully occupies the first place.” According to F. W. Marpurg, in S. necessarily “there are three or four successive pieces at a tempo given by designations, for example, Allegro, Adagio, Presto, etc.” The clavier piano moves to the forefront, as for the newly appeared hammer-action piano. (one of the first samples – S. op. 8 Avison, 1764), and for the harpsichord or clavichord (for representatives of the North and Middle German schools – W. F. Bach, K. F. E. Bach, K. G. Nefe , J. Benda, E. V. Wolf and others – the clavichord was a favorite instrument). The tradition of accompanying C. basso continuo is dying out. An intermediate type of clavier piano is spreading, with the optional participation of one or two other instruments, most often violins or other melodic instruments (sonatas by C. Avison, I. Schobert, and some early sonatas by W. A. ​​Mozart), especially in Paris and London. S. are created for the classic. double composition with the obligatory participation of clavier and c.-l. melodic instrument (violin, flute, cello, etc.). Among the first samples – S. op. 3 Giardini (1751), S. op. 4 Pellegrini (1759).

The emergence of a new form of S. was largely determined by the transition from polyphonic. fugue warehouse to homophonic. The classical sonata allegro is especially intensively formed in the one-part sonatas of D. Scarlatti and in the 3-part sonatas of C. F. E. Bach, as well as his contemporaries – B. Pasquini, P. D. Paradisi and others. The works of most composers of this galaxy are forgotten, only sonatas by D. Scarlatti and C. F. E. Bach continue to be performed. D. Scarlatti wrote more than 500 S. (often called Essercizi or pieces for harpsichord); they are distinguished by their thoroughness, filigree finish, variety of shapes and types. K. F. E. Bach establishes a classic. the structure of the 3-part S. cycle (see Sonata-cyclic form). In the work of Italian masters, especially G. B. Sammartini, often found a 2-part cycle: Allegro – Menuetto.

The meaning of the term “S.” in the early classical period was not entirely stable. Sometimes it was used as the name of an instr. plays (J. Carpani). In England, S. is often identified with “Lesson” (S. Arnold, op. 7) and solo sonata, that is, S. for melodic. instrument (violin, cello) with basso continuo (P. Giardini, op.16), in France – with a piece for harpsichord (J.J.C. Mondonville, op. 3), in Vienna – with divertissement (G.K. Wagenseil, J. Haydn), in Milan – with a nocturne (G. B. Sammartini, J. K. Bach). Sometimes the term sonata da camera (K. D. Dittersdorf) was used. For some time the ecclesiastical S. also retained its significance (17 ecclesiastical sonatas by Mozart). Baroque traditions are also reflected in the abundant ornamentation of melodies (Benda), and in the introduction of virtuoso figurative passages (M. Clementi), in the features of the cycle, for example. in the sonatas of F. Durante, the first fugue part is often opposed to the second, written in the character of a gigue. The connection with the old suite is also evident in the use of the minuet for the middle or final parts of S. (Wagenseil).

Early classical themes. S. often retains the features of imitation polyphony. warehouse, in contrast, for example, to a symphony with its characteristic homophonic thematicism in this period, due to other influences on the development of the genre (primarily the influence of opera music). Norms classic. S. finally take shape in the works of J. Haydn, W. A. ​​Mozart, L. Beethoven, M. Clementi. A 3-part cycle with extreme fast movements and a slow middle part becomes typical for S. (in contrast to the symphony with its normative 4-part cycle). This structure of the cycle goes back to the old C. da chiesa and solo instr. baroque concert. The leading place in the cycle is occupied by the 1st part. It is almost always written in sonata form, the most developed of all classical instr. forms. There are also exceptions: for example, in fp. Mozart’s sonata A-dur (K.-V. 331) the first part is written in the form of variations, in his own C. Es-dur (K.-V. 282) the first part is adagio. The second part contrasts sharply with the first due to the slow pace, lyrical and contemplative character. This part allows for greater freedom in the choice of structure: it can use a complex 3-part form, sonata form and its various modifications (without development, with an episode), etc. Often a minuet is introduced as the second part (for example, C. Es- dur, K.-V. 282, A-dur, K.-V. 331, Mozart, C-dur for Haydn). The third movement, usually the fastest in the cycle (Presto, allegro vivace and close tempos), approaches the first movement with its active character. The most typical form for the finale is the rondo and rondo sonata, less often the variations (C. Es-dur for violin and piano, K.-V. 481 by Mozart; C. A-dur for piano by Haydn). There are, however, also deviations from such a structure of the cycle: from 52 fp. Haydn’s sonatas 3 (early) are four-part and 8 are two-part. Similar cycles are also characteristic of some skr. sonatas by Mozart.

