Medieval frets |
Medieval frets, more correctly church frets, church tones
lat. modi, toni, tropi; German Kirchentöne, Kirchentonarten; French modes gregoriens, tons ecclesiastiques; English church modes
The name of eight (twelve at the end of the Renaissance) monodic modes that underlie professional (ch. arr. church) music of Western Europe. middle ages.
Historically, 3 systems of designation of S. l .:
1) numbered steam room (the oldest; modes are indicated by Latinized Greek numerals, for example protus – first, deuterus – second, etc., with pairwise division of each into authentic – main and plagal – secondary);
2) numerical simple (modes are indicated by Roman numerals or Latin numerals – from I to VIII; for example, primus tone or I, secundus toneus or II, tertius tone or III, etc.);
3) nominal (nominative; in terms of Greek musical theory: Dorian, Hypodorian, Phrygian, Hypophrygian, etc.). Consolidated naming system for eight S. l .:
I – дорийский – protus authenticus II – Hypodorian – protus plagalis III – Phrygian – authentic deuterus IV – hypophrygian – deuterus plagalis V – лидийский – authentic tritus VI – Hypolydian – tritus plagalis VII – Mixolydian – tetrardus authenticus VIII – hypomixolydian – tetrardus plagalis
Main modal categories S. l. – finalis (final tone), ambitus (volume of melody) and – in melodies associated with psalmody, – repercussion (also tenor, tuba – tone of repetition, psalmody); in addition, melodies in S. l. often characterized by certain melodic. formulas (coming from the psalm melody). The ratio of the finalis, ambitus and repercussion forms the basis of the structure of each of the S. l .:
Melodich. formulas S. l. in the psalm melodic (psalm tones) – initiation (initial formula), finalis (final), mediant (middle cadence). melodic samples. formulas and melodies in S. l .:
Hymn “Ave maris Stella.”
Offertory “I cried out of the depths.”
Antiphon “The new commandment”.
Hallelujah and the verse “Laudate Dominum”.
Gradual “They saw”.
Kyrie eleison of the Mass “Paschal season”.
Mass for the Dead, enters eternal rest.
To the characteristics of S. l. also include differentiations (lat. differentiae tonorum, diffinitiones, varietates) – cadence melodic. formulas of the antiphonal psalmody falling on a six-syllable conclude. the phrase so-called. “small doxology” (seculorum amen – “and forever and ever amen”), which is usually denoted with the omission of consonants: Euouae.
Lamb of God of the Mass “On the Days of Advent and Lent”.
The differentiations serve as a transition from the psalm verse to the subsequent antiphon. Melodically, the differentiation is borrowed from the finals of the psalm tones (therefore, the finales of the psalm tones are also called differences, see “Antiphonale monasticum pro diurnis horis…”, Tornaci, 1963, p. 1210-18).
Antiphon “Ad Magnificat”, VIII G.
In the secular and folk. the music of the Middle Ages (especially the Renaissance), apparently, there always existed other modes (this is the inaccuracy of the term “S. l.” – they are typical not for all Middle Ages music, but mainly for church music, therefore, the term “church modes”, “church tones” is more correct). However, they were ignored in the musical and scientific. literature, which was under the influence of the church. J. de Groheo (“De musica”, c. 1300) pointed out that secular music (cantum civilem) “does not get along very well” with the laws of the church. frets; Glarean (“Dodekachordon”, 1547) believed that the Ionian mode exists ca. 400 years. In the most ancient Middle Ages that have come down to us. secular, non-liturgical melodies are found, for example, pentatonic, Ionian mode:
German song about Peter. Con. 9th c.
Occasionally, Ionian and Aeolian modes (corresponding to natural major and minor) are also found in Gregorian chant, for example. the entire monodic mass “In Festis solemnibus” (Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite missa est) is written in XI, i.e. Ionian, fret:
Kyrie eleison of the Mass “In the solemn feasts.”
