Musical education |
Music Terms

Musical education |

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terms and concepts

Purposeful and systematic. music development. culture, music abilities of a person, education in him of emotional responsiveness to music, understanding and deep experience of its content. M. v. there is a process of transmission of socio-historical. music experience. activities of the new generation, it includes elements of music. teaching and music education. Owls. theory of music.-aesthetic. upbringing is distinguished by the conviction in the possibility of the formation of muses. abilities in a wide range of people. M. century, carried out in general education. school, kindergarten and other out-of-school institutions through the choir. singing, playing instruments, listening to music and music. literacy, contributes to the formation of worldview, arts. views and tastes, education of feelings and moral qualities of the Soviet youth. Owl research. psychologists (A. N. Leontiev, B. M. Teplov, G. S. Kostyuk, V. N. Myasishchev) showed that the formation of interest in music depends on many things. factors interacting with each other. Among them: age characteristics, individual typological. data, existing experience of perception of music. lawsuit; socio-demographic features associated with the specifics of a person living in a certain geographical environment, her profession, and others. M. v. is closely connected with the processes taking place in art, musical practice. Getting used to certain music. intonation changes over time. Therefore, the form of M. century. depends on the daily “music. atmosphere” surrounding the listener.

Since ancient times, music has been used to educate the younger generations. Its significance was determined by the general tasks of education, which were put forward by each era in relation to the children of certain societies. classes, estates or groups. In India, a myth is known, the hero of which seeks to achieve the glory and mercy of the gods, learning the art of singing from the wise bird – “The Friend of the Song”, since mastering the art of singing means getting rid of bad feelings and desires. In ancient India, there were views, according to the Crimean music and M. century. contribute to the achievement of piety, wealth, give pleasure. Requirements were developed for music designed to influence people of a certain age. So, for children, cheerful music at a fast pace was considered useful, for youth – on average, for people of mature age – in a slow, calm and solemn nature. In the music treatises of the countries of the Ancient East, it was stated that M. c. It is called upon to balance the virtues, to develop humanity, justice, prudence and sincerity in people. M.’s questions in ancient China were under the jurisdiction of the state. Means. place they occupied in ethics. the teachings of other whales. philosopher Confucius (551-479 BC). He subjected music to strict regulation, extending to M. v. state-political point of view, forbade the performance of music pursuing a goal other than the education of morality. This concept was developed in the writings of the followers of Confucius – Mencius and Xunzi. In the 4th c. BC e. Confucian teaching about music was criticized by the utopian philosopher Mo-tzu, who protested against the utilitarian approach to music and musical music.

In antique aesthetics one of the elements of democratic. The system of education was music, which was used as a means of harmony. personality development. Questions M. century. in Dr. Greece was given exclusions. note: in Arcadia, all citizens under 30 had to learn singing and instrumental music; in Sparta, Thebes and Athens – learn to play the aulos, participate in the choir (this was considered a sacred duty). M. v. in Sparta it had a pronounced military-applied character. “There was something inflaming courage in the Spartan songs themselves, arousing enthusiasm and calling for feats …” (Plutarch, Comparative Biographies, St. Petersburg, 1892, Lycurgus, 144).

In Dr. Greece M. v. were in charge of private music and gymnastics. schools. Musical education covered children aged 7 to 16; it included the study of literature, art, and science. The basis of M. century. were the choir. singing, playing the flute, lyre and cithara. Singing was closely connected with music-making and had one of the tasks of preparing children’s and youth choirs for participation in competitions (agons) associated with official holidays. The Greeks developed the doctrine of “ethos”, in which the moral and educational role of the muses was affirmed. lawsuit. In Dr. Rome in the account. institutions, singing and playing instruments were not taught. This was considered a private matter and sometimes met with opposition from the authorities, which sometimes forced the Romans to teach music to children in secret.

Muses. pedagogy of the peoples of the Near and Middle East, as well as muses. art, developed in the fight against the encroachments of the reactionary Muslim clergy, who tried in vain to limit the activities of the people in this area of ​​artistic creativity and education.

