String quartet |
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String quartet |

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Quartet (strings) (bowed) – chamber-instr. an ensemble performing quartet music; one of the most complex and subtle types of chamber music. lawsuit.

The formation of K. how they are independent. perform. The collective took place throughout the 2nd floor. 18 in. in different countries (Austria, Italy, England, France) and was originally associated with home music-making, especially among the Viennese burghers, where instr. ensemble playing (trios, quartets, quintets), learning to play the violin and cello. The repertoire of amateur K. made production. TO. Dittersdorf, L. Boccherini, G. TO. Wagenzeil, Y. Haydn and others, as well as dec. kind of arrangement for K. excerpts from popular operas, overtures, symphonies, etc. With the development in the work of the Viennese classics of the genre of quartet music, K. (2 violins, viola and cello) is approved as the main leading type of prof. chamber instrument ensemble. For a long time K. did not attract attention. the public who visited arr. ital. opera performances, instr. virtuosos and singers. Only in con. 18 in. (1794) a permanent prof. K., maintained by the philanthropist Prince K. Lichnovski. In the composition of K. included prominent Viennese musicians: I. Schuppanzig, J. Maiseder, F. Weiss, Y. Links. In conc. season 1804-1805 this ensemble gave the first in the history of music. art-va open public evenings of quartet music. In 1808-16 he was in the service of the Russian. job in Vienna of Count A. TO. Razumovsky. This K. first performed all chamber-instr. Op. L. Beethoven (learned under the guidance of the composer himself), laying the traditions of their interpretation. In 1814 in Paris P. Bayo organized K., who gave subscription evenings of chamber music by subscription. In the further development and popularization of prof. Quartet performance played an important role by K. German. musicians br. Muller Sr., who was the first prof. K., to-ry toured (in 1835-51) in many. Europ. countries (Austria, the Netherlands, Russia, etc.). However, despite the conc. activity in the 1st floor. 19 in. row K. and the existence of special lit-ry, the very style of quartet performance was just beginning to take shape. The features of K. have not yet been clearly defined and identified. as a performance genre. In the quartet performance, there were strong manifestations of the solo-virtuoso principle; TO. was considered by many not as a single performing ensemble, but Ch. arr. as the “environment” of this or that virtuoso violinist. The programs of the quartet evenings were of a mixed solo-chamber character. In them, a large place was occupied by works written in the genre of the so-called. Mr. “brilliant quartet” (Quator brillant) with a spectacular virtuoso part of the first violin (N. Paganini, J. Maysedera, L. Špora and others). The audience appreciated not so much the ensemble as the performance of the soloist. Organized by K. predominantly outstanding virtuosos, their compositions were random, inconsistent. The emphasis on the solo beginning was also reflected in the disposition of the participants in K. For example, W. Bull played the first violin part in the quartet of V. A. Mozart, standing on the stage, while others the participants played while sitting in the orc. or The usual location of the artists K. to con. 19 in. was different than in present. time (the first violinist sat against the second, the cellist against the violist). The formation of the quartet style of performance proceeded simultaneously with the development of quartet music, the enrichment and complication of the style of quartet writing. Before the performing ensemble, new creativity appeared. tasks. DOS was clearly identified. historian. tendency – from the prevalence of the solo beginning to the establishment of a balance between the otd. the voices of the ensemble, the unity of its sound, the unification of quartetists on the basis of a single art. interpretation plan. The first violinist, while maintaining a leading role in the ensemble, became only “the first among equals.” At the same time, the formation of the style of performance was influenced by the situation, in which concerts were held (small halls designed for a narrow circle of “selected” listeners), which gave the quartet music-making an intimate chamber character. The most complete expression of the quartet style was in the performing work of the Quartet J. Joachim (Berlin), who worked in 1869-1907 and created high art. examples of interpretation of the classic. and romantic. quartet music. In his art, the typical features of a quartet performance appeared – stylistic unity, organic. unity of sound, careful and fine finishing of details, unity of technical. game tricks. During these years K. are gaining popularity, especially in Germany. Outstanding Western European ensemble was K., DOS. France. violinist L. Cape, who introduced new art. features in the quartet style of performance, in particular in the interpretation of the late quartets by L. Beethoven. In modern period K. occupy a large place in the conc. life. Game technique pl. TO. reached a high, sometimes virtuoso degree of perfection. Influence of quartet music modern. composers manifested in the expansion of timbre and dynamic. palette of quartet sound, rhythmic enrichment. sides of a quartet game. Row K. performs conc. programs by heart (for the first time – Quartet R. Kolisha, Vena). Exit K. in large conc. halls changed the understanding of the quartet style as a kind of intimately closed aesthetic.

