Fugue |
Music Terms

Fugue |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, musical genres

lat., ital. fuga, lit. – running, flight, fast current; English, French fugue; German Fuge

1) A form of polyphonic music based on an imitative presentation of an individualized theme with further performances (1) in different voices with imitative and (or) contrapuntal processing, as well as (usually) tonal-harmonic development and completion.

Fugue is the most developed form of imitative-contrapuntal music, which has absorbed all the richness of polyphony. The content range of F. is practically unlimited, but the intellectual element prevails or is always felt in it. F. is distinguished by emotional fullness and at the same time restraint of expression. Development in F. is naturally likened to interpretation, logical. proof of the proposed thesis – the topic; in many classical In samples, all F. is “grown” from the topic (such F. are called strict, in contrast to free ones, in which material not related to the theme is introduced). The development of the form of F. is the process of changing the original music. thoughts in which continuous renewal does not lead to a different figurative quality; the emergence of a derivative contrast, in principle, is not characteristic of the classical. F. (which does not exclude cases when a development, symphonic in scope, leads to a complete rethinking of the theme: cf., for example, the sound of the theme in the exposition and during the transition to the coda in Bach’s organ. F. a minor, BWV 543). This is the essential difference between F. and sonata form. If the figurative transformations of the latter presuppose the dismemberment of the theme, then in F. – an essentially variational form – the theme retains its unity: it is carried out in different contrapuntal. compounds, keys, put in different register and harmonic. conditions, as if illuminated by different light, reveals different facets (in principle, the integrity of the theme is not violated by the fact that it varies – it sounds in circulation or, for example, in strettas, not completely; motivational isolation and fragmentation). F. is a contradictory unity of constant renewal and a multitude of stable elements: it often retains counteraddition in various combinations, interludes and strettas are often variants of each other, a constant number of equivalent voices is preserved, and the tempo does not change throughout F. (exceptions, for example, in works by L. Beethoven are rare). F. assumes a careful deliberation of the composition in all details; actually polyphonic. specificity is expressed in a combination of extreme rigor, rationalism of construction with freedom of execution in each specific case: there are almost no “rules” for constructing F., and the forms of F. are infinitely diverse, although they are based on a combination of only 5 elements – themes, responses, oppositions, interludes and strets. They form the structural and semantic sections of philosophy, which have expositional, developing, and final functions. Their various subordination forms varieties of forms of philosophies — 2-part, 3-part, and others. music; she developed to ser. 17th century, throughout its history was enriched by all the achievements of the muses. art-va and still remains a form that is not alienated by either new images or the latest means of expression. F. looked for an analogy in the compositional techniques of painting by M. K. Chiurlionis (tempera Fugue, 1908).

The theme F., or (obsolete) leader (Latin dux; German Fugenthema, Subjekt, Fuhrer; English subject; Italian soggetto; French sujet), is relatively complete in music. thoughts and a structured melody, which is held in the 1st of the incoming voices. Different duration – from 1 (F. from Bach’s solo violin sonata No. 1) to 9-10 bars – depends on the nature of the music (themes in slow F. are usually short; mobile themes are longer, homogeneous in rhythmic pattern, for example, in finale of the quartet op.59 No 3 by Beethoven), from the performer. means (the themes of organ, choral figurines are longer than those of violin, clavier). The theme has a catchy melodic rhythm. appearance, thanks to which each of its introductions is clearly distinguishable. The individualization of the theme is the difference between F. as a form of free style and imitation. forms of a strict style: the concept of a theme was alien to the latter, stretta presentation prevailed, melodic. drawings of voices were formed in the process of imitation. In F. the theme is presented from beginning to end as something given, formed. The theme is the main music. F.’s thought, expressed unanimously. The early examples of F. are more characterized by short and poorly individualized themes. Classic the type of theme developed in the work of J. S. Bach and G. F. Handel. Topics are divided into contrasting and non-contrasting (homogeneous), single-tone (non-modulating) and modulating. Homogeneous are the themes based on one motive (see the example below, a) or several close motives (see the example below, b); in some cases the motif varies by variation (see example, c).

a) J.S. Bach. Fugue in c-moll from the 1st volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier, theme. b) J. S. Bach. Fugue A-dur for Organ, BWV 536, Theme. c) J. S. Bach. Fugue fis-moll from the 1st volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier, theme.

Themes based on the opposition of melodically and rhythmically different motives are considered contrasting (see the example below, a); the depth of contrast increases when one of the motives (often the initial one) contains the mind. interval (see examples in Art. Free style, column 891).

In such topics, the basics differ. thematic a core (sometimes separated by a pause), a developmental (usually sequential) section, and a conclusion (see example below, b). Non-modulating themes predominate, which begin and end in the same key. In modulating themes, the direction of modulation is limited to the dominant (see examples in column 977).

Themes are characterized by tonal clarity: more often the theme begins with a weak beat of one of the tonic sounds. triads (among the exceptions are F. Fis-dur and B-dur from the 2nd volume of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier; further this name will be abbreviated, without indicating the author – “HTK”), usually ends on a strong tonic time. third.

a) J. S. Bach. Brandenburg Concerto No 6, 2nd movement, theme with accompanying voices. b) J. S. Bach. Fugue in C major for Organ, BWV 564, Theme.

Within the theme, deviations are possible, more often into the subdominant (in F. fis-moll from the 1st volume of the CTC, also into the dominant); emerging chromatic. further investigations of tonal clarity do not violate, since each of their sound has a definite. harmonic base. Passing chromaticisms are not typical for J.S. Bach’s themes. If the topic ends before the introduction of the answer, then a codetta is introduced to link it with the counteraddition (Es-dur, G-dur from the 1st volume of the “HTK”; see also the example below, a). In many Bach’s themes are markedly influenced by the traditions of the old choir. polyphony, which affects the linearity of polyphonic. melodics, in stretta form (see example below, b).

