Glissando |
Music Terms

Glissando |

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Glissando (Italian glissando, from French glisser – to slide) is a special technique of playing, which consists in quickly sliding a finger along the strings or keys of music. tool. Unlike portamento, which is a means of expressing. performance, not fixed by the composer in the musical notation and often erroneously called G., actually G. is fixed in sweaty notation, representing an integral part of the musical text. In fp. G.’s game is achieved by sliding the outer side of the nail phalanx of the thumb or third finger (usually of the right hand) along the white or black keys. In production for keyboard instruments G. is first found in French. composer J. B. Moreau in his collection. “The first book of pieces for harpsichord” (“Premier livre pièces de clavecin”, 3). Special tech. difficulties are presented by the execution on the fp. G. of scale-like sequences of double notes (thirds, sixths, octaves) with one hand (with its firmly fixed position), requiring simultaneous sliding of two fingers on the keys (this kind of G. is also performed with two hands).

G. is performed relatively easily on the piano. old designs with their more pliable, so-called. Viennese mechanics. Perhaps that is why G. in parallel sixths was already used by W. A. ​​Mozart (variations of “Lison dormant”). Octave scales are found in L. Beethoven (Concerto in C Major, Sonata op. 53), K. M. Weber (“Concertpiece”, op. 79), G. in thirds and quarts in M. Ravel (“Mirrors”) and others

If on keyboard instruments with their tempered system, with the help of G., a scale with a certain pitch is extracted, then on bowed instruments, for which a free system is characteristic, by means of G., chromatic is extracted. a sequence of sounds, with a swarm, the exact performance of semitones is not necessary (fingering technique should not be mixed with g. on bowed instruments – the performance of a chromatic scale by sliding a finger). Therefore, the value of g. when playing bowed instruments Ch. arr. in coloristic effect. G.’s performance of certain passages on bowed instruments, except for chromatic. scale, is possible only when playing with harmonics. One of the earliest examples of G. on bowed instruments is in Italian. composer K. Farina (in “An Extraordinary Capriccio”, “Capriccio stravagante”, 1627, for skr. solo), using G. as a naturalistic. receiving sound. In the classic G. is almost never found in music for bowed instruments (a rare case of G. ascending chromatic sequence by octaves in the code of the 1st part of the concerto for A. Dvorak). As a method of brilliant virtuoso playing, guerilla was widely used in works written by Romantic violinists and cellists. directions (G. Venyavsky, A. Vyotan, P. Sarasate, F. Servais, and others). G. is used especially diversely as a timbre coloring in music. literature 20th century for bowed instruments and as a colorist. reception in orchestration (S. S. Prokofiev – Scherzo from the 1st concerto for violin; K. Shimanovsky – concertos and pieces for violin; M. Ravel – Rhapsody “Gypsy” for violin; Z. Kodaly – G. chords in the sonata for solo, G. violins and double basses in “Spanish Rhapsody” by Ravel). One of the most characteristic examples of G. vlch. is contained in the 2nd part of the sonata for VC. and fp. D. D. Shostakovich. A special technique is G. flageolets, for example. cellos by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov (“The Night Before Christmas”), V. V. Shcherbachev (2nd symphony), Ravel (“Daphnis and Chloe”), violas and seniors. M. O. Steinberg (“Metamorphoses”) and others.

G. is a widespread technique in playing the pedal harp, where it received a very special use (in the works of composers of the first half of the 1th century, the Italian term sdrucciolando was often used). Apfic G. is usually built on the sounds of seventh chords (including diminished ones; less often on the sounds of non-chords). When playing G., all the strings of the harp, with the help of the restructuring of the otd. sounds, give the sound of only those notes that are included in a given chord. With a downward movement, the G. on the harp is performed with the first finger slightly bent, with the ascending – with the second (one or two hands in a converging, diverging and crossing movement of the hands). G. is occasionally used on gamma-like sequences.

G. is used when playing copper spirits. instruments – on the trombone with the help of the backstage movement (for example, the trombone solo in “Pulcinella” by I.F. Stravinsky), the trumpet, on percussion instruments (for example, G. pedal timpani in “Music for bowed instruments, percussion and celesta” B . Bartok).

G. is widely used in folk instr. hung. (Verbunkosh style), rum. and mold. music, as well as jazz. In G.’s musical notation, only the initial and final sounds of the passage are usually quoted, intermediate sounds are replaced by a dash or a wavy line.

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