Music |
Music Terms

Music |

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terms and concepts

Greek moysikn, from mousa – muse

A type of art that reflects reality and affects a person through sound sequences that are meaningful and specially organized in height and time, consisting mainly of tones (sounds of a certain height, see Musical sound). Expressing the thoughts and emotions of a person in an audible form, M. serves as a means of communication between people and influencing their psyche. The possibility of this follows from the physically and biologically conditioned connection of the sound manifestations of a person (as well as many other living beings) with his mental. life (especially emotional) and from the activity of sound as an irritant and a signal to action. In a number of respects, M. is similar to speech, more precisely, speech intonation, where ext. the state of a person and his emotional attitude to the world are expressed through changes in pitch and other characteristics of the sound of the voice during utterance. This analogy allows us to talk about the intonational nature of M. (see Intonation). At the same time, M. differs significantly from speech, primarily by the qualities inherent in it as an art. Among them: the mediation of the reflection of reality, the optional utilitarian functions, the most important role of aesthetic. functions, art. the value of both content and form (the individual nature of the images and their embodiment, the manifestation of creativity, general artistic and specifically musical talent of the author or performer, etc.). In comparison with the universal means of human sound communication – speech, the specificity of M. also manifests itself in the impossibility of unambiguously expressing specific concepts, in the strict ordering of pitch and temporal (rhythmic) relations of sounds (due to the fixed pitch and duration of each of them), which greatly increases its emotional and aesthetic expressiveness.

Being “the art of intoned meaning” (B. V. Asafiev), music really exists and functions in society only in live sound, in performance. In a number of arts, M. adjoins, firstly, to non-pictorial (lyric poetry, architecture, etc.), i.e. such, for which it is not necessary to reproduce the material structure of specific objects, and, secondly, to temporary ones (dance, literature, theater, cinema), i.e. such, to-rye unfold in time, and, thirdly, to performing (the same dance, theater, cinema), i.e. requiring intermediaries between creativity and perception. At the same time, both the content and form of art are specific in relation to other types of art.

The content of M. is made up of artistic-intonational images, i.e. captured in meaningful sounds (intonations), the results of reflection, transformation and aesthetic. assessment of objective reality in the mind of a musician (composer, performer).

The dominant role in the content of M. is played by “arts. emotions” – selected in accordance with the possibilities and goals of the claim, cleared of random moments and meaningful emotional states and processes. Their leading place in music. the content is predetermined by the sound (intonation) and temporal nature of M., which allows it, on the one hand, to rely on thousands of years of experience in externally revealing people’s emotions and transferring them to other members of society, primarily and Ch. arr. through sounds, and on the other hand, to adequately express the experience as a movement, a process with all its changes and shades, dynamic. rises and falls, mutual transitions of emotions and their collisions.

From dec. types of emotions M. most of all tend to embody moods – the emotional states of a person, not directed, unlike feelings, to any specific. subject (although caused by objective reasons): fun, sadness, cheerfulness, despondency, tenderness, confidence, anxiety, etc. M. also widely reflects the emotional aspects of the intellectual and volitional qualities of a person (and the corresponding processes): thoughtfulness, determination, energy, inertia, impulsiveness, restraint, perseverance, lack of will, seriousness, frivolity, etc. This allows M. to reveal not only psychological. states of people, but also their characters. In the most concrete (but not translated into the language of words), very subtle and “infectious” expression of emotions, M. knows no equal. It is on this ability that its widespread definition as the “language of the soul” (A. N. Serov) is based.

