ital. partitura, lit. – division, distribution, from lat. partio – divide, distribute; German Partitur, French section, eng. score
A musical notation of a polyphonic musical work (instrumental, choral or vocal-instrumental), in which a separate staff is allocated for the part of each instrument or voice. The parts are arranged one below the other in a certain order in such a way that the same beats of the measure are on the same vertical and it would be visually easy to cover the consonances arising from the combination of voices. In the course of the evolution of composition, its appearance changed significantly, which was associated with the development of composing technique.
The principle of score organization – the vertical arrangement of lines – was used in the org. tablature and in org. P. (introduced by the organists accompanying the choral performance, a recording of the most important voices of the composition; separate lines were assigned for treble and bass, middle voices or recorded in the form of tablature, or each was written out on a separate line).
F. Verdelo. A motet. Sheet music. (From the book Lampadia.)
According to him. theorist Lampadius (“Compendium mu-sicis” – “A Brief Guide to Music”, 1537), P. dates back approx. by 1500, when “Tabulae compositoriae” (lit. – “Composer’s tables”) came into use. The motet of F. Verdelot cited by Lampadius is the first example of the new practice of musical notation that has come down to us; this is a printed 4-line P. with barlines after every two breves. The voices are arranged in the order of their tessitura, a principle firmly established in the wok. P. The earliest surviving handwritten P. – “Fantasia di Giaches” (B-ka Vatican, ork. Chigi VIII, 206) refers to 1560. Appearance in the 16th century. score recordings polygonal. and multi-choir woks. op. associated with the flourishing of imitation polyphony and the development of harmony. Compared with the then practiced recording of many-goal. music in the department voices (parts) or in a choral book (in which two voices of a 4-voice texture were recorded on each page) P. represented great convenience, because it was visual and facilitated the perception of the horizontal and vertical coordinates of polyphonic. whole. In the score notation, instr. music were used DOS. wok recording principles. polyphonic prod. The composition of the instruments in such a P. was not fixed; the keys and the name of the tessitura (cantus, altus, tenor, bassus) served to determine it.
At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. P. arose with a general bass. Its appearance is associated with the development of the homophonic style, in particular, with the need to make it easier for organ and clavichembalo players to practice chordal accompaniment of melodies. votes. In P. with a general bass, bass and melodic parts were recorded. voices (parties of instruments with the same tessitura are on the same line). harmonic accompaniment for keyboard instruments was conditionally fixed by means of signatures. With the advent of the 2nd half. 18th century classical symphonies and concertos, the general bass is falling into disuse; harmony began to be accurately fixed in P.
The order of recording instruments in early classical piano was gradually subordinated to the organization of the orchestra into groups, but the arrangement of the groups themselves differed markedly from the modern one: usually high strings were located at the top, woodwinds and brass winds below them, and string basses at the bottom.
Even at the beginning 19th century conductors often used direction; only with the advent of conductors in modern. the meaning of the word (see Conducting)
Arrangement of instruments in the score for large symphony orchestra
Russian names Italian names
Small flute Flauto piccolo Flutes Flauti Oboe Oboe cor anglais corno inglese Clarinet Clarinetti Bass clarinet Clarinette basso Fagotti bassoons Contrafagot Contrafagotto
Corni horns Trombe pipes Trombones Tuba Tuba
Timpani Timpani Triangolo triangle Tamburino drum Snare drum Tamburo militare Piatti plates Big drum Gran cassa Xylophone Xylophone Bells Campanelli
Celesta Harp Arpa
1-e violins 1 Violini 2-e violins 2 Violini Viola violas Violoncelli cellos Contrabass Contrabassi
P. becomes necessary for the performance of the orchestra. and wok-orc. music.
The now accepted organization of P. took shape in the middle. 19th century Parts of instruments are arranged according to orc. groups, within each group the instruments are recorded in tessitura from top to bottom (with the exception of trumpets, the parts of which, according to the old tradition, are written below the parts of the horns, see the table above).
Varieties higher in tessitura (see Orchestra) are recorded above the main part. instrument (only the part of the small flute is sometimes notated lower), lower ones – below it. The parts of the harp, piano, organ, soloists and choir are recorded over the string group:
N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov. Spanish Capriccio. Part I. Alborada.
Some exceptions to the established rules were made by G. Berlioz, R. Wagner, N. Ya. Myaskovsky, and others. and polyphonic. language in the beginning 20th century P. began to make reading difficult. Thus, the need arose to simplify P., freeing it from certain keys (N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov and other composers of the St. Petersburg school abandoned the tenor key) and from transposition (A. Schoenberg, A. Berg, A. Webern, S. S. Prokofiev, A. Honegger). In the 50-70s. 20th century P. included numerous conditional methods of notation associated with the emergence of new types of composing technique (aleatoric, sonorism). See Reading scores.
References: Nuremberg M., Musical graphics, L., 1953, p. 192-199; Matalaev L., Simplify the score, “SM”, 1964, No 10; Malter L., Tables on instrumentation, M., 1966, p. 55, 59, 67, 89.
I. A. Barsova