In the classic period in the center of attention is the S. for the piano, which everywhere displaces the old types of strings. keyboard instruments. S. is also widely used for decomp. instruments with accompaniment fp., especially Skr. S. (for example, Mozart owns 47 skr. C).

The S. genre reached its highest peak with Beethoven, who created 32 fp., 10 scr. and 5 cello S. In Beethoven’s work, figurative content is enriched, dramas are embodied. collisions, the conflict beginning is sharpened. Many of his S. reach monumental proportions. Along with the refinement of form and concentration of expression, characteristic of the art of classicism, Beethoven’s sonatas also show features that were later adopted and developed by romantic composers. Beethoven often writes S. in the form of a 4-part cycle, reproducing the sequence of parts of a symphony and a quartet: a sonata allegro is a slow lyric. movement – minuet (or scherzo) – finale (e.g. S. for piano op. 2 No 1, 2, 3, op. 7, op. 28). The middle parts are sometimes arranged in reverse order, sometimes a slow lyric. the part is replaced by a part at a more mobile tempo (allegretto). Such a cycle would take root in the S. of many romantic composers. Beethoven also has 2-part S. (S. for pianoforte op. 54, op. 90, op. 111), as well as a soloist with a free sequence of parts (variation movement – scherzo – funeral march – finale in piano. C op. 26; op. C. quasi una fantasia op. 27 No 1 and 2; C. op. 31 No 3 with a scherzo in 2nd place and a minuet in 3rd). In Beethoven’s last S., the tendency towards close fusion of the cycle and greater freedom of its interpretation is intensified. Connections are introduced between the parts, continuous transitions are made from one part to another, fugue sections are included in the cycle (finals of S. op. 101, 106, 110, fugato in the 1st part of S. op. 111). The first part sometimes loses its leading position in the cycle, the finale often becomes the center of gravity. There are reminiscences of previously sounded topics in decomp. parts of the cycle (S. op. 101, 102 No 1). Means. In Beethoven’s sonatas, slow introductions to the first movements also begin to play a role (op. 13, 78, 111). Some of Beethoven’s songs are characterized by elements of software, which has been widely developed in the music of romantic composers. For example, 3 parts of S. for piano. op. 81a are called. “Farewell”, “Parting” and “Return”.

An intermediate position between classicism and romanticism is occupied by the sonatas of F. Schubert and K. M. Weber. Based on Beethoven’s 4-part (rarely 3-part) sonata cycles, these composers use certain new methods of expressiveness in their compositions. Melodic plays are of great importance. beginning, folk-song elements (especially in the slow parts of the cycles). Lyric. character appears most clearly in the fp. sonatas by Schubert.

In the work of romantic composers, further development and transformation of the classical music take place. (predominantly Beethoven’s) type S., saturating it with new imagery. Characteristic is the greater individualization of the interpretation of the genre, its interpretation in the spirit of the romantic. poetry. S. during this period retains the position of one of the leading genres of instr. music, although it is somewhat pushed aside by small forms (for example, a song without words, nocturne, prelude, etude, characteristic pieces). F. Mendelssohn, F. Chopin, R. Schumann, F. Liszt, J. Brahms, E. Grieg, and others made a great contribution to the development of seismic. Their seismic compositions reveal new possibilities of the genre in reflecting life phenomena and conflicts. The contrast of S.’s images is sharpened both within the parts and in their relation to each other. The desire of composers for more thematic is also affected. the unity of the cycle, although in general the romantics adhere to the classic. 3-part (for example, S. for pianoforte op. 6 and 105 by Mendelssohn, S. for violin and pianoforte op. 78 and 100 by Brahms) and 4-part (for example, S. for pianoforte op. 4, 35 and 58 Chopin, S. for Schumann) cycles. Some of the sequences for the FP are distinguished by a great originality in the interpretation of parts of the cycle. Brahms (S. op. 2, five-part S. op. 5). Romantic influence. poetry leads to the emergence of one-part S. (the first samples – 2 S. for the pianoforte of Liszt). In terms of scale and independence, the sections of the sonata form in them approach the parts of the cycle, forming the so-called. a one-part cycle is a cycle of continuous development, with blurred lines between parts.