Wed-century. lawsuit, as well as the entire Wed-century. culture, formed under the influence of Christ. churches. Schools were created at the monasteries, where music occupied a prominent place. Here the students received theoretical and practical preparation. Churchmen (Clement of Alexandria, Basil the Great, Cyprian, Tertullian) believed that music, like all art, is subject to didactic. tasks. Its purpose is to serve as a lure that makes the word of Scripture attractive and accessible. This is the one-sidedness of the tasks of the Church. M. V., who did not take nar. music, which affirmed the primacy of words over singing. From M. to. the aesthetic element was almost eliminated; the sensual pleasure of music was considered a concession to the weakness of human nature.

From the 15th century music was formed. Renaissance Pedagogy. In this era, interest in music. art-woo stood among other urgent requests of a new person. Classes in music and poetry, music and antique. lit-roy, music and painting connected people decomp. circles included in the musical and poetic. commonwealth – academy. In a famous letter to Zenflu (1530), M. Luther extolled music over the sciences and other arts and put it in first place after theology; music culture of this period has reached a mean. flourishing in schools. Great importance was attached to learning to sing. Later, J. J. Rousseau, proceeding from the thesis about the dangers of civilization, appreciated singing as the most complete manifestation of the muses. feelings that even a savage has. In the pedagogical the novel “Emil” Rousseau said that education, incl. and musical, comes from creativity. At first, he demanded from the hero that he himself composed songs. For the development of hearing, he advised to clearly pronounce the lyrics. The teacher had to try to make the child’s voice even, flexible and sonorous, to accustom the ear to the rhythm of music and to harmony. In order to make the musical language accessible to the masses, Rousseau developed the idea of ​​digital notation. This idea had followers in different countries (for example, P. Galen, E. Sheve, N. Pari – in France; L. N. Tolstoy and S. I. Miropolsky – in Russia; I. Schultz and B. Natorp – in Germany). Pedagogical Rousseau’s ideas were taken up by philanthropist educators in Germany. They introduced the study of bunks into the school. songs, and not just the church. singing, taught to play music. instruments, paid attention to the development of arts. taste, etc.

In Russia in the 18-19 centuries. M.’s system of century. was based on class and estate selection, in its organization means. the place belonged to a private initiative. The state officially remained aloof from the leadership of the muses. education and upbringing. Under the jurisdiction of the state bodies, in particular Min-va education, there was only one area M. of century. and education – singing in general education. schools. In elementary school, especially folk, the functions of the subject were modest and combined with religion. education of students, and the teacher of singing was most often the regent. M.’s purpose in. was reduced to the development of skills that made it possible to sing in school and church. chorus. Therefore, the focus was on the training of the choir. singing. Singing lessons were not compulsory in secondary schools. program, and were established depending on the degree of interest in it of the school leadership.

In noble closed uch. institutions, in particular in women’s, M.v. had a wider program, in addition to choral (church and secular) and solo singing, here they taught to play the piano. However, this was done for a fee and was not carried out everywhere.

About M. v. as one of the means of aesthetic. education in the state scale, the question was not raised, although the need for this was recognized by the leading figures of the muses. culture. Singing teachers in schools sought to expand the scope and improve the methods of teaching and education through music. This is evidenced by many published at that time methodical. benefits.

The emergence and development of Russian. theory of M. century. refers to the 60s. 19th century Societies. movements of this period led to the rise of Rus. pedagogical science. Simultaneously from Petersburg. free music began to work at the conservatory. school (1862) under the direction of. M. A. Balakireva and choir. conductor G. Ya. Lomakin. In the 60-80s. appeared theoretical. works that laid the foundation. music problems. pedagogy. In book. “On the Musical Education of the People in Russia and Western Europe” (2nd ed., 1882) S. I. Miropolsky proved the necessity and possibility of a universal musical art. Questions M. century. in one way or another, works by A. N. Karasev, P. P. Mironositsky, A. I. Puzyrevsky. In book. “Methodology of school choral singing in connection with the practical course, year 1” (1907) D. I. Zarin noted that singing has an educational effect on students, on their consciousness, memory, imagination, on their will, aesthetic sense and physical development. It followed from this that music (especially singing) can serve as a multifaceted means for education, and its influence captures the deepest sides of the inner. the world of man. Lots of attention to music. V. F. Odoevsky paid attention to the enlightenment of the people. He was one of the first in Russia to point out that M. v. should be based in every possible way on the music. practice, development of internal hearing, coordination of hearing and singing. Much contributed to M. century. works of V. V. Stasov and A. N. Serov. D. I. Pisarev and L. N. Tolstoy criticized the dogmatism and scholasticism that dominated the M. century. “In order for the teaching of music to leave traces and be accepted willingly,” Tolstoy said, “it is necessary to teach art from the very beginning, and not the ability to sing and play …” (Sobr. soch., vol. 8, 1936, p. 121).