In the music The content also includes “Arts. thoughts” selected, like emotions, and closely related to the latter, “felt”. At the same time, by their own means, without the help of words, etc. vnemuz. factors, M. can not express all kinds of thoughts. She is not characterized by extremely concrete thought-messages that are easily accessible for expression in words, containing information about any facts, and extremely abstract, not causing emotional and visual-figurative associations. However, M. is quite accessible to such thoughts-generalizations, to-rye expressed in concepts related to dynamic. side of the social and mental. phenomena, to moral qualities, character traits and emotional states of a person and society. In pure instr. The works of great composers of different eras deeply and vividly embodied their ideas about the harmony or disharmony of the world, the stability or instability of social relations in a given society, the integrity or fragmentation of societies. and personal consciousness, the power or impotence of a person, etc. A huge role in the embodiment of abstract thoughts-generalizations is played by musical dramaturgy, i.e. comparison, collision and development of musical images. The greatest opportunities for expressing significant generalizing ideas of the muses proper. means gives symphonism as dialectical. development of a system of images, leading to the formation of a new quality.

In an effort to broaden the scope of the world of philosophical and social ideas, composers often turn to the synthesis of music with the word as a carrier of a specific conceptual content (vok. and program instr. M., see Program music), as well as with stage music. action. Thanks to the synthesis with the word, action, and other non-musical factors, the possibilities of music expand. New types of muses are formed in it. images, to-rye steadily associated in societies. consciousness with concepts and ideas expressed by other components of synthesis, and then pass into “pure” M. as carriers of the same concepts and ideas. In addition, composers use sound symbols (conventional signs) that have arisen in societies. practice (various kinds of signals, etc.; this also includes tunes or tunes that exist in a certain social environment and have received a stable unambiguous meaning in it, which have become “musical emblems” of any concepts), or they create their own, new “music. signs.” As a result, the content of M. includes a huge and continuously enriched circle of ideas.

A relatively limited place in M. is occupied by visual images of specific phenomena of reality, embodied in music. images, i.e. in sounds, to-rye reproduce the sensual signs of these phenomena (see sound painting). The small role of representation in art is objectively due to the much lesser ability of hearing, compared to sight, to inform a person about specific material features of objects. Nevertheless, sketches of nature and “portraits” are often found in M. dec. people, and pictures or “scenes” from the life of dec. strata of society of a particular country and era. They are presented as a more or less direct (although inevitably subject to musical logic) image (reproduction) of the sounds of nature (noise of wind and water, birdsong, etc.), a person (intonation of speech, etc.) and society (non-musical sounds and everyday musical genres that are part of practical life), and the recreation of visible and other concrete-sensory features of objects with the help of associations (birdsong – a picture of a forest), analogies (a wide move in a melody – an idea of ​​uXNUMXbuXNUMXbspace) and synesthesia – connections between auditory sensations and visual, tactile, sensations of weight, etc. (high sounds are light, sharp, light, thin; low sounds are dark, dull, heavy, thick). Spatial representations, due to the presence of associations, analogies and synesthesias, necessarily accompany the perception of M., however, they do not always mean the presence in this product. images as integral visual images of specific objects. If the images are available in the music. products, then, as a rule, serve only as an additional means of revealing the ideological and emotional content, i.e. thoughts and moods of people, their characters and aspirations, their ideals and assessments of reality. Thus, specific. subject of music reflections are the attitude (ch. arr. emotional) of a person and society to the world, taken in its dynamics.

The content of M. (in a class society) is a unity of the individual, class and universal. M. always expresses not only the personal attitude of the author to reality, his ext. world, but also some of the most important, typical. features of the ideology and, especially, the psychology of a particular social group, incl. her system of feelings, the general “psychological tone”, its inherent pace of life and internal. rhythm. At the same time, it often conveys the emotional coloring, pace, rhythm of the era as a whole, thoughts and emotions that are close not to one, but to several. classes (for example, the ideas of democratic transformation of society, national liberation, etc.) or even all people (for example, moods awakened by nature, love, and other lyrical experiences), embodies high universal ideals. However, since the universal in the ideological and emotional world of a person is not divorced from his social being, then the universal in M. inevitably acquires a social orientation.