The quartet game in Russia began to spread from the 70-80s. 18 in. Initially, its sphere was the estate-landowner serf and court. ice life. In a horse. 18 in. Petersburg were known serf K. Count P. A. Zubov, which was headed by the gifted violinist N. Loginov, and adv. chamber ensemble headed by F. Titz (speaked on vol. Mr. small hermitages). With horse. 18 – beg. 19 cc amateur quartet music-making has become popular among artists and writers, in music. mugs and salons of St. Petersburg, Moscow and a number of provinces. cities. In 1835, an outstanding violinist, director of the Pridv. singing chapel in St. Petersburg A. F. Lvov organized prof. K., not inferior to the best foreign quartet ensembles of the 19th century. This K. appreciated R. Shuman, G. Berlioz. Despite the fact that his activities took place in an atmosphere of closed music-making (in open paid concerts by K. did not perform), the ensemble introduced St. Petersburg for a 20-year period of work. audience with the best products. classical music. In the 1st sex. 19 in. open public concerts in St. Petersburg were given by K., headed by A. Vieuxtan and F. Böhm (the latter played an important role in the popularization of quartet music by L. Beethoven). After the organization in 1859 Rus. ice about-va (RMO), which opened departments and muz.-educational institutions in St. Petersburg, Moscow and many others. provincial cities, permanent quartet ensembles began to be created in Russia. They were led by prominent violinists: in St. Petersburg – L. C. Auer, in Moscow – F. Laub, later I. AT. Grzhimali, in Kharkov – K. TO. Gorsky, in Odessa – A. AP Fidelman and others. K., which existed at the local branches of the RMO, were stationary. The first K., who undertook conc. trips around the country, was the “Russian Quartet” (main. 1872). This ensemble, headed by D. A. Panov, performed in St. Petersburg, Moscow and a number of provinces. cities. In 1896, the so-called. Mr. The Mecklenburg Quartet, headed by B. Kamensky, from 1910 – K. TO. Grigorovich. This first-class ensemble performed in many cities of Russia and was the first Russian K., touring in Western European countries. Despite the great creative achievements of Russian quartet performance, constant K. in Russia were few. Only after Great Oct. socialist. revolution quartet performance in the USSR under the state. support has gained momentum. In a horse. 1918 in Moscow were created the first owls. TO. – K. theirs. AT. AND. Lenin, headed by L. М. Zeitlin and K. theirs. A. Stradivarius, headed by D. C. Crane. In March 1919 in Petrograd K. theirs. A. TO. Glazunov headed by I. A. Lukashevsky. His work played an important role in the development of owls. quartet performance. This K., who traveled all over the country with concerts, performed not only in conc. halls, but also in factories, he first introduced the broad masses to the treasures of world quartet literature, aroused a deep interest in chamber music. “Glazunovtsy” were the first to demonstrate the achievements of the owls. quartet claim-va Western-Europe. listeners; in 1925 and 1929 they toured in many countries (Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, etc.). In 1921, the State quartet them. G. B. Vil’oma (Kyiv), in 1923 – K. theirs. L. Beethoven (Moscow), im. Komitas (Armenia), in 1931 – K. theirs. Bolshoi Theater of the USSR, in 1945 – K. theirs. A. AP Borodin (Moscow), etc. In 1923 in Moscow. Conservatory opened a special quartet game class; it was graduated by future participants pl. quartet ensembles (incl. h TO. theirs. Komitas, K. theirs. A. AP Borodina, Mrs. quartet Cargo. SSR, etc.). The All-Union Quartet Competitions (1925, 1938) contributed to the development of quartet performance. Quartet ensembles arose in the republics, in many of which before the revolution there was no prof. ice isk-va. In Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Lithuania, Tataria, etc. republics at the philharmonic and radio committees work quartet ensembles of high prof. level Performing skills inherent in the best owls. K., contributed to the creation of numerous. prod. owls. quartet music (A. N. Aleksandrov, R. М. Glier, S. F. Tsintsadze, N. Ya Myaskovsky, W. Ya Shebalin, M. C. Weinberg, E. TO. Golubev, D. D. Shostakovich, S. C. Prokofiev and others). Innovation pl. from these products. had a great influence on the development of owls. style of quartet performance, characterized by scale, breadth of music. breathing, appeal to the emotional perception of a large conc.

