Voice |
Music Terms

Voice |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, opera, vocals, singing

lat. vox, French voix, ital. voice, eng. voice, German Stimme

1) Melodic. line as part of polyphonic music. works. The totality of these lines is muses. the whole – the texture of the music. works. The nature of the movement of voices determines one or another type of voice leading. A stable number of G. and relates them, equality is characteristic of polyphonic. music; in homophonic music, as a rule, one G., usually the top one, is the leader. In cases where the leading G., especially developed and distinguished, is intended to be performed by one singer or instrumentalist, it is called solo. All other G. in homophonic music are accompanying. However, they are also unequal. Often distinguish between the main (obligate) G. (including the leader), which transmit the main. music elements. thoughts, and G. side, complementary, filling, harmonic, to-rye perform auxiliary. functions. In the practice of studying harmony in a four-voice choral presentation, the harmonies are distinguished as extreme (upper and lower, soprano and bass) and middle (alto and tenor).

2) Party otd. instrument, orchestra or choir. group, written out from the score of the work for its learning and performance.

3) The motive, the melody of the song (hence the expression “to sing to the voice” of a well-known song).

4) A variety of sounds formed with the help of the vocal apparatus and serving for communication between living beings. In humans, this communication is carried out mainly through speech and singing.

Three sections are distinguished in the vocal apparatus: the respiratory organs, which supply air to the glottis, the larynx, where the vocal folds (vocal cords) are placed, and the articulation. apparatus with a system of resonator cavities, which serves to form vowels and consonants. In the process of speech and singing, all parts of the vocal apparatus work interconnectedly. Sound is energized by breathing. In singing, it is customary to distinguish several types of breathing: chest with a predominance of the chest, abdominal (abdominal) with a predominance of the diaphragm, and thoracodiaphragmatic (costo-abdominal, mixed), in which the chest and diaphragm participate equally. The division is conditional, because in fact, breathing is always mixed. The vocal folds serve as the source of sound. The length of the vocal folds usually depends on the type of voice. Bass folds are the longest – 24-25 mm. For a baritone, the length of the folds is 22-24 mm, for a tenor – 18-21 mm, for a mezzo-soprano – 18-21 mm, for a soprano – 14-19 mm. The thickness of the vocal folds in a tense state is 6-8 mm. The vocal folds are able to close, open, tighten and stretch. Since the muscle fibers of the folds go to decomp. directions, the vocal muscles can contract in separate parts. This makes it possible to vary the shape of the fold oscillations, i.e. influence the overtone composition of the original sound timbre. The vocal folds can be arbitrarily closed, placed in the position of a chest or falsetto sound, strained to the extent necessary to obtain a sound of the desired height. However, each fluctuation of the folds cannot be controlled and their vibration is carried out automatically as a self-regulating process.

Above the larynx there is a system of cavities called the “extension tube”: the pharyngeal cavity, oral, nasal, adnexal cavities of the nose. Due to the resonance of these cavities, the timbre of the sound changes. The paranasal cavities and the nasal cavity have a stable shape and therefore have a constant resonance. The resonance of the oral and pharyngeal cavities changes due to the work of the articulations. apparatus, which includes the tongue, lips and soft palate.

The voice apparatus produces both sounds that have a certain height. – tone sounds (vowels and voiced consonants), and noise (deaf consonants) that do not have it. Tone and noise sounds differ in the mechanism of their formation. Tone sounds are formed as a result of vibrations of the vocal folds. Due to the resonance of the pharyngeal and oral cavities, a certain amplification occurs. groups of overtones – the formation of formants, according to which the ear distinguishes one vowel from another. Voiceless consonants do not have a definition. height and represent the noise that occurs when the air jet passes through the diff. kind of obstacles formed by articulation. apparatus. Voice folds do not participate in their formation. When pronouncing voiced consonants, both mechanisms function.