Truthful and, moreover, typed, i.e. combining a generalization with socio-historical, nat. and individual psychological concreteness, a reflection of the moods and characters of people as members of the defined. society serves as a manifestation of realism in music. The complete absence in the production ideological and emotional content (including the mental world of man), meaningless “play” with sounds or their transformation only into a means of physiological. influences on listeners bring such a “sound construction” beyond the limits of M. as an art.

M. available content dec. Genus: epic, dramatic, lyrical. At the same time, however, due to its non-pictorial nature, the lyrics closest to it, providing for the predominance of “self-expression” over the image of the outside world, psychological “self-portraits” over the characteristics of other people. The content of M. as a whole is dominated by positive images that correspond to the ethical and aesthetic ideal of the author. Although negative images (and with them irony, caricature, and the grotesque) also entered the musical world a long time ago—and especially widely since the era of romanticism—they still remained the leading trend in music. content, there remains a tendency towards affirmation, “chanting”, and not towards denial, denunciation. Such an organic M.’s tendency to reveal and emphasize the best in a person enhances its importance as a spokesman for the humanistic. the beginning and bearer of the moral and educational function.

The material embodiment of the content of M., the way of its existence is the music. form – a system of music. sounds, in which the thoughts, emotions and figurative representations of the composer are realized (see Musical form). Muses. form is secondary to content and generally subordinate to it. At the same time it possesses relates. independence, which is all the more great because art, like all non-pictorial types of art, is very limited in the use of forms of real life phenomena and therefore inevitably gives rise to its own forms on a large scale that do not repeat natural ones. These special forms are created to express specific. music content, in turn, actively influence it, “shape” it. The musical (as well as any artistic) form is characterized by a tendency towards stability, stability, repetition of structures and individual elements, which comes into conflict with the variability, mobility, and originality of the muses. content. This is dialectic. the contradiction within the framework of interconnection and unity is resolved each time in its own way in the process of creating a specific muses. production, when, on the one hand, the traditional form is individualized and updated under the influence of the new content, and on the other hand, the content is typified and moments are revealed and crystallized in it that correspond to the stable features of the form used.

The ratio in music. creativity and performance between stable and changing in different ways in music. cultures of different types. In M. oral tradition (folklore of all countries, prof. claiming the principle of improvisation (each time on the basis of certain stylistic norms), the form remains open, “open”. At the same time, the typical structures of Nar. music pl. peoples are more stable than the structures of professional music (see Folk music). In M. written tradition (European) each product. has a closed, more or less stable form, although here, in some styles, elements of improvisation are provided (see Improvisation).

In addition to the material fixation of the content, the form in M. also performs the function of its transmission, “message” to society. This communicative function also determines certain essential aspects of the muses. forms, and above all – compliance with the general patterns of listener perception and (within certain limits) its type and capabilities in a given era.

Even taken separately muses. soundings already have primary expresses. opportunities. Each of them is able to cause physiological. a feeling of pleasure or displeasure, excitement or calm, tension or discharge, as well as synaesthetic. sensations (heaviness or lightness, heat or cold, darkness or light, etc.) and the simplest spatial associations. These possibilities are used in one way or another in any music. prod., but usually only as a side in relation to those psychological resources. and aesthetic influences, which are contained in the deeper layers of the musical form, where the sounds already act as elements of integral organized structures.

Keeping some similarity to the sounds of real life, muses. sound at the same time fundamentally differ from them in that they are included in the historically established systems developed by the muses. the practice of a given society (see Sound system). Each music. the sound system (trichord, tetrachord, pentatonic, diatonic, twelve-sound equal-tempered system, etc.) provides the prerequisites for the emergence of various stable combinations of tones that can be repeatedly reproduced horizontally and vertically. Similar way in each culture are selected and added to the system of the duration of sounds, which makes it possible to form stable types of their temporal sequences.