J. S. Bach. Fugue in e minor for organ, BWV 548, subject and beginning of reply.

However, most topics are characterized by dependence on the underlying harmonics. sequences, which “shine through” melodic. picture; in this, in particular, the dependence of F. 17-18 centuries is manifested. from the new homophonic music (see the example in Art. Free style, column 889). There is hidden polyphony in the themes; it is revealed as a descending metric-reference line (see the theme of F. c-moll from the 1st volume of the “HTK”); in some cases, the hidden voices are so developed that an imitation is formed within the theme (see examples a and b).

harmonic fullness and melodic. the saturation of the hidden polyphony in the themes in the mean. degrees were the reason that F. are written for a small number of votes (3-4); 6-,7-voice in F. is usually associated with an old (often choral) type of theme.

J. S. Bach. Mecca h-moll, No 6, “Gratias agimus tibi”, beginning (orchestral accompaniment omitted).

The genre nature of themes in baroque music is complex, since typical thematicism developed gradually and absorbed the melodic. features of those forms that preceded F. In majestic org. arrangements, in the choir. F. from the masses and passions of Bach, the chorale is the basis of the themes. Folk song thematics is represented in many ways. samples (F. dis-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”; org. F. g-moll, BWV 578). The resemblance to the song is enhanced when the theme and response or the 1st and 3rd movements are similar to sentences in a period (fughetta I from the Goldberg Variations; org. toccata E-dur, section in 3/4, BWV 566)..

a) I. S. Bax. Chromatic fantasy and fugue, fugue theme. b) J. S. Bach. Fugue in g minor for organ, BWV 542, theme.

Bach’s thematicism has many points of contact with dance. music: the theme of F. c-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK” is connected with the bourre; topic org. F. g-moll, BWV 542, originated from the song-dance “Ick ben gegroet”, referring to the allemandes of the 17th century. (see Protopopov Vl., 1965, p. 88). G. Purcell’s themes contain jig rhythms. Less commonly, Bach’s themes, the simpler, “poster” themes of Handel, are penetrated by dec. types of opera melodics, for example. recitative (F. d-moll from Handel’s 2nd Ensem), typical of the heroic. arias (F. D-dur from the 1st volume of “HTK”; concluding chorus from the oratorio “Messiah” by Handel). In topics, repetitive intonations are used. turnovers – the so-called. music-rhetoric. figures (see Zakharova O., 1975). A. Schweitzer defended the point of view, according to which Bach’s themes are depicted. and symbolic. meaning. Direct influence of the thematicism of Handel (in Haydn’s oratorios, in the finale of Beethoven’s symphony No. 9) and Bach (F. in chor. op. op. 1 by Beethoven, P. for Schumann, for organ Brahms) was constant and strong (to the point of coincidence: the theme of F. cis-moll from the 131st volume of “HTK” in Agnus from Schubert’s Mass Es-dur). Along with this, new qualities are introduced into the themes of F. relating to genre origin, figurative structure, structure, and harmony. features. Thus, the theme of the fugue Allegro from the overture to the opera The Magic Flute by Mozart has the features of a scherzo; excitedly lyrical F. from his own sonata for violin, K.-V. 1. A new feature of the themes in the 402th century f. was the use of songwriting. These are the themes of Schubert’s fugues (see example below, a). Folk-song element (F. from the introduction to “Ivan Susanin”; Rimsky-Korsakov’s fughettas based on folk songs), sometimes romance melodiousness (fp. F. a-moll Glinka, d-moll Lyadov, intonations of the elegy at the beginning of the cantata ” John of Damascus” Taneyev) are distinguished by the themes of Rus. masters, the traditions of which were continued by D. D. Shostakovich (F. from the oratorio “Song of the Forests”), V. Ya. Shebalin and others. Nar. music remains a source of intonation. and genre enrichment (19 recitatives and fugues by Khachaturian, 7 preludes and phrasing for piano by the Uzbek composer G. A. Muschel; see the example below, b), sometimes in combination with the latest means of expression (see the example below, c) . F. on a jazz theme by D. Millau belongs more to the field of paradoxes ..

a) P. Schubert. Mecca No 6 Es-dur, Credo, bars 314-21, fugue theme. b) G. A. Muschel. 24 preludes and fugues for piano, fugue theme b-moll. c) B. Bartok. Fugue from Sonata for Solo Violin, Theme.

In the 19th and 20th centuries fully retain the value of the classic. types of structure of the theme (homogeneous – F. for violin solo No 1 op. 131a Reger; contrasting – final F. from the cantata “John of Damascus” by Taneyev; 1st part of the sonata No 1 for piano Myaskovsky; as a stylization – 2nd part “Symphony of Psalms” by Stravinsky).

At the same time, composers find other (less universal) ways of constructing: periodicity in the nature of the homophonic period (see the example below, a); variable motivic periodicity aa1 (see example below, b); varied paired repetition aa1 bb1 (see example below, c); repetitiveness (see example below, d; also F. fis-moll op. 87 by Shostakovich); rhythmic ostinato (F. C-dur from the cycle “24 Preludes and Fugues” by Shchedrin); ostinato in the developmental part (see example below, e); continuous motive update of abcd (particularly in dodecaphone themes; see example f). In the strongest way, the appearance of the themes changes under the influence of new harmonics. ideas. In the 19th century one of the most radically thinking composers in this direction was P. Liszt; his themes have an unprecedentedly large range (fugato in the h-moll sonata is about 2 octaves), they differ in intonation. sharpness..

a) D. D. Shostakovich, Fugue in E minor op. 87, subject. b) M. Ravel. Fuga iz fp. suite “Tomb of Cuperina”, theme. c) B. Bartok. Music for strings, percussion and cello, part 1, theme. d) D. D. Shostakovich. Fugue in A major op. 87, subject. f) P. Xindemith. Sonata.

