Fugato |
Music Terms

Fugato |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

ital. fugato, literally – fugue, fugue-like, like a fugue

An imitation form, in terms of the way the theme is presented (often also development) is related to the fugue (1).

Unlike the fugue, it does not have a clearly expressed polyphony. reprises; typically used as a section of a larger whole. A clear presentation of the topic, imitation. entry of voices and gradual densification of polyphonic. textures are creatures. features of P. (P. can be named only those imitations that have these qualities; in their absence, the term “fugue presentation” is used), F. is a form less strict than fugue: the number of votes here may be variable (1 -th part of Taneyev’s symphony in c-moll, number 12), the theme may not be performed in all voices (the beginning of the Credo from Beethoven’s Solemn Mass) or presented immediately with a counterposition (21st Myaskovsky’s symphony, number 1); quarto-quint ratios of theme and answer are common, but digressions are not uncommon (introduction to the 3rd act of Wagner’s opera The Nuremberg Mastersingers; 1st part of Shostakovich’s 5th symphony, numbers 17-19). F. are very diverse in structure. In many Op. the most stable part of the fugue, the exposition, is reproduced, moreover, a clear one-head. the beginning of F., which clearly separates it from previous music, contrasts with the ending, which is not distinguished from c.-l. a different continuation, often non-polyphonic (the finale of the piano sonata No. 6, 2nd movement of Beethoven’s symphony No. 1; see also an example in column 994).

In addition to exposition, F. may contain a section similar to the developing section of the fugue (the finale of Tchaikovsky’s quartet No. 2, number 32), which is usually further converted into a sonata development (1st part of Frank’s quartet in D-dur). Occasionally, F. is interpreted as an unstable construction (double F. at the beginning of the development of the 1st part of Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony: d-moll – a-moll – e-moll – h-moll). Application in F. complex contrapuntal. techniques are not excluded (F. with a retained opposition in the 1st part of Myaskovsky’s 5th symphony, number 13; stretta in F. “Let them know what power means” from the 2nd act of the opera “May Night” by Rimsky-Korsakov; double F. in the 2nd movement of Beethoven’s 7th symphony, triple F. in the overture to the opera Die Meistersingers of Nuremberg by Wagner, bar 138, five F. (fugue) in the coda of the finale of Mozart’s symphony C-dur Jupiter), however simple imitations. forms are the norm.

If the fugue is distinguished by the completeness of development and art. independence of the image, then F. plays a subordinate role in the product, in which it “grows in”.

The most typical use of F. in sonata development: dynamic. the possibilities of imitation serve to prepare the climax of a new topic or section; F. can be both in the introductory (1st part of Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony), and in the central (1st part of Kalinnikov’s 1st symphony) or predicate sections of the development (1st part of the 4th concerto for piano. with the Beethoven Orchestra); the basis of the theme is the clear motives of the main part (the melodious themes of the side part are more often processed canonically).

AK Glazunov. 6th symphony. Part II.

In general, F. finds application in any part of the music. prod.: in the presentation and development of the theme (Allegro in the overture to the opera “The Magic Flute” by Mozart; the main part in the overture to the opera “The Bartered Bride” by Smetana), in the episode (the finale of Prokofiev’s 5th symphony, number 93), reprise (fp sonata h-moll by Liszt), solo cadence (violin concerto by Glazunov), in the introduction (1st part of the 5th strings of the Glazunov quartet) and coda (1st part of Berlioz’s symphony Romeo and Julia), the middle part of a complex three-part form (the aria of Gryaznoy from the 1st act of the opera The Tsar’s Bride by Rimsky-Korsakov), in the rondo (No 36 from Bach’s St. Matthew Passion); in the form of F., an operatic leitmotif can be stated (“the theme of the priests” in the introduction to the opera “Aida” by Verdi), an opera stage can be built (No 20 s from the 3rd act of “Prince Igor” by Borodin); sometimes F. is one of the variations (No. 22 from Bach’s Goldberg Variations; chorus “The Wonderful Queen of Heaven” from the 3rd act of the opera “The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia” by Rimsky-Korsakov, number 171); F. as independent. a piece (J. S. Bach, BWV 962; A. F. Gedicke, op. 36 No 40) or part of a cycle (2nd movement of Hindemith’s symphoniette in E) is rare. Form F. (or close to it) arose in the production. strict style in connection with the development of imitation techniques, covering all voices.

Josquin Despres. Missa sexti toni (super L’homme armé). Beginning of Kyrie.

F. was widely used in Op. composers 17 – 1st floor. 18th century (for example, in gigues from instr. suites, in fast sections of overtures). F. flexibly used J. S. Bach, reaching, for example. to the choir compositions, extraordinary figurative convexity and dramas. expression (in No. 33 “Sind Blitze, sind Donner in Wolken verschwunden” and in No. 54 “LaЯ ihn kreuzigen” from the Matthew Passion). Because express. the meaning of F. is clearly revealed in comparison with the homophonic presentation, the composers of the 2nd floor. 18 – beg. 19th centuries use this “chiaroscuro” contrast in a variety of ways. F. in instr. prod. Haydn – a way of polyphonizing homophonic thematics (reprise of the 1st part of the strings. Quartet op. 50 No 2); Mozart sees in F. one of the ways of bringing sonata and fugue closer together (the finale of the G-dur quartet, K.-V. 387); F.’s role increases dramatically in Op. Beethoven, which is due to the composer’s desire for a general polyphonization of the form (double F. in the reprise of the 2nd part of the 3rd symphony significantly enhances and concentrates the tragic beginning). F. in Mozart and Beethoven is an indispensable member in the polyphonic system. episodes that form a “large polyphonic form ”at the level of one movement (fugueed main and side parts in the exposition, side part in the reprise, imitative development, stretta coda in the finale of the G-dur quartet, K.-V. 387 Mozart) or cycle (F. in the 1st , 2nd and 4th movements of the 9th symphony, F. in the 1st movement, corresponding to the final fugue, in Beethoven’s piano sonata No 29). Masters of the 19th century, creatively developing the achievements of the representatives of the Viennese classic. schools, interpret F. in a new way – in terms of software (“Battle” in the introduction of “Romeo and Julia” by Berlioz), genre (finale of the 1st act of the opera “Carmen” by Bizet), pictorial (blizzard in the finale of the 4th . of the opera Ivan Susanin by Glinka) and fantastically pictorial (the picture of a growing forest in the 3rd act of the opera The Snow Maiden by Rimsky-Korsakov, number 253), fill F. with a new figurative meaning, interpreting it as the embodiment of demonic. beginning (part “Mephistopheles” from Liszt’s Faust Symphony), as an expression of reflection (introduction to the opera Faust by Gounod; introduction to the 3rd act of the opera Die Meistersingers Nuremberg by Wagner), as realistic. a picture of the life of the people (introduction to the 1st scene of the prologue of the opera “Boris Godunov” by Mussorgsky). F. finds a variety of applications among composers of the 20th century. (R. Strauss, P. Hindemith, S. V. Rakhmaninov, N. Ya. Myaskovsky, D. D. Shostakovich and others).

References: see under Art. Fugue.

V. P. Frayonov

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