In M., in addition to tones, also indefinite sounds are used. height (noise) or such, the height of which is not taken into account. However, they play a dependent, secondary role, since, as experience shows, only the presence of a fixed pitch allows the human mind to organize sounds, establish relationships between them, bring them into a system and form them into logically organized, meaningful and, moreover, sufficiently developed sound structures. Therefore, constructions from noise alone (for example, from the sounds of “non-musical” speech or percussion instruments without a specific pitch) either belong to “pre-music” (in primitive cultures), or go beyond the scope of music. lawsuit in that sense, which was entrenched in the social-historical. the practice of most peoples for many years. centuries.

In each given music. in a work, the tones form their own system of horizontal sequences and (in polyphony) vertical connections (consonances), which make up its form (see Melody, Harmony, Polyphony). In this form, one should distinguish between the external (physical) and internal (“linguistic”) sides. The external side includes the change of timbres, the direction of melodic. movement and its pattern (smooth, spasmodic), dynamic. curve (changes in loudness, see Dynamics), tempo, general character of rhythm (see Rhythm). This side of the music forms are perceived similarly to speech in an unfamiliar language, which can have an emotional impact on the listener (at the physiological and lower mental levels) with its general sound, without understanding its content. The inner (“linguistic”) side of the music. forms are its intonation. composition, i.e. the meaningful sound pairings included in it (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic turns), already mastered earlier by societies. consciousness (or similar to those mastered), the potential meanings of which are generally known to listeners. This side of the music forms are perceived similarly to speech in a familiar language, affecting not only by its sound, but also by its meaning.

M. of each nation in each era is characterized by a certain. a complex of stable types of sound combinations (intonations) together with the rules (norms) for their use. Such a complex can be called (metaphorically) muses. “language” of this nation and era. Unlike verbal (verbal) language, it is devoid of certain creatures. signs of a sign system, because, firstly, its elements are not specific stable formations (signs), but only types of sound combinations, and secondly, each of these elements has more than one definition. value, but a set of potential values, the field of which does not have precisely established boundaries, thirdly, the form of each element is inseparable from its values, it can neither be replaced by another, nor significantly changed without changing the value; therefore, in M. it is impossible to transfer from one muses. language to another.

The field of potential values ​​of any musical-linguistic element depends, on the one hand, on its physical. (acoustic) properties, and on the other hand, from the experience of its use in musical societies. practice and its connections, as a result of this experience, with other phenomena. Such are the vnemuz. associations (with the sounds of speech, nature, etc., and through them with the corresponding images of people and natural phenomena) and intra-musical, which, in turn, are divided into extra-text associations (with other musical works) and intra-text (they arise within a given work on the basis of various kinds of intonational connections, thematic similarities, etc.). In the formation of semantic. possibilities diff. music elements. Language plays a huge role in the experience of their repeated use in everyday M., as well as in M. with the word and stage. action, where their strong ties are formed with life situations and with those elements of content that are embodied outside of muse. means.

To the repetitive elements of music. forms, semantics. opportunities to-rykh depend on the traditions of their use in musical societies. practice, belong not only to the types of intonations (musical “words”), but also such unity of musical expressions. means, what are the genres (marching, dancing, song, etc., see Genre musical). Pot. The meanings of each genre are largely determined by its primary everyday functions, i.e. its place in life practice.

The composer can use in his works. as general patterns of music. “language” of the nation and era, as well as its specific elements. At the same time, certain elements pass within the given style from work to work and from one author to another without being. changes (developing melodic and harmonic turns, cadences, rhythmic formulas of everyday genres, etc.). Others serve only as prototypes for the creation of new, in each case, original elements of the muses. forms (such are the primary turns of the themes – their “grains”, as well as culminating intonations). When you turn on any element of music. language into a work, the field of its meanings changes: on the one hand, it narrows due to the concretizing role of the muses. context, as well as words or scenes. action (in synthetic genres), on the other hand, is expanding due to the emergence of intratextual connections. Using the elements and rules of existing muses. languages, modifying them, creating new ones, the composer thereby forms his own individual, in some way unique music. the language it needs to embody its own original content.