An interesting experience in the practice of M. century. In 1905-17, the work of V. N. Shatskaya appeared in the children’s labor colony “Cheerful Life” and in the kindergarten of the “Children’s Labor and Rest” Society. The children of the “Cheerful Life” colony were helped to accumulate music. impressions, instilled and consolidated the need to communicate with the claim, understanding its essence.

Fundamental changes in M. century. happened after Oct. revolution of 1917. Before the Soviet. The school set the task – not only to give knowledge and teach, but also to comprehensively educate and develop creative inclinations. Educational functions of M. century. intertwined with the musical and educational, which was natural, since in the first post-revolutionary years in the orbit of M. century. involved the broadest masses of workers.

It became possible to put into practice the well-known position of K. Marx on the need for art. world exploration. “The object of art…,” Marx wrote, “creates an audience that understands art and is able to enjoy beauty” (K. Marx and F. Engels, On Art, vol. 1, 1967, p. 129). Marx explained his thought on the example of music: “Only music awakens the musical feeling of a person; for a non-musical ear, the most beautiful music is meaningless, it is not an object for him…” (ibid., p. 127). V. I. Lenin persistently emphasized the continuity of the new owl. cultures with a rich heritage of the past.

From the first years of the Soviet M.’s power developed on the basis of Lenin’s ideas of mass art. education of the people. V. I. Lenin, in a conversation with K. Zetkin, clearly formulated the tasks of the artistic, and consequently, of the art of art: “Art belongs to the people. It must have its deepest roots in the very depths of the broad working masses. It must be understood by these masses and loved by them. It must unite the feeling, thought and will of these masses, raise them. It should awaken artists in them and develop them ”(K. Zetkin, from the book:“ Memories of Lenin ”, in collection: Lenin V.I., On Literature and Art, 1967, p. 583).

In 1918, a music school was organized. department of the People’s Commissariat for Education (MUZO). Its main task is to familiarize the working people with the treasures of the muses. culture. For the first time in the history of Russian school music was included in the account. plan “as a necessary element of the general education of children, on an equal footing with all other subjects” (Resolution of the Collegium of the People’s Commissariat of Education of July 25, 1918). A new account was born. discipline and, at the same time, a new system of M. century. The school began to perform folk, revolutionary. songs, productions classics. Great value in mass M.’s system of century. was attached to the problem of perception of music, the ability to understand it. A new system of musical education and development was found, with which the process of M. century. included the formation of an aesthetic attitude to music. In achieving this goal, much attention was paid to the education of the muses. hearing, the ability to distinguish the means of music. expressiveness. One of the main tasks of M. century. was such a muse. preparation, which would allow analytical perception of music. Correctly delivered M. century. admitted this, with Krom muses. education and general training were inextricably linked. The love and interest in music formed at the same time attracted the listener to it, and the acquired knowledge and skills helped to deeply perceive and experience its content. In the new production of the school M. century. found expression of genuine democracy and high humanistic. principles of owls. schools, in which the comprehensive development of the personality of each child is one of the main goals. laws.

Among the figures in the field of M. century. – B. L. Yavorsky, N. Ya. Bryusova, V. N. Shatskaya, N. L. Grodzenskaya, M. A. Rumer. There has been a continuity of the legacy of the past, the basis of which was methodical. principles of V. F. Odoevsky, D. I. Zarin, S. I. Miropolsky, A. A. Maslov, A. N. Karasyov.