There are two theories of G.’s education in the glottis: myoelastic and neurochronaxic. According to myoelastic theory, subglottic pressure pushes closed and tense vocal folds, air breaks through the gap, as a result of which the pressure drops and the ligaments close again due to elasticity. Then the cycle repeats. Vibrats. fluctuations are considered as a consequence of the “struggle” of subglottic pressure and the elasticity of tense vocal muscles. Center. the nervous system, according to this theory, only regulates the force of pressure and the degree of muscle tension. In 1950 R. Yusson (R. Husson) theoretically and experimentally substantiated neurochronaxic. the theory of sound formation, according to a cut, the vibrations of the vocal folds are carried out due to the rapid, active contraction of the fibers of the vocal muscles under the influence of a volley of impulses coming with a sound frequency along the motor. nerve of the larynx directly from the centers of the brain. Swing. the work of the folds is a special function of the larynx. The frequency of their fluctuations does not depend on breathing. According to Yusson’s theory, G.’s type is entirely determined by the excitability of the motor. nerve of the larynx and does not depend on the length of the folds, as previously assumed. The change in registers is explained by a change in the conduction of the recurrent nerve. Neurochronax. The theory has not received general acceptance. Both theories are not mutually exclusive. It is possible that both myoelastic and neurochronaxic processes are carried out in the vocal apparatus. sound production mechanisms.

G. can be speech, singing and whispering. Voice is used in different ways in speech and singing. When speaking, G. on vowels slides up or down the sound scale, creating a kind of melody of speech, and syllables succeed each other at an average speed of 0,2 seconds. Changes in the pitch and strength of sounds make speech expressive, create accents and participate in the transfer of meaning. In singing to heights, the length of each syllable is strictly fixed, and the dynamics is subject to the logic of the development of muses. phrases. Whispered speech differs from ordinary speech and singing in that during it the vocal cords do not vibrate, and the sound source is the noise that occurs when air passes through open vocal folds and the cartilage of the glottis.

Distinguish singing G. set and not set, household. Under the formulation of G. is understood the process of its adaptation and development for prof. use. Delivered the voice is characterized by brightness, beauty, strength and stability of sound, wide range, flexibility, tirelessness; the set voice is used by singers, artists, speakers, etc. Each muses. a person can sing the so-called. “domestic” G. However, the singer. G. meets rather seldom. Such G. is characterized by characteristic singing. qualities: specific. timbre, sufficient power, evenness and breadth of range. These natural qualities depend on the anatomical and physiological. features of the body, in particular from the structure of the larynx and the neuro-endocrine constitution. Undelivered singer. G. for prof. use needs to be set, which must meet a certain definition. the sphere of its use (opera, chamber singing, singing in the folk style, variety art, etc.). Staged at the opera-conc. the manner of prof. the voice should have a beautiful, well-formed chanter. timbre, smooth two-octave range, sufficient power. The singer must develop the technique of fluency and cantilena, achieve a natural and expressive sound of the word. In some individuals, these qualities are natural. Such G. are called delivered from nature.

Singing voice is characterized by height, range (volume), strength, and timbre (color). Pitch underlies the classification of voices. The total volume of songs voices – about 4,5 octaves: from do-re of a large octave (lower notes for bass octaves – 64-72 Hz) to F-sol of the third octave (1365-1536 Hz), sometimes higher (top notes for coloratura sopranos) . G.’s range depends on physiological. features of the vocal apparatus. It can be both relatively wide and narrow. The average range of undelivered chant. G. adult is equal to one and a half octaves. For prof. performance requires a G. range of 2 octaves. G.’s force depends on energy of the portions of air breaking through a glottis, ie. respectively on the amplitude of oscillations of air particles. The shape of the oropharyngeal cavities and the degree of mouth opening have a great influence on the strength of the voice. The more the mouth is open, the better the G. radiates into the outer space. Operatic G. reach a force of 120 decibels at a distance of 1 meter from the mouth. The objective power of the voice is but quite adequate to its loudness for the listener’s ear. G.’s sound is perceived as louder if it contains many high overtones of the order of 3000 Hz – frequencies, to which the ear is especially sensitive. Thus, loudness is connected not only with the strength of the sound, but also with the timbre. The timbre depends on the overtone composition of the voice sounds. Overtones along with the fundamental tone arise in the glottis; their set depends on the form of vibrations and the nature of the closure of the vocal folds. Due to the resonance of the cavities of the trachea, larynx, pharynx and mouth, some of the overtones are amplified. This changes the tone accordingly.

