Stylization |
Music Terms

Stylization |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

Stylization (German Stilisierung, French stylisation, from Latin stylus, Greek stulos – a stick for writing on waxed tablets, writing, syllable) – a deliberate recreation of a specific. features of music k.-l. people, creative era, art. directions, less often an individual composer’s style in works, belonging to a different national or temporary layer, belonging to the creative. personalities with other arts. settings. S. is not identical to the appeal to tradition, when the established arts. norms are transferred to related and natural conditions for them (for example, the continuation of Beethoven’s traditions in the work of I. Brahms), as well as imitation, which is a copying devoid of a new quality (for example, compositions in the classical type of F. Lachner) and easily turning into imitation. In contrast to them, S. assumes the removal from the chosen model and the transformation of this sample into an object of image, an object of imitation (for example, the suite in the old style “From the Times of Holberg” op. 40 Grieg). The author of S. tends to treat him as something that lies outside, attracting with its unusualness, but still remaining at a distance – temporary, national, individual stylistic; S. differs from following the tradition not by using, but by reproducing what was found before, not organically. connection with it, but the re-creation of it outside the nature that gave birth to it. environment; the essence of S. is in its secondary nature (since S. is impossible without orientation to already existing patterns). In the process of S. stylized phenomena become indefinitely. to a lesser extent conditional, that is, valuable not so much in themselves, but as carriers of an allegorical meaning. For the emergence of this artistic effect, a moment of “estrangement” is necessary (the term of V. B. Shklovsky, denoting conditions that violate the “automatism of perception” and make one see something from an unusual point of view), which makes obvious the reconstructive, secondary nature of C.

Such a debilitating moment can be an exaggeration of the features of the original (for example, in No 4 and No 7 from Ravel’s Noble and Sentimental Waltzes, there is more Viennese charm than in the Viennese original, and Debussy’s Evening in Grenada surpasses real Spanish in concentration of Spanish color . music), the introduction of stylistics unusual for them. elements (for example, modern dissonant harmonies in the resurrecting old aria of the 2nd part of the sonata for piano by Stravinsky) and even the context itself (in which, for example, only the dramatic role of stylized dance in Taneyev’s Minuet is revealed) , and in cases of very accurate reproduction – the title (fp. of the play “In the manner of … Borodin, Chabrier” by Ravel, “Tribute to Ravel” by Honegger). Outside of defamiliarization, S. loses its specificity. quality and – subject to skillful performance – approaches the original (reproducing all the subtleties of the folk lingering song “Chorus of the Villagers” from the 4th act of the opera “Prince Igor” by Borodin; Lyubasha’s song from the 1st act of the opera “The Tsar’s Bride” by Rimsky -Korsakov).

S. occupies an important place in the overall system of music. funds. She enriches the art of her time and her country with muses. discoveries of other eras and nations. The retrospective nature of semantics and the lack of original freshness are compensated for by established semantics rich in associativity. In addition, S. requires a high culture both from its creators (otherwise S. does not rise above the level of eclecticism) and from the listener, who must be ready to appreciate “music about music.” Dependence on cultural accumulations is both a strength and a weakness of S.: addressed to the intellect and developed taste, S. always comes from knowledge, but as such it inevitably sacrifices emotional immediacy and risks becoming rational.

The object of S. can be virtually any aspect of music. More often the most remarkable properties of the whole musical-historical are stylized. era or national music culture (objectively balanced sounding in the character of the choral polyphony of strict writing in Wagner’s Parsifal; Lalo’s Russian Concerto for violin and orchestra). Muses that have gone into the past are also often stylized. genres (Gavotte and Rigaudon from Prokofiev’s Ten Pieces for piano, op. 12; Hindemith’s madrigals for choir a cappella), sometimes forms (an almost Haydnian sonata form in Prokofiev’s Classical Symphony) and compositions. techniques (characteristic of the polyphonic themes of the Baroque era, the thematic core, sequentially developing and concluding parts in the 1st theme of the fugue from Stravinsky’s Symphony of Psalms). The features of the individual composer’s style are reproduced less often (Mozart’s improvisation in the opera Mozart and Salieri by Rimsky-Korsakov; Paganini’s “devilish pizzicato” in the 19th variation from Rachmaninov’s Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini; fantasies in the character of Bach that have become widespread in electronic music). In many cases, k.-l. is stylized. music element. language: fret harmonic. norms (reminiscent of the modal diatonic song “Ronsard – to his soul” by Ravel), rhythmic. and textured design details (a solemn dotted gait in the spirit of J. B. Lully’s overtures for “24 Violins of the King” in the prologue of Stravinsky’s Apollo Musagete; arpeggiated “romance” accompaniment in the duet of Natasha and Sonya from the 1st scene of the opera “War and the World” by Prokofiev), the performing staff (ancient instruments in the score of the ballet “Agon” by Stravinsky) and the performing style (“Song of the ashug” in an improvisational mugham style from the opera “Almast” by Spendiarov), the timbre of the instrument (the sound of the psaltery reproduced by the combination of a harp and piano in the introduction of the opera “Ruslan and Lyudmila”, guitars – by combining the harp and the first violins in the main part of Glinka’s “Jota of Aragon”). Finally, S. succumbs to something much more general – a color or state of mind that exists more in a romanticized representation than having real prototypes (the conditionally oriental style in Chinese and Arabic dances from the ballet The Nutcracker by Tchaikovsky; Old Castle” from “Pictures at an Exhibition” for Mussorgsky; reverently ecstatic contemplation in the nature of the ascetic Middle Ages in “Epic Song” from “Three Songs of Don Quixote to Dulcinea” for voice with piano Ravel). Thus, the term “S.” has many shades, and its semantic range is so wide that the exact boundaries of the concept of S. are erased: in its extreme manifestations, S. either becomes indistinguishable from the stylized, or its tasks become indistinguishable from the tasks of any music.