Muses. different languages. epochs, nations, composers are unusually diverse, but all of them also have some general principles for organizing tones – pitch and time. In the vast majority of music cultures and styles, the pitch relationships of tones are organized on the basis of the mode, and the temporal relationships are organized on the basis of the meter. Fret and meter serve at the same time as generalizations of the entire previous intonation-rhythm. practices and regulators of further creativity, which direct the flow of sound pairings generated by the composer’s consciousness along a certain channel. Coherent and meaningful deployment (in monophony) of high-altitude and temporal relations of muses. sounds based on fret and meter forms a melody, which is the most important of express. means of M., her soul.

Combining the main background music. expressiveness (intonation, pitch, rhythmic and syntactic organization), the melody implements them in a concentrated and individualized form. Relief and originality melodic. material serve as essential criteria for the value of muses. works, significantly contribute to its perception and memorization.

In each given music. a work of individual elements of its form is formed in the process of combining and subordinating a general structure, consisting of a set of private structures. The latter include melodic, rhythmic, fret-harmonic, textural, timbre, dynamic, tempo, etc. structures. Of particular importance is thematic. structure, the elements of which are muses. themes along with diff. types and stages of their change and development. In most music styles, it is the themes that are the main material carriers of the muses. images, and, consequently, thematic. music structure. forms in means. degree serves as an external manifestation of the figurative structure of the content. Both, merging, constitute figurative-thematic. the structure of the work.

All private structures of muses. forms are linked together and coordinated syntactically. structure (uniting motives, phrases, sentences, periods) and compositional (uniting parts, sections, parts, etc.). The last two structures form the muses. form in the narrow sense of the word (in other words, the composition of a musical work). Due to the particularly large relative independence of form in art as a non-pictorial form of art, stable, relatively durable types of compositional structures have developed in it – typical muses. forms (in the narrow sense of the word) capable of embodying a very wide range of images. These are the ones that exist in Europe. M. for several years already. centuries two-part and three-part forms, variations, rondo, sonata allegro, fugue, etc.; there are typical forms in the music. cultures of the East. Each of them generally reflects the characteristic, most common types of movement in nature, society and human consciousness (the formation of phenomena, their repetition, change, development, comparison, collision, etc.). This determines its potential meaning, which is specified in different ways in various works. The typical scheme is realized in a new way every time, turning into a unique composition of this work.

Like the content, music. the form unfolds in time, being a process. Each element of each structure plays a role in this process, performs a certain. function. The functions of the element in music. form can be multiple (multifunctionality) and changing (variability of functions). Elements acc. structures (as well as tones – in elements) connect and function on the basis of muses. logic, which is specific. refraction of the general patterns of human. activities. In every music style (see Musical style) forms its own variety of muses. logic, reflecting and summarizing the creative practice of this era, nat. school, any of its currents or an individual author.

Both the content of M. and its form are gradually developing. Their internal opportunities are more and more fully revealed and gradually enriched under the influence of external factors and, above all, shifts in social life. M. continuously includes new themes, images, ideas, emotions, which give rise to new forms. At the same time, obsolete elements of content and form are dying out. However, everything valuable created in Moscow remains to live in the form of works that make up the classic. heritage, and as a creative traditions adopted in subsequent eras.