In fp. One of the unifying factors in Liszt’s sonatas is programmaticity: with the images of Dante’s Divine Comedy, his S. “After reading Dante” (the freedom of its structure is emphasized by the designation Fantasia quasi Sonata), with the images of Goethe’s Faust – S. h-moll (1852 -53).

In the work of Brahms and Grieg, a prominent place is occupied by violin S. To the best examples of the S. genre in the romantic. music belongs to the sonata A-dur for violin and piano. S. Frank, as well as 2 S. for cello and piano. Brahms. Instruments are also being created for other instruments.

In con. 19 – beg. 20th century S. in the countries of the West. Europe is going through a well-known crisis. The sonatas of V. d’Andy, E. McDowell, K. Shimanovsky are interesting, independent in thought and language.

A large number of S. for decomp. instruments was written by M. Reger. Of particular interest are his 2 S. for organ, in which the composer’s orientation towards the classical was manifested. traditions. Reger also owns 4 S. for cello and pianoforte, 11 S. for pianoforte. The inclination towards programming is characteristic of McDowell’s sonata work. All 4 of his S. for fp. are program subtitles (“Tragic”, 1893; “Heroic”, 1895; “Norwegian”, 1900; “Celtic”, 1901). Less significant are the sonatas of K. Saint-Saens, J. G. Reinberger, K. Sinding and others. Attempts to revive the classic in them. principles did not give artistically convincing results.

The S. genre acquires peculiar features in the beginning. 20th century in French music. From the French G. Fauré, P. Duke, C. Debussy (S. for violin and piano, S. for cello and piano, S. for flute, viola, and harp) and M. Ravel (S. for violin and pianoforte, S. for violin and cello, sonata for pianoforte). These composers saturate S. with new, including impressionistic. figurativeness, original methods of expressiveness (the use of exotic elements, the enrichment of modal-harmonious means).

In the work of Russian composers of the 18th and 19th centuries S. did not occupy a prominent place. The genre of S. at this time is represented by individual experiments. Such are the musical instruments for D. S. Bortnyansky’s cembalo, and I. E. Khandoshkin’s musical instruments for solo violin and bass, which in their stylistic features are close to early classical Western European musical instruments. and viola (or violin) M. I. Glinka (1828), sustained in the classical. spirit, but with intonation. parties closely associated with the Russian. folk-song element. National features are noticeable in the S. of the most prominent contemporaries of Glinka, primarily A. A. Alyabyeva (S. for violin with piano, 1834). Def. A. G. Rubinshtein, author of 4 S. for piano, paid tribute to the genre of S. (1859-71) and 3 S. for violin and piano. (1851-76), S. for viola and piano. (1855) and 2 p. for cello and piano. (1852-57). Of particular importance for the subsequent development of the genre in Russian. music had S. for piano. op. 37 P. I. Tchaikovsky, and also 2 S. for piano. A. K. Glazunov, gravitating towards the tradition of the “big” romantic S.

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. interest in the genre S. y rus. composers has increased significantly. A bright page in the development of the genre were FP. sonatas by A. N. Scriabin. In many ways, continuing the romantic. traditions (gravitation towards programmability, the unity of the cycle), Scriabin gives them an independent, deeply original expression. The novelty and originality of Scriabin’s sonata creativity are manifested both in the figurative structure and in the music. language, and in the interpretation of the genre. The programmatic nature of Scriabin’s sonatas is philosophical and symbolic. character. Their form evolves from a rather traditional multi-part cycle (1st – 3rd S.) to a single-part (5th – 10th S.). Already Scriabin’s 4th sonata, both parts of which are closely related to each other, approaches the type of a single-movement pianoforte. poems. Unlike Liszt’s one-movement sonatas, Scriabin’s sonatas do not have features of a one-movement cyclic form.

S. is significantly updated in the work of N. K. Medtner, to-rum belongs to 14 fp. S. and 3 S. for violin and piano. Medtner expands the boundaries of the genre, drawing on the features of other genres, mostly programmatic or lyric-characteristic (“Sonata-elegy” op. 11, “Sonata-remembrance” op. 38, “Sonata-fairy tale” op. 25, “Sonata-ballad » op. 27). A special place is occupied by his “Sonata-vocalise” op. 41.

