Symphonic music |
Music Terms

Symphonic music |

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terms and concepts

Symphonic music is music intended for the performance of symphonies. orchestra; the most significant and rich area of ​​instr. music, covering both large multi-part works, saturated with complex ideological and emotional content, and small music. plays. Symp. The orchestra, which combines a variety of instruments, provides the creator of music with the richest palette of sound colors, expresses. funds, technical opportunities for artistic expression. ideas.

Music performance. prod. large instr. ensembles and orchestras practiced both in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, but only at the end of the Renaissance instr. music became equal to vocal. Gradually, an independent choir was developed. polyphony is a specific instrumental (ensemble-orchestral) style. Music for the orchestra developed in constant interaction with other types of music. art-va – with chamber music, organ, choral, opera. Characteristic genres 17 – 1st floor. 18th century: dance. suite, concert – ensemble-orchestral (see Concerto grosso), later solo (see Concerto), overture (symphony) of an operatic type (first as an introduction to opera, ballet, then independent). Varieties of the suite of the 18th century: divertissement, serenade, nocturne, cassation. The powerful rise of the symphony is associated with the advancement of the symphony, its development as a cyclic. sonata form and improvement of the classical. symbolic type. orchestra. In this regard, the Mannheim school and especially the Viennese classical school played an important role. In the work of the Viennese classics, ending occurred. the demarcation between the S. m. and the music of the chamber-ensemble, there were classical. tinas of a symphony (a four-part cycle), a concerto (a three-part cycle), an overture (one-part opus in sonata form). In the 19th century the possibilities of symphony have expanded. orchestra; its composition has increased, old tools have been improved, new ones have been introduced. Due to the complication of orc. scores, the role of the conductor increased (see Conducting). The choir and solo woks often began to be introduced into the symphony and other types of musical instruments. vote. On the other hand, the symphony intensified. beginning in wok.-orc. compositions (cantata, oratorio), opera and ballet. Symphony has acquired great importance. program music: conc. overture to a certain plot, symphony, equipped with lit. program, a symphonic poem and genres related to it (symphonic picture, symphonic fantasy, etc.), a program-type suite, often composed of numbers of theatrical (including ballet, opera) music, but often independent. The genres of S. m. also include symphonietta, symphony. variations, fantasy (also overture) on nar. themes, rhapsody, legend, capriccio, scherzo, potpourri, march, decomp. dances (including in the form of a cycle – symphonic dances), decomp. miniatures, etc. In conc. symp. repertoire also includes orc. fragments from operas, ballets, dramas, plays, films.

S. m. 19th century embodied a huge world of ideas and emotions. It found expression of the themes of the general society. sounds, the deepest experiences, pictures of nature, everyday life and fantasy, nat. characters, images of spatial arts, poetry, folklore. The 20th century S.M., having developed many elements of the music of the past, introduced something new into the content and structure of the work, and reflected the principles of the dec. aesthetic movements (impressionism, expressionism, etc.). The best examples of S. m. 20 century – the classics of the newest time. Classic symp. the orchestra has preserved in the music of the 20th century. the value of the norm, but other ork. complexes – expanded to a super-orchestra, reduced to a chamber ensemble, intermediate incomplete compositions. The orchestra was enriched with new timbres (in particular, electric instruments), advanced as independent. ensemble in the orchestra band blow. tools. On an equal footing with instruments in the scores of symphonies. prod. singing solos and a choir began to turn on. vote. The compositional techniques of the S. m. were refracted in jazz (the so-called symphonic jazz). Certain genres of early music are re-cultivated, for example. concerto for orchestra. New impulses S. m. gave muses. cultures of non-European peoples.

In the 19th and 20th centuries in the countries of Europe and America advanced a number of nat. S.’s schools of m., to-rye received world value. High achievements marked Rus. classical and owls. S. m., which occupies a prominent place in world music. culture. Owls. S. m. covers creativity. activities of composers of all Union and author. republics. In many owls In the republics only after 1917 did masters of S. m. appear. owl genres. S. m. reflected the images and ideas of modernity, the processes of the revolution. transformation of society. The growth of symphonism affected the development of opera and ballet, and led to the flourishing of wok-symphony. genres, to the symphony of music for the spirit. orchestra and orchestra music tools. The richest folklore of the USSR gave creativity. impulses of S. m. and led to the emergence of its new varieties (for example, symphonic mugham); beneficial effect of the national traditions and in S. m. of other countries.

References: Glebov Igor (Asafiev B. V.), Russian symphonic music for 10 years, “Music and Revolution”, 1927, No 11; Soviet symphonic music. Sat. Art., M., 1955; Sollertinsky I., Historical types of symphonic dramaturgy, in his book: Musical and historical studies, L., 1956; Stupel A., Conversation about symphonic music, L., 1961; Popova T., Symphonic music, Moscow, 1963; For listeners of symphony concerts. Brief guide, M.-L., 1965, L., 1967; Konen V., Theater and Symphony …, M., 1968, 1975; Bobrovsky V., Symphonic music, in the book: Music of the XX century, part 1, book. 1, M., 1976.

V. S. Steinpress

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