Human musical activity is divided into three main varieties: creativity (see Composition), performance (see Musical performance) and perception (see Musical psychology). They correspond to three stages of the existence of muses. works: creation, reproduction, listening. At each stage, the content and form of the work appear in a special form. At the stage of creation, when in the mind of the composer at the same time. the author’s content (ideal) and the author’s form (material) are developed, the content exists in an actual form, and the form exists only in a potential one. When the work is realized in performance (in written musical cultures, this is usually preceded by a conditional coding of the musical form in the form of a musical notation, see Music writing), then the form is updated, passes into a sounding state. At the same time, both the content and the form change somewhat, are transformed by the performer in accordance with his worldview, aesthetic. ideals, personal experience, temperament, etc. This shows his individual perception and interpretation of the work. There are performing variants of content and form. Finally, listeners skip the perceived product. through the prism of their views, tastes, life and muses. experience and through this again somewhat transform it. Listener variants of content and form are born, derived from performing ones, and through them – from the author’s content and author’s form. Thus, at all stages of music. activity is creative. character, although to varying degrees: the author creates M., the performer actively recreates and recreates it, while the listener more or less actively perceives it.

M.’s perception is a complex multilevel process, including physical. hearing M., its understanding, experience and evaluation. Physical hearing is a direct-sensory perception of the external (sound) side of the muses. forms, accompanied by physiological. impact. Understanding and experiencing is the perception of the meanings of the muses. forms, i.e. the content of M., through the comprehension of its structures. The condition for perception at this level is a preliminary acquaintance (at least in a general way) with the corresponding. music language and the assimilation of the logic of music. thinking inherent in this style, which allows the listener not only to compare every moment of the deployment of muses. forms with the previous ones, but also to foresee (“anticipate”) the direction of further movement. At this level, the ideological and emotional impact of M. on the listener is carried out.

Additional stages of perception of music. works that go beyond the limits of its real sounding in time are, on the one hand, the formation of the listener’s attitude to perception (based on the circumstances of the upcoming hearing, prior knowledge of the genre of the work, the name of its author, etc.), and on the other hand, the subsequent comprehension of what was heard, its reproduction in memory (“after-hearing”) or in one’s own. performance (for example, by singing at least individual fragments and voices) and the final assessment (whereas the preliminary assessment is already formed during the sounding of the M.).

The ability of the listener to meaningfully perceive (understand and experience) this or that music. the work, the content of its perception and evaluation depend both on the object (work) and on the subject (listener), more precisely, on the relationship between spiritual needs and interests, aesthetic. ideals, the degree of art. development, music listener experience and internal the qualities of the work. In turn, the needs and other parameters of the listener are formed by the social environment, and his personal music. experience is part of the public. Therefore, the perception of music is just as socially conditioned as creativity or performance (which does not exclude the certain importance of innate abilities and individual psychological properties for all types of musical activity). In particular, social factors play a leading role in the formation of both individual and mass interpretations (interpretations) and assessments of muses. works. These interpretations and assessments are historically changeable, they reflect differences in the objective meaning and value of the same work for different eras and social groups (depending on its compliance with the objective requirements of the time and the needs of society).

Three basic type of music activities are closely interconnected, forming a single chain. Each subsequent link receives material from the previous one and experiences its influence. There is also a feedback between them: performance stimulates (but, to a certain extent, limits) creativity to its needs and capabilities; societies. perception directly influences performance (through the reactions of the public in its direct, live contact with the performer and other ways) and indirectly on creativity (since the composer voluntarily or involuntarily focuses on one or another type of musical perception and relies on the musical language that has developed in a certain society).

Together with such activities as the distribution and propaganda of M. with the help of decomp. media, scientific music research (see Musicology, Musical Ethnography, Musical Aesthetics), criticism (see Musical Criticism), personnel training, organizational leadership, etc., and the institutions corresponding to them, the subjects of this activity and the values ​​generated by it, creativity, performance and perception form a system – muses. the culture of society. In the developed music culture, creativity is represented by many intersecting varieties, to-rye can be differentiated according to dec. signs.

1) By type of content: M. lyrical, epic, dramatic, as well as heroic, tragic, humorous, etc.; in another aspect – serious music and light music.

2) By performing purpose: vocal music and instrumental music; in a different aspect – solo, ensemble, orchestral, choral, mixed (with possible further clarification of the compositions: for example, for a symphony orchestra, for a chamber orchestra, for jazz, etc.).