Only in Ser. 16th century (see “Dodekachordon” Glareana) in the system of S. l. 4 more frets were included (thus there were 12 frets). New frets:
At Tsarlino (“Dimostrationi Harmoniche”, 1571, “Le Istitutioni Harmoniche”, 1573) and some French. and German. musicians of the 17th century a different taxonomy of twelve S. l. is given in comparison with Glarean. At Tsarlino (1558):
G. Zаrlinо. «The Harmonic Institutions», IV, chap. 10.
У М. Мерсенна («Universal Harmony», 1636-37):
I fret – authentic. Dorian (s-s1), II mode – plagal subdorian (g-g1), III fret – authentic. Phrygian (d-d1), IV mode – plagal sub-Phrygian (A-a), V — authentic. Lydian (e-e1), VI – Plagal Sublydian (Hh), VII – authentic. mixolydian (f-f1), VIII – plagal hypomixolydian (c-c1), IX – authentic. hyperdoric (g-g1), X – plagal Sub-Hyperdorian (d-d1), XI – authentic. hyperphrygian (a-a1), XII – plagal subhyperphrygian (e-e1).
To each of S. l. ascribed his own specific expression. character. According to the Church’s guidelines (especially in the early Middle Ages), music should be detached from everything carnal, “worldly” as sinful and elevate souls to the spiritual, heavenly, Christian divine. Thus, Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215) opposed the ancient, pagan Phrygian, Lydian and Dorian “nomes” in favor of “the eternal melody of a new harmony, God’s nome”, against “effeminate tunes” and “wailing rhythms”, to -ry “corrupt the soul” and involve it in the “revelry” of komos, in favor of “spiritual joy”, “for the sake of ennobling and taming one’s temper.” He believed that “harmonies (i.e. modes) should be taken strict and chaste.” The Dorian (church) mode, for example, is often characterized by theorists as solemn, majestic. Guido d’Arezzo writes about the “affectionateness of the 6th”, “talkativeness of the 7th” frets. The description of the expressiveness of the modes is often given in detail, colorfully (characteristics are given in the book: Livanova, 1940, p. 66; Shestakov, 1966, p. 349), which indicates a lively perception of modal intonation.
Historically S. l. undoubtedly comes from the system of frets of the church. music of Byzantium – the so-called. oktoiha (osmosis; Greek oxto – eight and nxos – voice, mode), where there are 8 modes, divided into 4 pairs, designated as authentic and plagal (the first 4 letters of the Greek alphabet, which is equivalent to the order: I – II – III – IV), and are also used in Greek. mode names (Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Hypodorian, Hypo-Phrygian, Hypolydian, Hypomixolydian). Systematization of Byzantine churches. frets is attributed to John of Damascus (1st half of the 8th century; see Osmosis). The question of the historical Genesis of modal systems of Byzantium, Dr. Russia and Western Europe. S. l., however, requires further research. Muses. theorists of the early Middle Ages (6th-early 8th centuries) do not yet mention new modes (Boethius, Cassiodorus, Isidore of Seville). For the first time they are mentioned in a treatise, a fragment of which was published by M. Herbert (Gerbert Scriptores, I, p. 26-27) under the name of Flaccus Alcuin (735-804); however, its authorship is doubtful. The oldest document that reliably speaks of S. l. should be considered the treatise of Aurelian from Rheome (9th century) “Musica disciplina” (c. 850; “Gerbert Scriptores”, I, p. 28-63); the beginning of his 8th chapter “De Tonis octo” reproduces almost verbatim the entire fragment of Alcunnos. Mode (“tone”) is interpreted here as a kind of way of singing (close to the concept of modus). The author does not give musical examples and schemes, but refers to the melodies of antiphons, responsories, offertories, communio. In an anonymous treatise of the 9th (?) c. “Alia musica” (published by Herbert – “Gerbert Scriptores”, I, p. 125-52) already indicates the exact limits of each of the 8 S. l. So, the first fret (primus tonus) is designated as “the lowest” (omnium gravissimus), occupying an octave to the mesa (i.e. A-a), and is called “Hypodorian”. The next one (octave Hh) is Hypophrygian, and so on. (“Gerbert Scriptores,” I, p. 127a). Transmitted by Boethius (“De institutione musica”, IV, capitula 15) systematization of the Greek. transpositional scales of Ptolemy (transpositions of the “perfect system”, which reproduced the names of the modes – Phrygian, Dorian, etc. – but only in the reverse, ascending order) in “Alia musica” was mistaken for the systematization of modes. As a result, the Greek the names of the modes turned out to be related to other scales (see Ancient Greek modes). Thanks to the preservation of the mutual arrangement of the modal scales, the order of succession of the modes in both systems remained the same, only the direction of succession changed – within the regulatory two-octave range of the Greek perfect system – from A to a2.