Features of the new polyphony of the 20th century. appear in the ironic in meaning, almost dodecaphonic theme of R. Strauss from symphony. poem “Thus Spoke Zarathustra”, where the triads Ch-Es-A-Des are compared (see example below, a). Topics of the 20th century deviations and modulations into distant keys occur (see example below, b), passing chromatisms become a normative phenomenon (see example below, c); chromatic harmonic the basis leads to the complexity of the sound embodiment of the arts. image (see example below, d). In the topics of F. new technical. techniques: atonality (F. in Berg’s Wozzeck), dodecaphony (1st part of Slonimsky’s buff concerto; improvisation and F. for piano Schnittke), sonorants (fugato “In Sante Prison” from Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 14) and aleatory (see example below) effects. The ingenious idea of ​​composing F. for percussion (3rd movement of Greenblat’s Symphony No. 4) belongs to a field that lies outside the nature of F..

a) R. Strauss. Symphonic poem “Thus Spoke Zarathustra”, the theme of the fugue. b) H. K. Medtner. Thunderstorm sonata for piano. op. 53 No 2, beginning of the fugue. c) A. K. Glazunov. Prelude and Fugue cis-moll op. 101 No 2 for fp., fugue theme. d) H. Ya. Myaskovsky.

V. Lutoslavsky. Preludes and Fugue for 13 String Instruments, Fugue Theme.

The imitation of a theme in the key of a dominant or subdominant is called an answer or (obsolete) companion (Latin comes; German Antwort, Comes, Gefährte; English answer; Italian risposta; French reponse). Any holding of a theme in the key of a dominant or subdominant in any part of the form where the main dominates is also called an answer. tonality, as well as in secondary tonalities, if during imitation the same pitch ratio of the theme and answer is preserved as in the exposition (the common name “octave answer”, denoting the entry of the 2nd voice into the octave, is somewhat inaccurate, because in fact there are first 2 introductions of the theme, then 2 responses also in octave; for example, No 7 from the oratorio “Judas Maccabee” by Handel).

Modern The theory defines the answer more broadly, namely, as a function in F., i.e., the moment of switching on the imitating voice (in any interval), which is essential in the composition of the form. In imitation forms of the era of strict style, imitations were used at different intervals, but over time, the quarto-fifth becomes predominant (see an example in Art. Fugato, column 995).

There are 2 types of response in ricercars – real and tone. An answer that accurately reproduces the theme (its step, often also tone value), called. real. The answer, at the very beginning containing melodic. changes arising from the fact that the I stage of the topic corresponds to the V stage (basic tone) in the answer, and the V stage corresponds to the I stage, called. tonal (see example below, a).

In addition, a theme that modulates into the dominant key is answered with a reverse modulation from the dominant key to the main key (see example below, b).

In the music of strict writing, there was no need for a tonal response (although sometimes it was met: in Kyrie and Christe eleison from the mass on L’homme armé of Palestrina, the answer is real, in Qui tollis there it is tonal), since chromatic ones were not accepted. changes in steps, and small topics easily “fit” into a real answer. In a free style with the approval of major and minor, as well as a new type of instr. wide-ranging topics, there was a need for polyphonic. reflection of the dominant tonic-dominant functional relationships. In addition, emphasizing steps, the tonal response keeps the beginning of F. in the sphere of attraction of the main. tonality.

Tone response rules were followed strictly; exceptions were made either for topics rich in chromaticism, or in cases where tonal changes greatly distorted the melodic. drawing (see, for example, F. e-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”).

The subdominant response is used less frequently. If the theme is dominated by dominant harmony or sound, then a subdominant response is introduced (Contrapunctus X from The Art of Fugue, org. Toccata in d-moll, BWV 565, P. from Sonata for Skr. Solo No 1 in G-moll, BWV 1001, Bach ); sometimes in F. with a long deployment, both types of response are used, that is, dominant and subdominant (F. cis-moll from the 1st volume of the CTC; No. 35 from the oratorio Solomon by Handel).

From the beginning 20th century in connection with the new tonal and harmonic. representations, compliance with the norms of the tone response turned into a tribute to tradition, which gradually ceased to be observed ..

a) J. S. Bach. The art of the fugue. Contrapunctus I, subject and answer. b) J. S. Bach. Fugue in C Minor on a Theme by Legrenzi for Organ, BWV 574, Subject and Response.

Contraposition (German Gegenthema, Gegensatz, Begleitkontrapunkt des Comes, Kontrasubjekt; English countersubject; French contre-sujet; Italian contro-soggetto, contrassoggetto) – counterpoint to the answer (see Countersubject).