S. is historically conditioned. It was not and could not be in the preclassic. period of the history of music: the musicians of the Middle Ages, and partly of the Renaissance, did not know or appreciated the author’s individuality, attaching the main importance to the skill of performing and the correspondence of music to its liturgical. appointment. In addition, the general music. the basis of these cultures, ascending Ch. arr. to the Gregorian chant, ruled out the possibility of noticeable “stylistic. drops.” Even in the work of J.S. Bach, marked by a powerful individuality, fugues close to music of a strict style, for example. the choral adaptation of “Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt”, not S., but a tribute to an archaic, but not dead tradition (Protestant chant). Viennese classics, significantly strengthening the role of individual stylistic. beginning, at the same time occupied too active creativity. position to confine C: not stylized, but creatively rethought Nar. genre motifs by J. Haydn, Italian techniques. bel canto by W. A. ​​Mozart, the intonations of the music of the Great French. revolution by L. Beethoven. On the share of S. they have to recreate the external. East attributes. music (probably due to interest in the East under the influence of foreign political events of that time), often playful (“Turkish drum” in the rondo alla turca from the sonata for piano A-dur, K.-V. 331, Mozart; “Chorus Janissaries” from Mozart’s opera “The Abduction from the Seraglio”; comical figures of “guests from Constantinople” in the opera “Pharmacist” by Haydn, etc.). Rarely seen in Europe. music before (“Gallant India” by Rameau), east. exotic long remained traditional. the object of conditional S. in opera music (C. M. Weber, J. Wiese, G. Verdi, L. Delibes, G. Puccini). Romanticism, with its increased attention to individual style, local color, and the atmosphere of the era, paved the way for the spread of S., however, romantic composers, who turned to personal problems, left relatively few, albeit brilliant examples of S. (for example, Chopin) , “Paganini”, “German Waltz” from “Carnival” for pianoforte Schumann). Thin S. are found in Russian. authors (for example, the duet of Lisa and Polina, the interlude “Sincerity of the Shepherdess” from the opera “The Queen of Spades” by Tchaikovsky; songs of foreign guests from the opera “Sadko” by Rimsky-Korsakov: in the songs of the Vedenets guest, according to V. A. Tsukkerman, S. polyphony of a strict style indicates the time, and the genre of barcarolle – the place of action). Rus. For the most part, music about the East can hardly be called S., so deep was the comprehension in Russia of the very spirit of the geographically and historically close East (albeit somewhat conventionally understood, not possessing ethnography, accuracy). However, ironically emphasized, “excessively oriental” pages in the opera The Golden Cockerel by Rimsky-Korsakov can be counted as S..

S. received especially wide development in 20 century that is caused by nek-ry general tendencies of modern. music. One of its most important qualities (and in general the qualities of modern art) is universalism, i.e. interest in music cultures of almost all eras and peoples. Interest in the spiritual discoveries of the Middle Ages is reflected not only in the performance of G. de Machaux’s Play of Robin and Marion, but also in the creation of Respighi’s Gregorian Violin Concerto; cleansed of commercial vulgarity. Jazz Represent C. Negro. music in fp. Debussy Preludes, Op. M. Ravel. In the same way, modern intellectualism music is a breeding ground for the development of stylistic trends, especially important in the music of neoclassicism. Neoclassicism is looking for support among the general instability of modern. life in the reproduction of stories, forms, techniques that have stood the test of time, which makes S. (in all its gradations) an attribute of this coldly objective art. Finally, a sharp increase in the value of the comic in modern. art creates an acute need for S., naturally endowed with the most important quality of the comic – the ability to represent the features of a stylized phenomenon in an exaggerated form. Therefore, in a comedic way, the range will express. musical possibilities. S. is very broad: subtle humor in the slightly overly sultry “In imitation of Albeniz” for FP. Shchedrin, crafty FP. preludes by the Cuban A. Taño (“For Impressionist Composers”, “National Composers”, “Expressionist Composers”, “Pointillist Composers”), a merry parody of opera templates in Prokofiev’s The Love for Three Oranges, less good-natured , but stylistically impeccable “Mavra” by Stravinsky, somewhat caricatured “Three Graces” by Slonimsky for piano. (“Botticelli” is a theme represented by “Renaissance dance music”, “Rodin” is the 2nd variation in the style of Ravel, “Picasso” is the 2nd variation “under Stravinsky”). In modern S.’s music continues to be an important creative work. reception. So, S. (often in the nature of ancient concerti grossi) is included in collages (for example, the theme stylized “after Vivaldi” in the 1st movement of A. Schnittke’s symphony carries the same semantic load as the quotations introduced into music). In the 70s. a “retro” stylistic trend has taken shape, which, in contrast to the previous serial overcomplexity, looks like a return to the simplest patterns; S. here dissolves into an appeal to the fundamental principles of the muses. language – to “pure tonality”, triad.

References: Troitsky V. Yu., Stylization, in the book: Word and Image, M., 1964; Savenko S., On the question of the unity of Stravinsky’s style, in collection: I. F. Stravinsky, M., 1973; Kon Yu., About two fugues by I. Stravinsky, in collection: Polyphony, M., 1975.

TS Kyuregyan

Leave a Reply