Along with the further development of octave S. l. and the spread of solmization (since the 11th century), the system of hexachords of Guido d’Arezzo also found application.
The formation of the European polyphony (during the Middle Ages, especially during the Renaissance) significantly deformed the system of musical instruments. and eventually led to its destruction. Main the factors that caused the decomposition of S. l. were many goals. warehouse, the introduction of tone and the transformation of the consonant triad into the basis of the mode. Polyphony leveled the significance of certain categories of S. l. – ambitus, repercussions, created the possibility of ending at once on two (or even three) decomp. sounds (for example, on d and a at the same time). The introductory tone (musiсa falsa, musica ficta, see Chromatism) violated the strict diatonicism of S. l., reduced and made indefinite differences in the structure of S. l. of the same mood, reducing the differences between the modes to the main defining feature – major or minor main. triads. Recognition of the consonance of thirds (and then sixths) in the 13th century. (from Franco of Cologne, Johannes de Garland) led to the 15-16 centuries. to the constant use of consonant triads (and their inversions) and thus to ext. reorganization of the modal system, building it on major and minor chords.
S. l. polygonal music evolved to the modal harmony of the Renaissance (15th-16th centuries) and further to the “harmonic tonality” (functional harmony of the major-minor system) of the 17th-19th centuries.
S. l. polygonal music in the 15th-16th centuries. have a specific coloration, vaguely reminiscent of a mixed major-minor modal system (see Major-minor). Typically, for example, the ending with a major triad of a piece written in the harmony of the minor mood (D-dur – in Dorian d, E-dur – in Phrygian e). Continuous operation of harmonics. elements of a completely different structure—chords—results in a modal system that differs sharply from the original monody of the classical musical style. This modal system (renaissance modal harmony) is relatively independent and ranks among other systems, along with s. l. and major-minor tonality.
With the establishment of the dominance of the major-minor system (17-19 centuries), the former S. l. gradually lose their significance, partly remaining in the Catholic. church everyday life (less often – in Protestant, for example, the Dorian melody of the choral “Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin”). Separate bright samples of S. l. found mainly in the 1st floor. 17th century Characteristic revolutions of S. l. arise from J. S. Bach in the processing of old melodies; an entire piece can be sustained in one of these modes. Thus, the melody of the chorale “Herr Gott, dich loben wir” (its text is a German translation of the old Latin hymn, performed in 1529 by M. Luther) in the Phrygian mode, processed by Bach for the choir (BWV 16, 190, 328) and for the organ (BWV 725), is a reworking of the old hymn “Te deum laudamus” of the fourth tone, and melodic elements were preserved in Bach’s processing. formulas of this Wed.-Century. tones.
J. S. Bach. Choral prelude for organ.
If the elements of S. l. in harmony 17th century. and in the music of the Bach era – the remnant of an old tradition, then starting with L. Beethoven (Adagio “In der lydischen Tonart” from the quartet op. 132) there is a revival of the old modal system on a new basis. In the era of romanticism, the use of modified forms of S. l. is associated with moments of stylization, appeal to the music of the past (by F. Liszt, J. Brahms; in the 7th variation from Tchaikovsky’s variations for piano op. 19 No 6 – Phrygian mode with a typical major tonic at the end) and merges with increasing attention composers to the modes of folk music (see Natural modes), especially F. Chopin, B. Bartok, Russian composers of the 19th-20th centuries.
