Stereophony |
Music Terms

Stereophony |

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letters. – spatial sound, from the Greek. stereos – surround, spatial and ponn – sound

The method of telephony and broadcasting, as well as sound recording and its reproduction, with which the character of the sound is preserved, reflecting the spatial arrangement of the decomp. sound sources and their movement. A person judges the location of sound sources in space in connection with the difference in their impact on the right and left ears; in physiology it is called. binaural effect. Depending on the angle formed between the wave front of the sound and the listener’s head, diff. audibility by the right and left ears is determined both by the phase difference of the perceived sound waves and by the weakening of the sound as a result of its partial shielding by the listener’s head. In telephony and radiotelephony, the stereo effect is achieved through the use of two-channel transmission from two separate channels. microphones (placed at a certain distance from each other) and its playback using two otd. telephones or two speakers (acoustic speakers). For stereo sound recordings are used two microphones located at a distance from the otd. amplifiers and two synchronous recording channels. In a stereogram, both signals are fixed on the same groove. The cutter of a stereo recorder oscillates under the influence of two magnetic or piezoelectric forces directed relative to each other at an angle of 90°. Sound reproduction is carried out by a special adapter device and two otd. amplifiers with speakers installed depending on the size of the room and the distance to the listeners. For movies, stereo recording is done optically. method along the edge of the film by methods of variable width or density of the imprinted signal on two tracks corresponding to two microphones. Magnetic stereo recording is made using two spaced microphones with a separate. amplifiers and magnetic recording heads on two tracks of the film, and stereo playback – using otd. amplifiers from two magnetic heads and two acoustic. speakers installed at the desired distance. For estr. stereo sometimes three separate microphone-amplifying and sound-reproducing channels are used; three acoustic columns are located across the width of the stage.

Stereo sound recording brings the perception of music closer to that which is carried out directly. listening to her performance in conc. hall. The degree of significance achieved with its help stereophonic. effect depends on the belonging of a given work to a particular historical. era, to a particular genre, as well as from its stylistic. features and performance. composition. So, in the 18-19 centuries. composers strove for the greatest possible unity of sound decomp. groups of the orchestra, which was reflected in the placement of the performers (“seating” of the orchestra). Single-channel recording of such products. even more increases the unity of the sound of the ork. groups, and stereo retains their real spaces, dispersion. However, when recording music, in which spaces and effects are used in one way or another (this applies mainly to the musical creativity of the 20th century; see Spatial music), the role of S. increases. From the 70s. In the 20th century, in addition to the usual stereophonic, four-channel, quadraphonic sound recording is also used, with a cut of four microphones (during recording) and four acoustic. columns (during playback) are located at the corners of a square or rectangle, in the center of which is the performer (performers) and, accordingly, the listener. Abroad (Germany, Great Britain, USA, etc.) started quadraphonic. radio broadcasts are produced quadraphonic. radio receivers, amplifiers, tape recorders, electric players and gramophone records. S. for vertical orientation of the sound has not yet received practical. applications.

References: Goron I. E., Broadcasting, M., 1944; Volkov-Lannit L.F., The Art of Imprinted Sound. Essays on the history of the gramophone, M., 1964; Rimsky-Korsakov A.V., Electroacoustics, Moscow, 1973; Purduev VV, Stereophony and multichannel sound systems, M., 1973; Stravinsky I., (On stereophony), in the book: Memories and commentaries, NY, 1960 (Russian translation – in the book: Stravinsky I., Dialogues, L., 1971, pp. 289-91).

L. S. Termin

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