FOREIGN QUARTETS (the names of the first violinists are indicated; the list is given in chronological order)

I. Schuppanzig (Vienna, 1794-1816, 1823-30). P. Bayo (Paris, 1814-42). J. Böhm (Vienna, 1821-68). Brothers Müller Sr. (Braunschweig, 1831-55). L. Jans (Vienna, 1834-50). F. David (Leipzig, 1844-65). J. Helmesberger Sr. (Vienna, 1849-87). Brothers Müller Jr. (Braunschweig, 1855-73). J. Armengo (Paris, with E. Lalo, since 1855). C. Lamoureux (Paris, since 1863). X. Herman (Frankfurt, 1865-1904). J. Becker, so-called. Florence Quartet (Florence, 1866-80). Y. Joachim (Berlin, 1869-1907). A. Rose (Vienna, 1882-1938). A. Brodsky (Leipzig, 1883-91). P. Kneisel (New York, 1885-1917). E. Hubai (Budapest, about 1886). J. Helmesberger Jr. (Vienna, 1887-1907). M. Soldat-Röger (Berlin, 1887-89; Vienna, since 1889; women’s quartet). S. Barcevic (Warsaw, since 1889). K. Hoffman, so-called. Czech Quartet (Prague, 1892-1933). L. Cappe (Paris, 1894-1921). S. Thomson (Brussels, 1898-1914). F. Schörg, so-called. Brussels Quartet (Brussels, since the 1890s). A. Marteau (Geneva, 1900-07). B. Lotsky, so-called. K. im. O. Shevchik (Prague, 1901-31). A. Betty, so-called. The Flonzaley Quartet (Lausanne, 1902-29). A. Onnu, so-called. Pro Arte (Brussels, 1913-40). O. Zuccarini, so-called. Roman Quartet (Rome, since 1918). A. Busch (Berlin, 1919-52). L. Amar (Berlin, 1921-29, with P. Hindemith). R. Kolisch (Vienna, 1922-39). A. Levengut (Paris, since 1929). A. Gertler (Brussels, since 1931). J. Calve, so-called. Quartet Calvet (Paris) 1930s, since 1945 in a new composition). B. Schneiderhan (Vienna, 1938-51). S. Veg (Budapest, since 1940). R. Kolish, so-called. Pro Arte (New York, since 1942). J. Parrenen, so-called. Parrenin Quartet (Paris, since 1944). V. Tatrai (Budapest, since 1946). I. Travnichek, so-called. K. im. L. Janacek (Brno, since 1947; since 1972, leader K. Krafka). I. Novak, K. im. B. Smetana (Prague, since 1947). J. Vlah (Prague, since 1950). R. Barshe (Stuttgart, s 1952, etc.).