Interlude (from lat. intermedius – located in the middle; German Zwischenspiel, Zwischensatz, Interludium, Intermezzo, Episode, Andamento (the latter is also the theme of F. large size); ital. fun, episode, trend; франц. entertainment, episode, andamento; english. fugal episode; the terms “episode”, “interlude”, “divertimento” in the sense of “interlude in F.” in literature in Russian. yaz. out of use; occasionally this is used to designate an interlude with a new way of developing the material or on new material) in F. – building between the topic. Interlude on express. and the structural essence are opposite to the conduct of the theme: an interlude is always the construction of a median (developmental) character, main. subject area development in F., contributing to the refreshment of the sound of the then entering theme and creating a characteristic for F. form fluidity. There are interludes that connect the conduct of the topic (usually within a section) and actually developing (separating the conduct). So, for the exposition, an interlude is typical, connecting the answer with the introduction of the theme in the 3rd voice (F. D-dur from the 2nd volume of “HTK”), less often – a theme with the introduction of an answer in the 4th voice (F. b-moll from the 2nd volume) or with add. holding (F. F major from volume 2). Such small interludes are called bundles or codettes. Interludes dr. types, as a rule, are larger in size and are used either between sections of the form (for example, when moving from an exposition to a developing section (F. C-dur from the 2nd volume of “HTK”), from it to the reprise (F. h-moll from the 2nd volume)), or inside the developing one (F. As-dur from the 2nd volume) or reprise (F. F-dur from the 2nd volume) section; the construction in the character of the interlude, located at the end of the F., is called completion (see. F. D major from the 1st volume «HTK»). Interludes are usually based on the motives of the theme – the initial (F. c-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”) or the final one (F. c-moll from the 2nd volume, measure 9), often also on the material of the opposition (F. f-moll from the 1st volume), sometimes – codettes (F. Es-dur from the 1st volume). The solo. material opposed to the theme is relatively rare, but such interludes usually play an important role in phrasing. (Kyrie No 1 from Bach’s mass in h-moll). In special cases, interludes are brought into F. element of improvisation (harmonic-figurative interludes in org. toccate in d minor, BWV 565). The structure of the interludes is fractional; among the methods of development, the 1st place is occupied by the sequence – simple (bars 5-6 in F. c-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”) or the canonical 1st (ibid., bars 9-10, with additional. voice) and 2nd category (F. fis-moll from the 1st volume, bar 7), usually no more than 2-3 links with a second or third step. Isolation of motifs, sequences and vertical rearrangements bring the great interlude closer to development (F. Cis-dur from the 1st volume, bars 35-42). In some F. interludes return, sometimes forming sonata relationships (cf. bars 33 and 66 in F. f-moll from the 2nd volume of “HTK”) or the system of contrapuntal varied episodes (F. c-moll and G-dur from the 1st volume), and their gradual structural complication is characteristic (F. from the suite “Tomb of Couperin” by Ravel). Thematically “condensed” F. without interludes or with small interludes are rare (F. Kyrie from Mozart’s Requiem). Such F. subject to skillful contrapuntal. developments (stretty, misc. theme transformations) approach the ricercar – fuga ricercata or figurata (P. C-dur from the 1st volume «HTK»; P.

Stretta – intense imitation. carrying out the theme F., in which the imitating voice enters until the end of the theme in the beginning voice; stretta can be written in simple or canonical form. imitations. Exposure (from lat. exposition – exposition; Nem. joint exposition, first performance; English, French. exposure; ital. esposizione) is called the 1st imitation. group in F., vol. e. 1st section in F., consisting of the initial introductions of the theme in all voices. Monophonic beginnings are common (except for F. accompanied, eg. Kyrie No 1 from Bach’s mass in h-moll) and alternating theme with response; sometimes this order is violated (F. G-dur, f-moll, fis-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”); choral F., in which non-adjacent voices are imitated in an octave (theme-theme and answer-answer: (final F. from the oratorio “The Four Seasons” by Haydn) are called octaves. The answer is entered at the same time. with the end of the theme (F. dis-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”) or after it (F. Fis-dur, ibid.); F., in which the answer enters before the end of the topic (F. E-dur from the 1st volume, Cis-dur from the 2nd volume of “HTK”), are called stretto, compressed. In 4-goal. expositions voices often enter in pairs (F. D-dur from the 1st volume of “HTK”), which is associated with the traditions of the fugue presentation of the era of strict writing. Big will express. the order of introductions matters: the exposition is often planned in such a way that each incoming voice is extreme, well distinguishable (this, however, is not a rule: see below). F. g-moll from the 1st volume of the “HTK”), which is especially important in organ, clavier F., for example. tenor – alto – soprano – bass (F. D-dur from the 2nd volume of “HTK”; org. F. D-dur, BWV 532), alto – soprano – tenor – bass (F. c-moll from the 2nd volume of “HTK”), etc.; the introductions from the upper voice to the lower have the same dignity (F. e-moll, ibid.), as well as a more dynamic order of entry of voices – from the bottom to the top (F. cis-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”). The boundaries of sections in such a fluid form as F. are conditional; the exposition is considered completed when the topic and the answer are held in all voices; the subsequent interlude belongs to the exposition if it has a cadence (F. c-moll, g-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”); otherwise, it belongs to the developing section (F. As-dur, ibid.). When the exposition turns out to be too short or a particularly detailed exposure is required, one is introduced (in a 4-head. F. D-dur from the 1st volume of “HTK” effect of the introduction of the 5th voice) or several. add. held (3 in 4-go. org F. g-moll, BWV 542). Additional performances in all voices form a counter-exposition (F. E-dur from the 1st volume of “HTK”); it is typical of a different order of introductions than in the exposition and the reverse distribution of the topic and answer by votes; Bach’s counter-exposures tend to be contrapuntal. development (in F. F-dur from the 1st volume “HTK” — stretta, in F. G-dur – reversal of the topic). Occasionally, within the limits of the exposition, transformations are made in response, which is why special types of F. arise: in circulation (Contrapunctus V from Bach’s The Art of Fugue; F. XV of 24 Preludes and F. for fp. Shchedrin), reduced (Contrapunctus VI from The Art of Fugue), enlarged (Contrapunctus VII, ibid.). Exposure is tonally stable and the most stable part of the form; its long-established structure was preserved (as a principle) in the production. 20 in. At 19 in. experiments were undertaken to organize the exposure on the basis of imitation in non-traditional for F. intervals (A. Reich), however, in the arts. they entered practice only in the 20th century. under the influence of harmonic freedom of new music (F. from the quintet or. 16 Taneeva: c-es-gc; P. in “Thunderous Sonata” for piano. Metnera: fis-g; in F. B-dur up. 87 Shostakovich’s answer in a parallel key; in F. in F from Hindemith’s “Ludus tonalis” the answer is in decima, in A in third; in antonal triple F. from the 2nd d. “Wozzeka” Berga, takt 286, ответы в ув. nonu, malu, sextu, um. fifth). Exposition F. sometimes endowed with developing properties, for example. in the cycle “24 Preludes and Fugues” by Shchedrin (meaning changes in the answer, inaccurately retained oppositions in F. XNUMX, XNUMX). Section F., following the exposition, is called developing (it. lead-through part, middle part; English development section; франц. partie du dévetopment; ital. partie di sviluppo), sometimes – the middle part or development, if the interludes contained in it use the techniques of motivic transformation. Possible contrapuntal. (complex counterpoint, stretta, theme transformations) and tonal harmonic. (modulation, reharmonization) means of development. The developing section does not have a strictly established structure; usually this is an unstable construction, representing a series of single or group holdings in keys, to-rykh was not in the exposition. The order of introduction of keys is free; at the beginning of the section, a parallel tonality is usually used, giving a new modal coloring (F. Es-dur, g-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”), at the end of the section – the keys of the subdominant group (in F. F-dur from the 1st volume – d-moll and g-moll); are not excluded, etc. variants of tonal development (for example, in F. f-moll from the 2nd volume «HTK»: As-dur-Es-dur-c-moll). Going beyond the limits of the tonality of the 1st degree of kinship is characteristic of F. later (F. d-moll from Mozart’s Requiem: F-dur-g-moll-c-moll-B-dur-f-moll). The developing section contains at least one presentation of the topic (F. Fis-dur from the 1st volume of “HTK”), but usually there are more of them; group holdings are often built according to the type of correlation between the topic and the answer (F. f-moll from the 2nd volume of “HTK”), so that sometimes the developing section resembles an exposition in a secondary key (F. e-moll, ibid.). In the developing section, strettas, theme transformations are widely used (F. dis-moll from the 1st volume, E-dur from the 2nd volume «HTK»), interludes (in F.