Timbre is the defining quality of singing. G. The timbre of a good singer. G. is characterized by brightness, metallicity, the ability to rush into the hall (flying) and at the same time roundness, “fleshy” sound. Metallicity and flight are due to the presence of enhanced overtones in the 2600-3000 Hz region, the so-called. high chant. formants. “Meatiness” and roundness are associated with increased overtones in the 500 Hz region – the so-called. low chant. formants. Evenness of the singer. timbre depends on the ability to preserve these formants on all vowels and throughout the entire range. Singing G. is pleasant to the ear when it has a pronounced pulsation with a frequency of 5-6 oscillations per second – the so-called vibrato. Vibrato tells G. a flowing character and is perceived as an integral part of the timbre.

For an untrained singer, the timbre of G. changes throughout the sound scale, because. G. has a register structure. The register is understood as a number of uniformly sounding sounds, to-rye are made by uniform physiological. mechanism. If a man is asked to sing a series of rising sounds, then at a certain pitch he will feel the impossibility of extracting sounds further in the same manner. Only by changing the manner of sound formation to falsetto, i.e. fistula, he will be able to take a few more higher tops. Male G. has 2 registers: chest and falsetto, and female 3: chest, central (medium) and head. At the junction of the registers lie uncomfortable sounds, the so-called. transition notes. Registers are determined by the change in the nature of the work of the vocal cords. The sounds of the chest register are felt more in the chest, and the sounds of the head register are felt in the head (hence their names). In the singer G. registers play a big role, giving the sound a specific. coloring. Modern opera conc. singing requires the timbre evenness of the sound of the voice over the entire range. This is achieved by the development of a mixed register. It is formed at the mixed type of work of sheaves, at Krom chest and falsetto movements are combined. That. a timbre is created, in which chest and head sounds are simultaneously felt. For women’s G. mixed (mixed) sound is natural in the center of the range. For most male G. this is art. register developed on the basis of etc. “covering” the upper part of the range. Mixed voicing with a predominance of chest sounding is used in parts of low female voices (the so-called chest notes). Mixed (mixed) voicing with a predominance of falsetto (the so-called leaned falsetto) is used on the extreme upper notes of male G.

Throughout life G. of the person undergoes means. changes. From the age of one, the child begins to master speech, and from the age of 2-3, he acquires the ability to sing. Before puberty, the voices of boys and girls do not differ. G.’s range from 2 tones at the age of 2 years increases by the age of 13 to one and a half octaves. Children’s guitars have a special “silver” timbre, they sound gentle, but they are distinguished by the strength and richness of the timbre. Pevch. G. children are used by Ch. arr. to the choir singing. Child soloists are a rarer occurrence. High children’s G. – soprano (in girls) and treble (in boys). Low children’s G. – viola (in boys). Until the age of 10, children’s harmonics sound exactly throughout the entire range, and later a difference in the sound of upper and lower notes begins to be felt, associated with the formation of registers. During puberty, the G. of boys decreases by an octave and acquires a male color. This phenomenon of mutation refers to secondary sexual characteristics and is caused by the restructuring of the body under the influence of the endocrine system. If the larynx of girls during this period grows proportionally in all directions, then the larynx of boys stretches forward more than one and a half times, forming an Adam’s apple. This dramatically changes the pitch and chant. qualities G. boy. In order to preserve outstanding singers. G. boys in Italy 17-18 centuries. castration was used. Pevch. G.’s properties of girls remain after a mutation. The tone of an adult remains basically unchanged until the age of 50-60, when, due to the withering of the body, weakness, impoverishment of timbre, and loss of the upper notes of the range are noted in it.