N. Loginov (Petersburg, late 18th century). F. Tic (Petersburg, 1790s). F. Boehm (Petersburg, 1816-46). V. N. Verstovsky (Orenburg, 1820-30s). L. Maurer (Petersburg, 1820-40s). F. David (Derpt, 1829-35). F. F. Vadkovsky (Chita, 1830s). A. F. Lvov (Petersburg, 1835-55). N. Grassi (Moscow, 1840s). A. Vyotan (Petersburg, 1845-52). E. Wellers (Riga, since 1849). Petersburg Quartet. departments of the RMO (I. Kh. Pikkel, 1859-67, with interruptions; G. Venyavsky, 1860-62; L. S. Auer, 1868-1907). G. Venyavsky (Petersburg, 1862-68). Moscow Quartet. departments of the RMS (F. Laub, 1866-75; I. V. Grzhimali, 1876-1906; G. N. Dulov, 1906-09; B. O. Sibor, 1909-1913). Russian Quartet (Petersburg, D. A. Panov, 1871-75; F. F. Grigorovich, 1875-80; N. V. Galkin, 1880-83). E. K. Albrecht (St. Petersburg, 1872-87). Quartet of the Kyiv branch of the RMS (O. Shevchik, 1875-92. A. A. Kolakovsky, 1893-1906). Quartet of the Kharkov branch of the RMS (K. K. Gorsky, 1880-1913). Petersburg Quartet. chamber society (V. G. Walter, 1890-1917). Quartet of the Odessa Department of the RMO (P.P. Pustarnakov, 1887; K.A. Gavrilov, 1892-94; E. Mlynarsky, 1894-98; I.I. Karbulka, 1898-1901, in 1899-1901 simultaneously with A.P Fidelman; A. P. Fidelman, 1902-07; Ya. Kotsian, 1907-10, 1914-15; V. V. Bezekirsky, 1910-13; N. S. Blinder, 1914-16, etc.). Mecklenburg Quartet (St. Petersburg, B. S. Kamensky, 1896-1908; J. Kotsian, 1908-10; K. K. Grigorovich, 1910-18).


K. im. V. I. Lenin (Moscow, L. M. Zeitlin, 1918-20). K. im. A. Stradivari (Moscow, D. S. Krein, 1919-20; A. Ya. Mogilevsky, 1921-22; D. Z. Karpilovsky, 1922-24; A. Knorre, 1924-26; B. M. Simsky, 1926-30). K. im. A. K. Glazunova (Petrograd-Leningrad, I. A. Lukashevsky, since 1919). Muzo Narkompros (Moscow, L. M. Zeitlin, 1920-22). K. im. J. B. Vilyoma (Kyiv, V. M. Goldfeld, 1920-27; M. G. Simkin, 1927-50). K. im. L. Beethoven (Moscow, D. M. Tsyganov, from 1923 – Quartet of the Moscow Conservatory, from 1925 – K. named after the Moscow Conservatory, from 1931 – K. named after L. Beethoven). K. im. Komitas (Yerevan – Moscow, A. K. Gabrielyan, since 1925; arose as a quartet of students of the Moscow Conservatory, since 1926 – the Quartet of Nominees, since 1932 – Komitas K.). State. Quartet of the BSSR (Minsk, A. Bessmertny, 1924-37). K. im. R. M. Gliera (Moscow, Ya. B. Targonsky, 1924-25; S. I. Kalinovsky, 1927-49). K. Muz. studios of the Moscow Art Theater (Moscow, D. Z. Karpilovsky, 1924-1925). K. im. N. D. Leontovich (Kharkov, S. K. Bruzhanitsky, 1925-1930; V. L. Lazarev, 1930-35; A. A. Leshchinsky, 1952-69 – K. teachers of the Institute of Art). K. All-Ukr. about-va revolutionary. musicians (Kyiv, M. A. Wolf-Israel, 1926-32). Cargo. quartet (Tbilisi, L. Shiukashvili, 1928-44; since 1930 – the State Quartet of Georgia). K. im. L. S. Auera (Leningrad, I. A. Lesman, 1929-34; M. B. Reison, 1934; V. I. Sher, 1934-38). V. R. Vilshau (Tbilisi, 1929-32), later – K. im. M. M. Ippolitova-Ivanova. K. im. Big tank of the USSR (Moscow, I. A. Zhuk, 1931-68). K. im. A. A. Spendiarova (Yerevan, G. K. Bogdanyan, 1932-55). K. im. N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov (Arkhangelsk, P. Alekseev, 1932-42, 1944-51; V. M. Pello, since 1952; from this year under the jurisdiction of the Leningrad Region Philharmonic). K. im. Potash plant in Solikamsk (E. Khazin, 1934-36). K. Union of owls. composers (Moscow, Ya. B. Targonsky, 1934-1939; B. M. Simsky, 1944-56; in a new composition). K. im. P. I. Tchaikovsky (Kyiv, I. Liber, 1935; M. A. Garlitsky, 1938-41). State. Quartet of Georgia (Tbilisi, B. Chiaureli, 1941; since 1945 – Georgian Philharmonic Quartet, since 1946 – State Quartet of Georgia). Quartet Uzbek. Philharmonic (Tashkent, HE Power, since 1944 under the Committee of Radio Information, since 1953 under the Uzbek Philharmonic). Est. quartet (Tallinn, V. Alumäe, 1944-59). K. Latv. radio (Riga, T. Vein, 1945-47; I. Dolmanis, since 1947). K. im. A. P. Borodina (Moscow, R. D. Dubinsky, since 1945). State. Lithuanian quartet. SSR (Vilnius, Ya. B. Targonsky, 1946-47; E. Paulauskas, since 1947). K. im. S. I. Taneeva (Leningrad, V. Yu. Ovcharek, since 1946; since 1950 – the Quartet of the Leningrad Philharmonic Society, since 1963 – the K. named after S. I. Taneyev). K. im. N. V. Lysenko (Kyiv, A. N. Kravchuk, since 1951). Azerbaijan state quartet (Baku, A. Aliyev, since 1951). K. Kharkov Conservatory (A.A. Leshchinsky, since 1952), now Institute of Arts. K. im. S. S. Prokofiev (Moscow, E. L. Brakker, since 1957, since 1958 – a quartet of graduate students of the Moscow Conservatory, since 1962 – K. S. S. Prokofiev, P. N. Guberman, since 1966). K. Union of Composers of the BSSR (Minsk, Y. Gershovich, p. 1963). K. im. M. I. Glinka (Moscow, A. Ya. Arenkov, since 1968; earlier – K. CK USSR).