A sign of the final section of F. (German: SchluYateil der Fuge) is a strong return to the main. key (often, but not necessarily related to the theme: in F. F-dur from the 1st volume of “HTK” in measures 65-68, the theme “dissolves” in figuration; in measures 23-24 F. D-dur 1st the motive is “enlarged” by imitation, the 2nd in bars 25-27 – by chords). The section may begin with a response (F. f-moll, measure 47, from the 1st volume; F. Es-dur, measure 26, from the same volume – a derivative of the additional lead) or in the subdominant key of ch. arr. for fusion with the previous development (F. B-dur from the 1st volume, measure 37; Fis-dur from the same volume, measure 28 – derived from the additional lead; Fis-dur from the 2nd volume, measure 52 – after analogy with counter-exposure), which is also found in completely different harmonies. conditions (F. in G in Hindemith’s Ludus tonalis, bar 54). The final section in Bach’s fugues is usually shorter (the developed reprise in F. f-moll from the 2nd volume is an exception) than the exposition (in 4-goal F. f-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK” 2 performances) , up to the size of a small cadenza (F. G-dur from the 2nd volume of “HTK”). To strengthen the basic key, a subdominant holding of the theme is often introduced (F. F-dur, bar 66, and f-moll, bar 72, from the 2nd volume of the “HTK”). Votes in concluding. section, as a rule, are not turned off; in some cases, the compaction of the invoice is expressed in the conclusion. chord presentation (F. D-dur and g-moll from the 1st volume of “HTK”). With will conclude. the section sometimes combines the culmination of the form, often associated with the stretta (F. g-moll from the 1st volume). Conclude. the character is strengthened by chordal texture (the last 2 measures of the same F.); the section may have a conclusion like a small coda (the last bars of the F. c-moll from the 1st volume of the “HTK”, underlined by the tonic. org. paragraph; in the mentioned F. in G of Hindemith – basso ostinato); in other cases, the final section may be open: it either has a continuation of a different kind (for example, when the F. is part of a sonata development), or is involved in an extensive coda of the cycle, which is close in character to the entry. piece (org. prelude and P. a-moll, BWV 543). The term “reprise” to conclude. section F. can only be applied conditionally, in a general sense, with the obligatory consideration of strong differences. section F. from exposition.

From imitation. forms of strict style, F. inherited the techniques of exposition structure (Kyrie from the Pange lingua mass by Josquin Despres) and the tonal response. F.’s predecessor for several. that was the motet. Originally wok. form, motet then moved to instr. music (Josquin Deprez, G. Isak) and was used in the canzone, in which the next section is polyphonic. variant of the previous one. The fugues of D. Buxtehude (see, for example, org. prelude and P. d-moll: prelude – P. – quasi Recitativo – variant F. – conclusion) are actually canzones. F.’s closest predecessor was the one-dark organ or clavier ricercar (one-darkness, thematic richness of the stretta texture, techniques for transforming the theme, but the absence of interludes characteristic of F.); F. call their ricercars S. Sheidt, I. Froberger. G. Frescobaldi’s canzones and ricercars, as well as the organ and clavier capriccios and fantasies of Ya. The process of formation of the F. form was gradual; indicate a certain “1st F.” impossible.

