Transposition (from late Latin transpositio – permutation) – transfer (transposition) of muses. works from one key to another. T. is widely used in wok. practice as a means of performing music. prod. in a tessitura convenient for the singer. It is also used in transcribing music. prod. for k.-l. tool in the event that the range of prod. does not match the capabilities of this tool. In the process of T., all sounds are transferred up or down to an interval corresponding to the pitch ratio of the original and new tonality. With T. a semitone up or down, sometimes only key and random signs can change, and the notes remain the same (for example, T. from C-dur to Cis-dur or Ces-dur). T. can also be carried out by replacing the key and accidentals with it; the notes are saved in the same places, for example. from replacing the clef sol with a bass clef, T is formed by a small sixth down through an octave. Experienced accompanists can transpose the accompaniment using the notes produced. in original tone. Some instrumental performers are able to transpose a learned piece by ear. In opera productions applied T. otd. arias or whole parties in a key convenient for the singer, for example. P. I. Tchaikovsky transposed for the singer M. D. Kamenskaya (mezzo-soprano) the soprano part of Joanna in the support “The Maid of Orleans”. Wok. prod. (romances, songs) are usually published not only in the key of the original, but also in T. for other voices.
T. is an important means of shaping, development in music (for example, T. themes of secondary and concluding parts in the reprise of sonata form). In the exposition of the fugue, the real answer (see Fugue) is a T. theme in a different key; in the development of the fugue, the theme is transposed into different keys. T. is also used in plays of small forms (repetition of the theme in other keys, for example, in Scriabin’s prelude, op. 2 No 2).
In the solmization system of Guido d’Arezzo, the formation of a “soft” hexachordal scale from f was considered the T. of a “natural” hexachord (from C) a fourth upwards by lowering si – b quadratum (h) by b rotundum (b). There were two such hexachords in the system: the “soft” hexachord primum (4th) and the “soft” hexachord secundum (6th). From the 16th century T. trained performers on keyboard instruments; so, for example, the organist was required to be able to adapt in the process of church. singing to the intonation of the employee and to the choir. In dodecaphony, T. is used when transferring a mode to any of the 12 degrees of temperament. building.
V. A. Vikhromeev