Refrain (French refrain – chorus) – a term introduced to denote repetitions of the end of a stanza (one or several lines, sometimes even one word) in song forms of the 12-16th centuries. Such R. are typical for ballads, French. rondo, virele, ital. villanella and frottola, Spanish. villancico, were also used in laudas, cantatas, and others. R. were widely used in later song forms. In the owls musicology in this sense uses the term chorus, while the term “R.” used almost exclusively to indicate the theme of instr. or wok. prod., passing at least 3 times and bonding it compositionally. In rondo it is ch. the theme, carrying out to-swarm create its general structural framework. In rondo-shaped forms, this is also a recurring theme. R. sometimes takes the form of a leittheme (see Leitmotif), holding a swarm is associated with the embodiment of a particularly important idea; leittema subjugates the development of the rest of the thematic. material or at least renders creatures on it. impact. An example is the fanfare theme of the introduction in the 1st movement of Tchaikovsky’s 4th symphony. When one of the themes of music. prod. (especially large) becomes R., this not only distinguishes it, but also contributes to the structural unity of the whole.
References: see under the articles Rondo and Musical Form.
V. P. Bobrovsky