Among the early samples, a form is common, in which the developing (German zweite Durchführung) and final sections are exposure options (see Repercussion, 1), thus, the form is compiled as a chain of counter-exposures (in the mentioned work. Buxtehude F. consists of an exposition and 2 of its variants). One of the most important achievements of the time of G. F. Handel and J. S. Bach was the introduction of tonal development into philosophy. The key moments of the tonal movement in F. are marked by clear (usually complete perfect) cadences, which in Bach often do not coincide with the boundaries of the exposition (in F. D-dur from the 1st volume of the CTC, the imperfect cadence in measure 9 “pulls in” h-moll-noe leading into exposition), developing and final sections and “cut” them (in the same F. a perfect cadence in e-moll in bar 17 in the middle of the developing section divides the form into 2 parts). There are numerous varieties of the two-part form: F. C-dur from the 1st volume of the “HTK” (cadenza a-moll, measure 14), F. Fis-dur from the same volume approaches the old two-part form (cadenza on the dominant, measure 17, cadence in dis-moll in the middle of the developmental section, bar 23); features of an old sonata in F. d-moll from the 1st volume (the stretta, which concludes the 1st movement, is transposed at the end of the F. into the main key: cf. bars 17-21 and 39-44). An example of a three-part form – F. e-moll from the 1st volume of the “HTK” with a clear beginning will conclude. section (measure 20).

A special variety is F., in which deviations and modulations are not excluded, but the implementation of the topic and the answer are given only in the main. and dominant (org. F. c-moll Bach, BWV 549), occasionally – in the conclusion. section – in subdominant (Contrapunctus I from Bach’s Art of Fugue) keys. Such F. sometimes referred to as monotonous (cf. Grigoriev S. S., Muller T. F., 1961), stable-tonal (Zolotarev V. A., 1932), tonic-dominant. The basis of development in them is usually one or another contrapuntal. combinations (see stretches in F. Es-dur from the 2nd volume of “HTK”), reharmonization and transformation of the theme (two-part F. C-moll, three-part F. d-moll from the 2nd volume of “HTK”). Somewhat archaic already in the era of I. C. Bach, these forms are found only occasionally in later times (the finale of divertissement No. 1 for Haydn baritones, Hob. XI 53). The rondo-shaped form occurs when a fragment of the main is included in the developing section. tonality (in F. Cis-dur from the 1st volume of “HTK”, measure 25); Mozart addressed this form (F. c-moll for strings. quartet, K.-V. 426). Many of Bach’s fugues have sonata features (for example, Coupe No. 1 from Mass in h-moll). In the forms of the post-Bach time, the influence of the norms of homophonic music is noticeable, and a clear three-part form comes to the fore. Historian. The achievement of the Viennese symphonists was the convergence of the sonata form and the F. form, carried out either as a fugue of the sonata form (the finale of Mozart’s G-dur quartet, K.-V. 387), or as a symphonization of F., in particular, the transformation of the developing section into a sonata development (the finale of the quartet, op. 59 No. 3 of Beethoven). On the basis of these achievements, products were created. in homophonic-polyphonic. forms (combinations of sonata with double F. in the finale of Bruckner’s 5th symphony, with a quadruple F. in the final chorus of the cantata “After reading the psalm” by Taneyev, with double F. in the 1st part of the symphony “The Artist Mathis” by Hindemith) and outstanding examples of symphonies. F. (1st part of the 1st orchestra. suites by Tchaikovsky, finale of the cantata “John of Damascus” by Taneyev, orc. Reger’s Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Mozart. The gravitation towards the originality of expression, characteristic of the art of romanticism, also extended to the forms of F. (properties of fantasy in org. F. on the theme of BACH Liszt, expressed in bright dynamic. contrasts, the introduction of episodic material, freedom of tone). In the music of the 20th century traditional are used. F. forms, but at the same time there is a noticeable tendency to use the most complex polyphonic. tricks (see No 4 from the cantata “After reading the Psalm” by Taneyev). Tradition. shape is sometimes a consequence of specificity. nature of neoclassical art (final concerto for 2 fp. Stravinsky). In many cases, composers seek to find in the traditions. unused express form. possibilities, filling it with unconventional harmonic. content (in F. C-dur up. 87 Shostakovich’s answer is Mixolydian, cf. part – in the natural modes of the minor mood, and the reprise – with the Lydian stretta) or using a new harmonic. and texturing. Along with this, the authors F. in the 20th century create completely individual forms. So, in F. in F from Hindemith’s “Ludus tonalis” the 2nd movement (from measure 30) is a derivative of the 1st movement in a rakish movement. F symmetry.

In addition to single volumes, there are also F. on 2, less often 3 or 4 topics. Distinguish F. on several. those and F. complex (for 2 – double, for 3 – triple); their difference is that complex F. involves contrapuntal. a combination of topics (all or some). F. on several themes historically come from a motet and represent the following of several F. on different topics (there are 2 of them in the org. prelude and F. a-moll Buxtehude). This kind of F. found among org. choral arrangements; 6-goal F. “Aus tiefer Not schrei’ich zu dir” by Bach (BWV 686) consists of expositions that precede each stanza of the chorale and are built on their material; such a F. is called strophic (sometimes the German term Schichtenaufbau is used – building in layers; see the example in column 989).

For complex F. deep figurative contrasts are not characteristic; its themes only set off each other (the 2nd is usually more mobile and less individualized). There are F. with a joint exposition of themes (double: org. F. h-moll Bach on a theme by Corelli, BWV 579, F. Kyrie from Mozart’s Requiem, piano prelude and F. op. 29 Taneyev; triple: 3-head. invention f-moll Bach, prelude A-dur from the 1st volume of “HTK”; fourth F. in the finale of the cantata “After reading the Psalm” by Taneyev) and technically simpler F. with separate expositions (double: F. gis-moll from 2 th volume of “HTK”, F. e-moll and d-moll op. 87 by Shostakovich, P. in A from “Ludus tonalis” by Hindemith, triple: P. fis-moll from the 2nd volume of “HTK”, org. F. Es-dur, BWV 552, Contrapunctus XV from The Art of the Fugue by Bach, No 3 from the cantata After Reading the Psalm by Taneyev, F. in C from Hindemith’s Ludus tonalis). Some F. are of a mixed type: in the F. cis-moll from the 1st volume of the CTC, the 1st theme is counterpointed in the presentation of the 2nd and 3rd topics; in 120th P. from Diabelli’s Variations on a Theme, op. 10 Beethoven themes are presented in pairs; in F. from the development of the 1th symphony of Myaskovsky, the 2st and 3nd themes are jointly exhibited, and the XNUMXrd separately.