One of the first theorists of M. century. Yavorsky is the creator of a system based on the all-round development of the creative principle. The methodology developed by Yavorsky included the activation of perception, music-making (choral singing, playing in a percussion orchestra), movement to music, children’s music. creation. “In the process of child development … musical creativity is especially expensive. For its value is not in the “product” itself, but in the process of mastering musical speech” (Yavorsky B., Memoirs, articles, letters, 1964, p. 287). B. V. Asafiev substantiated the most important questions of the methodology and organization of musical music; he believed that music should be perceived actively, consciously. Asafiev saw the key to success in solving this problem in the maximum rapprochement of professional musicians “with the masses, thirsting for music” (Izbr. article about musical education and education, 1965, p. 18). The idea of ​​activating the listener’s hearing through various forms of performance (through one’s own participation in it) runs like a red thread through many of Asafiev’s works. They also talk about the need to publish a popular literature about music, about everyday music-making. Asafiev considered it important to develop among schoolchildren, first of all, a broad aesthetic. perception of music, which, according to him, “… is a certain phenomenon in the world, created by a person, and not a scientific discipline that is studied” (ibid., p. 52). Asafiev’s works about M. v. played a great practical. role in the 20s His thoughts on the need for the development of musical creativity are interesting. reactions of children, about the qualities that a music teacher should have at school, about the place of the bunk. songs in M. v. children. A great contribution to M.’s business. owls. the children were brought in by N. K. Krupskaya. Considering M. century. of the rising generations as one of the important means of the general upsurge of culture in the country, as a method of all-round development, she drew attention to the fact that each of the arts has its own language, which must be mastered by children in the middle and senior classes of general education. schools. “… Music,” noted N. K. Krupskaya, “helps to organize, act collectively … has a tremendous organizing value, and it should come from the younger groups at school” (Pedagogich. soch., vol. 3, 1959, p. 525- 26). Krupskaya deeply developed the problem of the communist. orientation of art and, in particular, music. education. A. V. Lunacharsky attached great importance to the same problem. According to him, art. upbringing is a huge factor in the development of personality, an integral part of the full-fledged upbringing of a new person.

Simultaneously with development of questions M. of century. in general education school much attention was paid to the general music. education. The task of popularizing music. culture among the broad masses determined the nature of the restructuring of M. century. in the music schools, and also revealed the direction and content of the activities of the newly created muses. institutions. So, in the first years after Oct. revolutions were created by the people. music schools that had not a prof., but an enlightener. character. In the 2nd floor. 1918 in Petrograd was opened the first bunk. music school. education, in which both children and adults were accepted. Soon schools of this type were opened in Moscow and other cities. Such “nar. music schools”, “schools of music. education”, “nar. Conservatory ”, etc. aimed to give listeners a common music. development and literacy. Creatures. part of M. century. these schools began teaching music. perception in the process of lessons of the so-called. listening to music. The lessons included familiarity with certain products. and development of the ability to perceive music. Attention was paid to active music-making as the basis of M. century. (most often a good performance of Russian folk songs). The composition of undertones, the simplest melodies, was encouraged. The place and meaning of musical notation was clearly defined, the students mastered the elements of music analysis.

According to the tasks, the requirements for teachers, who were called upon to carry out the M. of art, changed. They had to be at the same time. choirmasters, theorists, illustrators, organizers and educators. In the future, musical and pedagogical departments were created. in-you, corresponding f-you and departments in muses. uch-shchah and conservatories. Introduction to music and adults outside the framework of prof. learning also proceeded intensively and fruitfully. Free lectures and concerts were organized for unprepared listeners, art circles worked. amateur performances, music studios, courses.

In the course of M. century. preference was given to acquaintance with products that evoke deep and strong feelings, thoughts and experiences. Thus, a qualitative shift that determines the direction of M. century. in the country, was already made in the first decade of the Sov. authorities. Development of problems of M. of century. continued in subsequent years. At the same time, the main the emphasis was on the formation of a person’s moral convictions, his aesthetic. feelings, art. needs. famous owl. teacher V. A. Sukhomlinsky believed that “the culture of the educational process at school is largely determined by how saturated school life is with the spirit of music. Just as gymnastics straightens the body, so music straightens the soul of a person” (Etudes on Communist Education, magazine “People’s Education”, 1967, No. 6, p. 41). He called to start M. century. possibly earlier – early childhood is, in his opinion, the optimal age. Interest in music should become a trait of character, human nature. One of the most important tasks of M. century. – to teach to feel the connection of music with nature: the rustle of oak forests, the buzzing of bees, the song of a lark.