S. V. Rachmaninov in 2 fp. S. peculiarly develops the traditions of the great romantic. C. A notable event in Russian. music life beginning. 20th century steel 2 first S. for fp. N. Ya. Myaskovsky, especially the one-part 2nd S., awarded the Glinkin Prize.

In the following decades of the 20th century the use of new means of expression transforms the appearance of the genre. Here, 6 C. are indicative for decomp. instruments of B. Bartok, original in rhythm and modal features, indicating a tendency to update the performers. compositions (S. for 2 fp. and percussion). This latest trend is also followed by other composers (S. for trumpet, horn, and trombone, F. Poulenc and others). Attempts are being made to revive some forms of pre-classic. S. (6 organ sonatas by P. Hindemith, solo S. for viola and for violin by E. Krenek and other works). One of the first examples of neoclassical interpretation of the genre – 2nd S. for piano. I. F. Stravinsky (1924). Means. place in modern Music is occupied by the sonatas of A. Honegger (6 C. for various instruments), Hindemith (c. 30 C. for almost all instruments).

Outstanding examples of modern interpretations of the genre were created by owls. composers, primarily S. S. Prokofiev (9 for piano, 2 for violin, cello). The most important role in the development of modern S. was played by the FP. sonatas by Prokofiev. All creativity is clearly reflected in them. the path of the composer – from the connection with the romantic. samples (1st, 3rd C.) to wise maturity (8th C). Prokofiev relies on the classic. norms of the 3- and 4-part cycle (with the exception of the one-part 1st and 3rd C). Classical orientation. and preclassic. principles of thinking are reflected in the use of ancient dances. genres of the 17th-18th centuries. (gavotte, minuet), toccata forms, as well as in a clear delineation of sections. However, the original features dominate, which include theatrical concreteness of dramaturgy, the novelty of melody and harmony, and the peculiar character of the piano. virtuosity. One of the most significant peaks of the composer’s work is the “sonata triad” of the war years (6th – 8th pp., 1939-44), which combines drama. conflict of images with classical. refinement of form.

A notable contribution to the development of piano music was made by D. D. Shostakovich (2 for piano, violin, viola, and cello) and A. N. Aleksandrov (14 piano for piano). FP is also popular. sonatas and sonatas by D. B. Kabalevsky, sonata by A. I. Khachaturian.

In the 50s – 60s. new characteristic phenomena appear in the field of sonata creativity. S. appear, not containing a single part in the cycle in sonata form and only implementing certain principles of sonata. Such are the S. for FP. P. Boulez, “Sonata and Interlude” for “prepared” piano. J. Cage. The authors of these works interpret S. mainly as an instr. play. A typical example of this is C. for cello and orchestra by K. Penderecki. Similar trends were reflected in the work of a number of owls. composers (piano sonatas by B. I. Tishchenko, T. E. Mansuryan, etc.).

References: Gunet E., Ten sonatas by Scriabin, “RMG”, 1914, No 47; Kotler N., Liszt’s sonata h-moll in the light of his aesthetics, “SM”, 1939, No 3; Kremlev Yu. A., Beethoven’s piano sonatas, M., 1953; Druskin M., Clavier music of Spain, England, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Germany of the 1960th-1961th centuries, L., 1962; Kholopova V., Kholopov Yu., Prokofiev’s Piano Sonatas, M., 1962; Ordzhonikidze G., Prokofiev’s Piano Sonatas, M., 1; Popova T., Sonata, M., 1966; Lavrentieva I., Beethoven’s late sonatas, in Sat. In: Questions of Musical Form, vol. 1970, M., 2; Rabey V., Sonatas and partitas by J.S. Bach for violin solo, M., 1972; Pavchinsky, S., Figurative Content and Tempo Interpretation of Some of Beethoven’s Sonatas, in: Beethoven, vol. 1972, M., 1973; Schnittke A., On some features of innovation in Prokofiev’s piano sonata cycles, in: S. Prokofiev. Sonatas and researches, M., 13; Meskhishvili E., On the dramaturgy of Scriabin’s sonatas, in collection: A.N. Skryabin, M., 1974; Petrash A., Solo bow sonata and suite before Bach and in the works of his contemporaries, in: Questions of Theory and Aesthetics of Music, vol. 36, L., 1978; Sakharova G., At the origins of the sonata, in: Features of sonata formation, “Proceedings of the GMPI im. Gnesins”, vol. XNUMX, M., XNUMX.

See also lit. to articles Sonata form, Sonata-cyclic form, Musical form.

V. B. Valkova

Leave a Reply