J. S. Bach. Organ arrangement of the chorale “Aus tiefer Not schrei’ ich zu dir”, 1st exposition.

In complex photography, the norms of the structure of the exposition are observed when presenting the 1st topic; exposure etc. the less strict.

A special variety is represented by F. for chorale. Thematically independent F. is a kind of background for the chorale, which from time to time (for example, in the interludes of F.) is performed in large durations that contrast with the movement of F.. A similar form is found among org. choral arrangements by Bach (“Jesu, meine Freude”, BWV 713); an outstanding example is the double P. to the chorale Confiteor No. 19 from the mass in b-moll. After Bach, this form is rare (for example, the double F. from Mendelssohn’s Organ Sonata No. 3; the final F. of Taneyev’s cantata John of Damascus); the idea of ​​including a chorale in the development of F. was implemented in the Prelude, Chorale and Fugue for piano. Frank, in F. No 15 H-dur from “24 Preludes and Fugues” for piano. G. Muschel.

F. arose as an instrumental form, and instrumentalism (with all the significance of wok. F.) remained the main. sphere, in which it developed in the subsequent time. The role of F. constantly increased: starting from J. B. Lully, she penetrated the French. overture, I. Ya Froberger used a fugue presentation in a gigue (in a suite), Italian. the masters introduced F. в сонату from church и gross concert. In the 2nd half. 17 in. F. united with the prelude, passacaglia, entered the toccata (D. Buxtehude, G. Muffat); Ph.D. branch instr. F. — org. choral arrangements. F. found application in masses, oratorios, cantatas. Pazl. development trends F. got a classic. embodiment in the work of I. C. Bach. Main polyphonic. Bach’s cycle was the two-part cycle of prelude-F., which has retained its significance to this day (some composers of the 20th century, for example. Čiurlionis, sometimes preceded by F. several preludes). Another essential tradition, also coming from Bach, is the association of F. (sometimes together with preludes) in large cycles (2 volumes “XTK”, “The Art of the Fugue”); this form in the 20th century. develop P. Hin-demit, D. D. Shostakovich, R. TO. Shchedrin, G. A. Muschel and others. F. was used in a new way by the Viennese classics: it was used as a form of Ph.D. from parts of the sonata-symphony. cycle, in Beethoven – as one of the variations in the cycle or as a section of the form, for example. sonata (usually fugato, not F.). Achievements of the Bach time in the field of F. have been widely used in masters of the 19th-20th centuries. F. is used not only as the final part of the cycle, but in some cases replaces the sonata Allegro (for example, in the 2nd symphony of Saint-Saens); in the cycle “Prelude, chorale and fugue” for piano. Franka F. has sonata outlines, and the whole composition is regarded as a great sonata-fantasy. In variations F. often occupies the position of a generalizing final (I. Brams, M. Reger). Fugato in development c.-l. from the parts of the symphony grows to a complete F. and often becomes the center of form (the finale of Rachmaninoff’s Symphony No. 3; Myaskovsky’s Symphonies No. 10, 21); in the shape of F. can be stated to.-l. from the themes of (side part in the 1st movement of Myaskovsky’s quartet No. 13). In music of the 19th and 20th centuries. the figurative structure of F. In an unexpected perspective romantic. a lyricist. thumbnail appears fp. Schumann’s fugue (op. 72 No 1) and the only 2-goal. fugue by Chopin. Sometimes (starting with Haydn’s The Four Seasons, No. 19) F. serves to depict. purposes (the picture of the battle in Macbeth by Verdi; the course of the river in Symph. the poem “Vltava” by Smetana; “the shooting episode” in the 2nd movement of Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 11); in F. romantic comes through. figurativeness – grotesque (the finale of Berlioz’s Fantastic Symphony), demonism (op. F. Leaves), irony (symph. Strauss’s “Thus Said Zarathustra” in some cases F. – the bearer of the heroic image (introduction from the opera “Ivan Susanin” by Glinka; symphony. the poem “Prometheus” by Liszt); among the best examples of comedic interpretation of F. include a fight scene from the end of the 2nd d. the opera “Mastersingers of Nuremberg” by Wagner, the final ensemble from the opera “Falstaff” by Verdi. The only case of its kind using F.

2) The term, the Crimea at 14 – early. 17th century the canon was designated (in the modern sense of the word), that is, continuous imitation in 2 or more voices. “Fuga is the identity of the parts of the composition in terms of duration, name, form, and in terms of their sounds and pauses” (I. Tinktoris, 1475, in the book: Musical Aesthetics of the Western European Middle Ages and Renaissance, p. 370). Historically F. close such canonical. genres like Italian. caccia (caccia) and French. shas (chasse): the usual image of hunting in them is associated with the “pursuit” of the imitated voice, from which the name F comes. In the 2nd floor. 15th c. the expression Missa ad fugam arises, denoting a mass written using canonical. techniques (d’Ortho, Josquin Despres, Palestrina).

J. Okegem. Fugue, beginning.

In the 16th century distinguished F. strict (Latin legata) and free (Latin sciolta); in the 17th century F. legata gradually “dissolved” in the concept of canon, F. sciolta “outgrew” in F. in modern. sense. Since in F. 14-15 centuries. the voices did not differ in the drawing, these compositions were recorded on the same line with the designation of the decoding method (see about this in the collection: Questions of musical form, issue 2, M., 1972, p. 7). Fuga canonica in Epidiapente (i.e. canonical P. in the upper fifth) is found in Bach’s Musical Offering; 2-goal canon with additional voice is F. in B from Hindemith’s Ludus tonalis.