G. are classified according to the timbre of the sound and the height of the sounds used. Throughout the centuries of existence, Prof. singing in connection with the complication of the wok. party classification G. has undergone means. changes. Of the 4 main Types of voices that still exist in choirs (high and low female voices, high and low male voices), middle voices (mezzo-soprano and baritone) stood out, and then finer subspecies were formed. According to the accepted in present. During the classification, the following female voices are distinguished: high – coloratura soprano, lyric-coloratura soprano, lyric. soprano, lyric-dramatic soprano, dramatic soprano; middle – mezzo-soprano and low – contralto. In men, high voices are distinguished – altino tenor, lyric tenor, lyric-dramatic tenor, and dramatic tenor; middle G. – lyric baritone, lyrical-dramatic and dramatic baritone; low G. – bass is high, or melodious (cantante), and low. In the choirs, bass octaves are distinguished, capable of taking all the sounds of a large octave. There are G., occupying an intermediate place between those listed in this classification system. G.’s type depends on a number of anatomical and physiological. characteristics of the body, on the size and thickness of the vocal cords and other parts of the vocal apparatus, on the type of neuro-endocrine constitution, it is associated with temperament. In practice, G.’s type is established by a number of features, of which the main ones are: the nature of the timbre, the range, the ability to withstand tessitura, the location of transitional notes, and the excitability of the movement. nerve of the larynx (chronaxia), anatomical. signs.

Pevch. G. is most fully manifested in vowel sounds, on which singing is actually carried out. However, singing to one vowel sound without words is used only in exercises, vocalizations and when performing melodies. wok decorations. works. As a rule, music and words should be equally combined in singing. The ability to “speak” in singing, i.e., following the norms of the language, freely, purely and naturally pronounce poetic. text is an indispensable condition for prof. singing. The intelligibility of the text during singing is determined by the clarity and activity of pronouncing consonant sounds, which should only momentarily interrupt the sound of G. Vowels that form a wok. melody, must be pronounced with the preservation of a single chant. timbre, which gives the sound of the voice a special evenness. G.’s melodiousness, his ability to “flow” depends on the correct voice formation and voice leading: the ability to use the legato technique, maintaining a stable nature on each sound. vibrato.

The determining influence on the manifestation and development of singing. G. renders the so-called. vocality (convenience for singing) of the language and melodic. material. Distinguish between vocal and non-vocal languages. For wok. languages ​​are characterized by an abundance of vowels, which are pronounced fully, clearly, lightly, without nasal, deaf, guttural or deep sounding; they do not tend to have a hard pronunciation of consonants, as well as their abundance, they do not have throaty consonants. The vocal language is Italian. The melody is made vocal by smoothness, lack of jumps, calm by those, use of the middle part of the range, gradual movement, logical development, ease of auditory perception.

Pevch. G. are found at dec. ethnic groups are not equally common. On the distribution of voices, except for the vocality of the language and nat. melodics are influenced by factors such as love for music and the extent of its existence among the people, features of the national. manners of singing, especially mental. warehouse and temperament, life, etc. Italy and Ukraine are famous for their G..

References: 1) Mazel L., O melody, M., 1952; Skrebkov S., Textbook of polyphony, M., 1965; Tyulin Yu. and Rivano I., Theoretical Foundations of Harmony, M., 1965; 4) Zhinkin N. N., Mechanisms of speech, M., 1958; Fant G., Acoustic theory of speech formation, trans. from English, M., 1964; Morozov V.P., Secrets of vocal speech, L., 1967; Dmitriev L.V., Fundamentals of vocal technique, M., 1968; Mitrinovich-Modrzeevska A., Pathophysiology of speech, voice and hearing, trans. from Polish, Warsaw, 1965; Ermolaev V. G., Lebedeva H. F., Morozov V. P., Guide to phoniatrics, L., 1970; Tarneaud J., Seeman M., La voix et la parole, P., 1950; Luchsinger R., Arnold G.E., Lehrbuch der Stimme und Sprachheilkunde, W., 1959; Husson R., La voix chante, P., 1960.

F. G. Arzamanov, L. B. Dmitriev

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