Italian, lit. – stubborn, bass
One of the variational forms, osn. on repeated repetition themes in the bass with changing upper voices. Originates from polyphonic. forms of strict writing, which had the same cantus firmus, which, when repeated, was surrounded by new counterpoints. In the 16-17 centuries. V. o. widely used in dance. music. Some ancient dances—passacaglia, chaconne, and others—represented variations on V. o. This form survived even after the passacaglia and chaconne lost their dance. meaning. V. o. also penetrated into the arias and choirs of operas, oratorios, cantatas of the 17th-18th centuries. Certain melodies developed. V.’s formulas of the lake; music V.’s image about. conveyed a single mood, without k.-l. contrasting retreats. In connection with the brevity of the theme of V. o. composers sought to enrich it with the help of contrapuntal voices, harmonica. variations and tonal changes. harmonic collection of topics V. o. contributed to the approval of homophone-harmonic. warehouse, although they were usually deployed in polyphonic. invoice. Themes V. about. were based mainly on a scale-like (diatonic or chromatic) movement down or up from the tonic to the dominant, sometimes with the capture of steps adjacent to it. But there were also more individualized themes:
G. Purcell. Ode to the birthday of Queen Mary.
Mr. Sell. Ode to St. Cecilia.
A. Vivaldi. Concerto for 2 violins and orchestra a-moll, movement II.
G. Muffat. Passacaglia.
D. Buxtehude. Chaconne for organ.
J. S. Bach. Passacaglia for organ.
J. S. Bach. Chaconne from Cantata No. 150
J. S. Bach. Concerto for clavier and orchestra in d-moll, part II.
Similar melodies. formulas were often used in the initial bass figures of neostinata themes. This indicated their interaction with ostinato thematism, which was characteristic of the 17th-18th centuries. It also affects sonata thematics right up to the 20th century. (W. A. Mozart – quartet in d-moll, K. V. 421, L. Beethoven – sonata for piano, op. 53, J. Brahms – sonata for piano, op. 5, S. S. Prokofiev – sonata No. 2 for FP – the main theme of the first parts).
V. o. in passacaglia and chaconnes of the 17th-18th centuries. took place in one key (J.S. Bach – Passacaglia in c-moll for organ, Crucifixus from mass in b-moll) or unfolded in a number of keys. In the latter case, modulation was carried out by changing the theme (J.S. Bach – Chaconne from cantata No. 150) or by means of small modulation links, which made it possible to transfer the theme to a new key without melodic. changes (D. Buxtehude – Passacaglia d-moll for organ). In some productions. both of these techniques were combined (J.S. Bach – the middle part of the clavier concerto in d-moll); sometimes episodes were inserted between the performances of the theme, thanks to which the form turned into a rondo (J. Chambonière – Chaconne F-dur for harpsichord, F. Couperin – Passacaglia in h-moll for harpsichord).
L. Beethoven expanded the use of V. o.; he used it not only as the basis of the variational-cyclic. forms (the finale of the 3rd symphony), but also as an element of a large form for fixing thoughts and braking after wide runs. These are V. o. at the end of the Allegro Symphony No. 9, where V. o. concentrates mournfully dramatic. moments, in the Vivace coda of the Symphony No 7 and in the middle of the Vivace quartet op. 135.
L. Beethoven. 9th symphony, movement I. 7th symphony, movement I.
L. Beethoven. Quartet op. 135, part II.
The static of repeated presentations of the same material is overcome by changes in the dynamics of the sound (from p to f or vice versa). In the same spirit, as the result of a great development of contrasting images, V. o. in the code of the overture to the opera “Ivan Susanin” by Glinka.
M. I. Glinka. “Ivan Susanin”, overture.
In the 19th and 20th centuries V.’s value about. increases. Two of its bases are determined. varieties. The first is based on a concentrated theme and is a clear sequence of its figurative variations (I. Brahms – the finale of Symphony No. 4). The second shifts the center of gravity from an elementary theme, which turns into a simple fastening element, to a wide melodic-harmonic. development (S. I. Taneev – Largo from the quintet op. 30). Both varieties are also used in independent products. (F. Chopin – Lullaby), and as part of the sonata-symphony. cycles, as well as opera and ballet works.
Going beyond the boundaries of the vowel, ostinato gradually becomes one of the important principles of shaping in the music of the 19th and 20th centuries; it manifests itself in the field of rhythm, harmony, melodic. chants and other means of music. expressiveness. Thanks to ostinato, you can create an atmosphere of “stiffness”, “fascinated”, focusing on c.-l. one mood, immersion in thought, etc.; V. o. It can also serve as a voltage booster. These will express. V.’s possibilities about. already used by composers of the 19th century. (A. P. Borodin, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, R. Wagner, A. Bruckner, and others), but acquired special importance in the 20th century. (M. Ravel, I. F. Stravinsky, P. Hindemith, D. D. Shostakovich, A. I. Khachaturian, D. B. Kabalevsky, B. Britten, K. Orff and others, in the works of which ostinato forms of the most varied nature are used).
References: Prорреr L., The basso ostinato as a technical and formative principle, В., 1926 (diss.); Litterscheid R., On the history of the basso ostinato, Marburg, 1928; Nowak L., Main features of a history of the basso ostinato in western music, W., 1932; Meinardus W., The technique of the basso ostinato by H. Purcell, Cologne, 1939 (diss.); Gurlill W., On JS Bach’s Ostinato Technique, в кн.: Music History and Present. A series of essays. I (supplements to the archive for musicology), Wiesbaden, 1966; Вerger G., Ostinato, Chaconne, Passacaglia, Wolfenbüttel, (1968). См. также лит. при статьях Анализ музыкальный, Вариации, Форма музыкальная.
Vl. V. Protopopov