3) Fugue in the 17th century. – musical rhetoric. a figure that imitates running with the help of a quick succession of sounds when the corresponding word is chanted (see Figure).

References: Arensky A., Guide to the study of the forms of instrumental and vocal music, part XNUMX. 1, M., 1893, 1930; Klimov M. G., A brief guide to the study of counterpoint, canon and fugue, M., 1911; Zolotarev V. A., Fugue. Guide to practical study, M., 1932, 1965; Tyulin Yu., Crystallization of thematism in the work of Bach and his predecessors, “SM”, 1935, No 3; Skrebkov S., Polyphonic analysis, M. – L., 1940; his own, Textbook of polyphony, ch. 1-2, M. – L., 1951, M., 1965; Sposobin I. V., Musical form, M. – L., 1947, 1972; Several letters from S. AND. Taneyev on musical and theoretical issues, note. Vl. Protopopov, in the book: S. AND. Taneev. materials and documents, etc. 1, M., 1952; Dolzhansky A., Regarding the fugue, “SM”, 1959, No 4, the same, in his book: Selected Articles, L., 1973; his own, 24 preludes and fugues by D. Shostakovich, L., 1963, 1970; Kershner L. M., Folk origins of Bach’s melody, M., 1959; Mazel L., Structure of musical works, M., 1960, add., M., 1979; Grigoriev S. S., Muller T. F., Textbook of polyphony, M., 1961, 1977; Dmitriev A. N., Polyphony as a factor of shaping, L., 1962; Protopopov V., The history of polyphony in its most important phenomena. Russian classical and Soviet music, M., 1962; his, History of polyphony in its most important phenomena. Western European classics of the XVIII-XIX centuries, M., 1965; his, The Procedural Significance of Polyphony in the Musical Form of Beethoven, in: Beethoven, vol. 2, M., 1972; his own, Richerkar and canzona in the 2th-1972th centuries and their evolution, in Sat.: Questions of musical form, issue 1979, M., XNUMX; his, Sketches from the history of instrumental forms of the XNUMXth – early XNUMXth centuries, M., XNUMX; Etinger M., Harmony and polyphony. (Notes on the polyphonic cycles of Bach, Hindemith, Shostakovich), “SM”, 1962, No 12; his own, Harmony in the polyphonic cycles of Hindemith and Shostakovich, in: Theoretical problems of music of the XX century, no. 1, M., 1967; Yuzhak K., Some structural features of the fugue I. C. Bach, M., 1965; her, On the nature and specifics of polyphonic thinking, in collection: Polyphony, M., 1975; Musical aesthetics of the Western European Middle Ages and Renaissance, M., 1966; Milstein Ya. I., Well-Tempered Clavier I. C. Bach…, M., 1967; Taneev S. I., From the scientific and pedagogical heritage, M., 1967; Den Z. V., A course of musical-theoretical lectures. Record M. AND. Glinka, in the book: Glinka M., Complete collection. op., vol. 17, M., 1969; his, O fugue, ibid.; Zaderatsky V., Polyphony in instrumental works by D. Shostakovich, M., 1969; his own, Late Stravinsky’s Polyphony: Questions of Interval and Rhythmic Density, Stylistic Synthesis, in: Music and Modernity, vol. 9, Moscow, 1975; Christiansen L. L., Preludes and Fugues by R. Shchedrin, in: Questions of Music Theory, vol. 2, M., 1970; Musical aesthetics of Western Europe of the XVII-XVIII centuries, M., 1971; Bat N., Polyphonic forms in the symphonic works of P. Hindemith, in: Questions of Musical Form, vol. 2, M., 1972; Bogatyrev S. S., (Analysis of some fugues by Bach), in the book: S. C. Bogatyrev. Research, articles, memoirs, M., 1972; Stepanov A., Chugaev A., Polyphony, M., 1972; Likhacheva I., Ladotonality of fugues by Rodion Shchedrin, in: Problems of Musical Science, vol. 2, M., 1973; her own, Thematism and its expositional development in the fugues of R. Shchedrin, in: Polyphony, M., 1975; her own, 24 preludes and fugues by R. Shchedrina, M., 1975; Zakharova O., Musical rhetoric of the XNUMXth – first half of the XNUMXth century, in collection: Problems of Musical Science, vol. 3, M., 1975; Kon Yu., About two fugues I. Stravinsky, in collection: Polyphony, M., 1975; Levaya T., Horizontal and vertical relations in the fugues of Shostakovich and Hindemith, in collection: Polyphony, Moscow, 1975; Litinsky G., Seven fugues and recitatives (marginal notes), in collection: Aram Ilyich Khachaturyan, M., 1975; Retrash A., Genres of late Renaissance instrumental music and the formation of the sonata and suite, in the book: Questions of Theory and Aesthetics of Music, vol. 14, L., 1975; Tsaher I., The problem of the finale in B-dur quartet op. 130 Beethoven, in Sat: Problems of Musical Science, vol. 3, M., 1975; Chugaev A., Features of the structure of Bach’s clavier fugues, M., 1975; Mikhailenko A., On the principles of the structure of Taneyev’s fugues, in: Questions of musical form, vol. 3, M., 1977; Theoretical observations on the history of music, Sat. Art., M., 1978; Nazaikinsky E., The role of timbre in the formation of the theme and thematic development in conditions of imitative polyphony, in collection: S. C. Scrapers. Articles and memories, M., 1979; Ter-Oganezova I., “Ludus tonalis”.

V. P. Frayonov

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