Italian, lit. – stolen pace
Free to rhythmic. regarding the music. performance, for the sake of emotional expressiveness, deviating from a uniform tempo. The term originated in wok. music of the Baroque era (Tosi R. F., Opinioni de cantori antichi e moderni o siene osservazioni sopra il canto figurato, Bologna, 1723, Russian translation in the book: Mazurin K., “Singing Methodology”, part 1, M ., 1902) and originally meant the freedom to reject the main melodic. voices from the accompaniment performed at a constant tempo. About application of such T. r. in instr. wrote music in his Skr. school L. Mozart. In clavier music of the 18th century. – in C. F. E. Bach (“The experience of the correct way to play the clavier”, part 1, ch. 3), W. A. Mozart and others. T. r. expressed in violation of the synchronism of the game of both hands. In the 19th century such an understanding of T. r. is preserved by F. Chopin, who called the left hand a bandmaster, observing an even pace, from which the right hand freely retreats (this is the difference between T. r. from the usual accelerando, rallentando, etc.). An idea of this manner of performance can be given by some examples of “written out” rubato, where the melody is shifted in relation to the accompaniment, for example. in Chopin’s Fantasia f-moll (see Syncopation). F. List compared T. r. Chopin with the wind, which shakes the leaves and branches, leaving the tree trunk motionless. However, in this era such T. r. goes out of use; rubato becomes a designation for deviations from a strict tempo, covering the entire muses. the cloth.
References: Milstein J., Council Chopin pianist, M., 1967; Vadura-Skoda E. und R., Mozart-Interpretation…, Lpz., 1957 (Russian translation – Badura-Skoda E. and P., Interpretation Mozart, M., 1972, p. 52-56).
M. G. Harlap