References: Hanslik E., Quarttet-Production, in: Geschichte des Concertwesens in Wien, Bd 1-2, W., 1869, S. 202-07; Ehrlich A., Das Streichquarttet in Wort und Bild, Lpz., 1898; Kinsky G., Beethoven und Schuppanzigh-Quarttet, “Reinische Musik- und Theater-Zeitung”, Jahrg. XXI, 1920; Landormy P., La musique de chambre en France. De 1850 a 1871, “SIM”, 1911, No 8-9; Moser A., ​​J. Joachim. Ein Lebensbild, Bd 2 (1856-1907), B., 1910, S. 193-212; Soccanne P., Un maôtre du quator: P. Bailot, “Guide de concert”, (P.), 1938; his, Quelques documents inédits sur P. Baillot, “Revue de Musicologie”, XXIII, 1939 (t. XX), XXV, 1943 (t. XXII); Arro E., F. David und das Liphart-Quarttet in Dorpat, “Baltischer Revue”, 1935; Cui Ts., Duke G. G. Mecklenburg-Strelitzky and the string quartet named after him, P., 1915; Polfiorov Ya. J. B. Vilhom, X., 5; Ten rocky creative way. 1926-1925 (Ukrainian State Quartet named after Leontovich), Kipv, 1935; Kaluga M., Two years in new buildings (Experience of the Quartet named after the Potash Plant …), “SM”, 1936, No 1937; Vainkop Yu., Quartet im. Glazunov (3-1919). Essay, L., 1939; Yampolsky I., State. quartet them. Bolshoi Theater of the USSR (1940-1931), M., 1956; Rabinovich D., State. quartet them. Borodin. To help listeners of concerts (M., 1956); Huchua P., Mrs. Georgia Quartet, Tb., 1956; Lunacharsky A., At the musician (o L. Cape), in the book: In the world of music, M., 1958; Kerimov K., String Quartet of the Azerbaijan State University. philharmonic them. M. Magomaeva, Baku, 1958; Raaben L., Questions of quartet performance, M., 1959, 1956; his own, Instrumental Ensemble in Russian Music, M., 1960; his, Masters of the Soviet chamber-instrumental ensemble, L., 1961; (Yampolsky I.), Honored Collective of the Republic Quartet named after. Beethoven, M., 1964; Ginzburg L., State. quartet them. Komitas, in: Issues of musical and performing arts, vol. 1963, M., 4.

I. M. Yampolsky

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