All R. 70s the M. century system developed by D. B. Kabalevsky gained distribution. Considering music as a part of life itself, Kabalevsky relies on the most widespread and mass muses. genres – song, march, dance, which provides a connection between music lessons and life. Reliance on the “three whales” (song, march, dance) contributes, according to Kabalevsky, not only to the development of musical art, but also to the formation of muses. thinking. At the same time, the boundaries between the sections that make up the lesson are erased: listening to music, singing and music. diploma. It becomes holistic, uniting differences. program elements.

There are specials in radio and television studios. cycles of music-education. programs for children and adults: “On strings and keys”, “For children about music”, “Radio University of Culture”. The form of conversations of famous composers is widespread: D. B. Kabalevsky, as well as A. I. Khachaturian, K. A. Karaev, R. K. Shchedrin, and others. youth – a series of television lectures-concerts “Musical evenings of peers”, the purpose of which is to get acquainted with the great works. music performed by the best musicians. Mass M. in. carried out through out-of-school music. groups: choirs, song and dance ensembles, clubs of music lovers (children’s choir of the Institute of Art. Education of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, leader Prof. V. G. Sokolov; chorus group of the Pioneer Studio, leader G. A (Struve, Zheleznodorozhny, Moscow Region; Ellerhain Choir, conductor X. Kalyuste, Estonian SSR; Orchestra of Russian Folk Instruments, conductor N. A. Kapishnikov, Mundybash village, Kemerovo Region, etc.) . Among the well-known figures in the field of owls. M. v. — T. S. Babadzhan, N. A. Vetlugina (preschool), V. N. Shatskaya, D. B. Kabalevsky, N. L. Grodzenskaya, O. A. Apraksina, M. A. Rumer, E. Ya. Gembitskaya, N. M. Sheremetyeva, D. L. Lokshin, V. K. Beloborodova, A. V. Bandina (school). M.’s questions in the USSR the laboratory of music and dance of N.-i. Institute of Arts. education of the Academy of Pedagogics. sciences of the USSR, sectors of N.-and. Institute of Pedagogy in the Union Republics, Laboratory of Aesthetic. education Institute of preschool education of the Academy of Pedagogical. Sciences of the USSR, commissions on music and aesthetics. education of children and youth of the CK of the USSR and the union republics. M.’s problems in. considered by the International ob-vom on music. education (ISME). The 9th conference of this society, held in Moscow (chairman of the Soviet section D. B. Kabalevsky), was an important step in the development of ideas about the role of music in the life of young people.

M. v. in other socialist. countries close to the Soviet. In Czechoslovakia, music lessons at school are taught in grades 1-9. Various music-education. work is carried out outside of school hours: all schoolchildren attend concerts 2-3 times a year. The Musical Youth organization (established in 1952) organizes concerts and distributes subscriptions at an affordable price. It uses the experience of Professor L. Daniel in teaching to read music by singing “support songs” that begin with a certain degree of the scale. There are seven such songs according to the number of steps. The system makes it possible to teach children to sing songs from a sheet. Chorus method. teaching by Professor F. Lisek is a system of techniques aimed at developing the musicality of the child. The basis of the technique is the formation of muses. hearing, or, in Lisek’s terminology, the “intonation feeling” of the child.

In the GDR, students in music lessons study according to a single program, they are engaged in a choir. singing. Of particular importance is the polygon. performance of folk songs without accompaniment. Acquaintance with the classics and modern. music happens in parallel. A special edition is published for teachers. magazine “Musik in der Schule” (“Music in School”).

In the NRB, the tasks of M. c. consist in expanding the general musical culture, the development of musical and aesthetic. taste, education of a harmoniously developed person. Music lessons at the school are held from 1st to 10th grades. Out-of-school music is of great importance in Bulgaria. education (children’s choir “Bodra Smyana”, director B. Bochev; folklore ensemble of the Sofia Palace of Pioneers, director M. Bukureshtliev).

In Poland, the main methods of M. century. include a choir. singing, playing children’s music. instruments (drums, recorders, mandolins), music. development of children according to the system of E. Jacques-Dalcroze and K. Orff. Muses. creativity is practiced in the form of free improvisations on own. poetic text, to a given rhythm, creating melodies for poems and fairy tales. A set of phono-readers has been created for schools.