References: Stasov V. V., On some new forms of contemporary music, Sobr. op., vol. 3, St. Petersburg, 1894 (1st ed. On him. yaz. – “Bber einige neue Formen der heutigen Musik …”, “NZfM”, 1858, Bd 49, No 1-4), the same in his book: Articles on Music, no. 1, M., 1974; Taneev S. I., Movable counterpoint of strict writing, Leipzig, 1909, M., 1959; Braudo E. M., General history of music, vol. 1, P., 1922; Catuar H. L., Theoretical course of harmony, part. 1, M., 1924; Ivanov-Boretsky M. V., On the modal basis of polyphonic music, “Proletarian musician”, 1929, No 5; his own, Musical-Historical Reader, vol. 1, M., 1929, revised, M., 1933; Livanova T. N., History of Western European Music until 1789, M., 1940; her own, Music (section in the chapter Middle Ages), in the book: History of European Art History, (book. 1), M., 1963; Gruber R. I., History of musical culture, vol. 1, h. 1, M., 1941; his, General History of Music, vol. 1, M., 1956, 1965; Shestakov V. AP (comp.), Musical aesthetics of the Western European Middle Ages and Renaissance, M., 1966; Sposobin I. V., Lectures on the course of harmony, M., 1969; Kotlyarevsky I. A., Diatonics and chromatics as a category of musical thinking, K., 1971; Glareanus, Dodekachordon, Basileae, 1547, reprografischer Nachdruck, Hildesheim, 1969; Zarlino G., Le Istitutioni Harmoniche, Venetia, 1558, 1573, N. Y., 1965; eго жe, Harmonious Demonstrations, Venice, 1571, Facs. ed., N. Y., 1965; Mersenne M., Universal Harmony, P., 1636-37, ed. facs. P., 1976; Gerbert M., Ecclesiastical writers on sacred music especially, t. 1-3, St. Blasien, 1784, reprographic reprint Hildesheim, 1963; Соussemaker E. de, Histoire de l’harmonie au moyen vge, P., 1852; Ego že, a new series of writings on the music of the Middle Ages, t. 1-4, Parisiis, 1864-76, reprographic reprint Hildesheim, 1963; Boethius, De institutione musica libri quinque, Lipsiae, 1867; Paul O., Boethius and Greek Harmony, Lpz., 1872; Brambach W., The tonal system and the keys of the Christian West in the Middle Ages, Lpz., 1881; Riemann H., Catechism of Music History, Tl 1, Lpz., 1888 (рус. per. — Riemann G., Catechism of Music History, ch. 1, M., 1896, 1921); его же, History of Music Theory in the IX. — XIX. Century, Lpz., 1898, B., 1920; Wagner P., Introduction to Gregorian Melodies, Vols. 1-3, Lpz., 1911-21; его же, On the medieval theory of tonality, в кн.: Festschrift G. Adler, W. und Lpz., 1930; Mühlmann W., Die Alia musica, Lpz., 1914; Auda A., Les modes et les tons de la musique et spécialement de la musique medievale, Brux., 1930; Gombosi O., Studien zur Tonartenlehre des frьhen Mittelalters, «Acta Musicologica», 1938, v. 10, No 4, 1939, v. 11, No 1-2, 4, 1940, v. 12; eго жe, Key, mode, species, «Journal of the American Musicological Society», 1951, v. 4, No 1; Reese G., Music in the Middle Ages, N. Y., 1940; Jоhner D., Word and Sound in the Chorale, Lpz., 1940, 1953; Arel W., Gregorian chant, Bloomington, 1958; Hermelink S., Dispositiones Modorum…, Tutzing, 1960; Mцbius G., The sound system from before 1000, Cologne, 1963; Vogel M., The emergence of the church modes, в сб.: Report on the International Musicological Congress Kassel 1962, Kassel u. a., 1963; Dahlhaus С., Investigations into the emergence of harmonic tonality, Kassel (u.
Yu. H. Kholopov