In VNR M. century. is associated primarily with the names of B. Bartok and Z. Kodaly, who considered the crown of muses. lawsuit nar. music. It was its study that became both the means and the goal of the original M. century. In the educational collections of songs by Kodai, the principle of M. v. is consistently carried out. based on national traditions – folk and professional. Choral singing is of fundamental importance. Kodai developed the solfeggio method adopted in all schools in the country.

M. v. in the capitalist countries is highly heterogeneous. Individual M. enthusiasts. and education abroad create original systems that are widely used. Known rhythmic system. gymnastics, or rhythmics, an outstanding Swiss. teacher-musician E. Jacques-Dalcroze. He observed how, moving to the music, children and adults more easily memorize it. This prompted him to search for ways of a closer connection between human movements and rhythm and music. In the system of exercises developed by him, ordinary movements – walking, running, jumping – were consistent with the sound of music, its tempo, rhythm, phrasing, dynamics. At the Institute of Music and Rhythm, built for him in Hellerau (near Dresden), students studied rhythm and solfeggio. These two aspects – the development of movement and hearing – were given great importance. In addition to rhythm and solfeggio, the M. v. Jacques-Dalcroze included fine arts. gymnastics (plasticity), dance, choir. singing and music improvisation on the fp.

The system of children’s M. of century gained great fame. K. Orff. In Salzburg there is an Institute of Orff, where work is carried out with children. Carried out on the basis of a 5-volume manual on M. century. “Schulwerk” (vols. 1-5, 2nd ed., 1950-54), written by Orff jointly. with G. Ketman, the system involves the stimulation of muses. creativity of children, contributes to children’s collective music making. Orff relies on music-rhythm. movement, playing elementary instruments, singing and music. recitation. According to him, children’s creativity, even the most primitive, children’s finds, even the most modest, are independent. a childish thought, even the most naive one, is what creates an atmosphere of joy and stimulates the development of creative abilities. In 1961, an international about-in “Schulverk”.

M. V. is a developing, dynamic process. The fundamental foundations of owls. M.’s systems of century. organically unite the communist. ideology, nationality, realistic. orientation and democracy.

References: Questions of music at school. Sat. articles, ed. I. Glebova (Asafyeva), L., 1926; Apraksina O. A., Musical education in the Russian secondary school, M.-L., 1948; Grodzenskaya N. L., Educational work in singing lessons, M., 1953; her, Schoolchildren listen to music, M., 1969; Lokshin D. L., Choral singing in the Russian pre-revolutionary and Soviet school, M., 1957; Questions of the system of teaching singing in grades I-VI. (Sb. Articles), ed. M. A. Rumer, M., 1960 (Proceedings of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR, issue 110); Musical education at school. Sat. articles, ed. O. Apraksina, no. 1-10, M., 1961-1975; Blinova M., Some questions of musical education of schoolchildren …, M.-L., 1964; Methods of musical education of schoolchildren of I-IV grades, M.-L., 1965; Asafiev B., Fav. articles about musical enlightenment and education, M.-L., 1965; Babadzhan T.S., Musical education of young children, M., 1967; Vetlugina HA, Musical development of the child, M., 1968; From the experience of educational work in a children’s music school, M., 1969; Gembitskaya E. Ya., Musical and aesthetic education of students in grades V-VIII of a comprehensive school, M., 1970; The system of children’s musical education by K. Orff, (collection of articles, translated from German), ed. L. A. Barenboim, L., 1970; Kabalevsky Dm., About three whales and much more. Book about music, M., 1972; his, Beautiful awakens the good, M., 1973; Musical education in the modern world. Materials of the IX Conference of the International Society for Musical Education (ISME), M., 1973; (Rumer MA), Fundamentals of musical education and education at school, in the book: Aesthetic education of schoolchildren, M., 1974, p. 171-221; Music, notes, students. Sat. Musical and pedagogical articles, Sofia, 1967; Lesek F., Cantus choralis infantium, Brno, No 68; Bucureshliev M., Work with the Pioneer Folk Choir, Sofia, 1971; Sohor A., ​​Educational role of music, L., 1975; Beloborodova V.K., Rigina G.S., Aliyev Yu.B., Musical education at school, M., 1975. (See also literature under the article Musical education).

Yu. V. Aliev

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