3) By synthesis with other types of art and with the word: M. theatrical (see Theatrical music), choreographic (see Dance music), program instrumental, melodrama (reading to music), vocal with words. M. outside the synthesis – vocalizations (singing without words) and “pure” instrumental (without a program).

4) According to vital functions: applied music (with subsequent differentiation into production music, military music, signal music, entertainment music, etc.) and non-applied music.

5) According to the sound conditions: M. for listening in special. an environment where listeners are separated from performers (“presented” M., according to G. Besseler), and M. for mass performance and listening in an ordinary life situation (“everyday” M.). In turn, the first is divided into spectacular and concert, the second – into mass-domestic and ritual. Each of these four varieties (genre groups) can be differentiated further: spectacular – on M. for muses. theatre, drama theater and cinema (see Film music), concert – on symphonic music, chamber music and pop music. music, mass-everyday – on M. for singing and for movement, ritual – on M. cult rites (see Church music) and secular. Finally, within both areas of mass everyday music, on the same basis, in conjunction with the vital function, song genres (anthem, lullaby, serenade, barcarolle, etc.), dance genres (hopak, waltz, polonaise, etc.) .) and marching (combat march, funeral march, etc.).

6) By type of composition and music. language (together with performing means): various one-part or cyclic. genres within varieties (genre groups) identified according to sound conditions. For example, among the spectacular M. – opera, ballet, operetta, etc., among the concert – oratorio, cantata, romance, symphony, suite, overture, poem, instr. concerto, solo sonata, trio, quartet, etc., among the ceremonial – hymns, chorale, mass, requiem, etc. In turn, within these genres, more fractional genre units can be distinguished according to the same criteria, but at a different level: for example, aria, ensemble, chorus in opera, operetta, oratorio and cantata, adagio and solo variation in ballet, andante and scherzo in symphony, sonata, chamber-instr. ensemble, etc. Due to their connection with such stable non-musical and intra-musical factors as vital function, circumstances of performance and type of structure, genres (and genre groups) also have great stability, durability, sometimes persisting for several years. epochs. At the same time, a certain sphere of content and certain features of the muses are assigned to each of them. forms. However, with a change in the general historical environment and conditions for the functioning of M. in society, genres also evolve. Some of them are transformed, others disappear, giving way to new ones. (In particular, in the 20th century, the development of radio, cinema, television, and other technical means of dissemination of media contributed to the formation of new genres.) As a result, each era and nat. music culture is characterized by its “genre fund”.

7) By styles (historical, national, group, individual). Like genre, style is a general concept that covers a large number of muses. phenomena that are similar in certain respects (ch. arr. according to the type of musical thinking embodied in them). At the same time, styles, as a rule, are much more mobile, more changeable than genres. If the genre category reflects the commonality of muses. works of the same type belonging to different styles and eras, then in the category of style – the community of works of different genres belonging to the same era. In other words, the genre gives a generalization of musical-historical. process in sequence, diachrony, and style – in simultaneity, synchrony.

Performing, like creativity, is divided into vocal and instrumental and, further, according to instruments and according to the composition of ensembles or orchestras; by genre groups (music-theatrical, concert, etc.), sometimes also by subgroups (symphonic, chamber, pop) and by otd. genres (opera, ballet, song, etc.); by styles.

Perception is subdivided into varieties according to the degree of concentration (“self-perception”—included in one’s own performance; “concentrated” perception—entirely concentrated on the perceived medium and not accompanied by other activity; “accompanying”—accompanied by CL activity); according to the listener’s orientation to one or another type of M. content (serious M. or light), to a certain genre group, or even to a separate group. genre (for example, for a song), for a certain style; by the ability to understand and adequately evaluate the M. of a given genre and style (skilled, amateur, incompetent). In accordance with this, there is a division of listeners into layers and groups, ultimately determined by social factors: music. upbringing in a particular society. environment, the assimilation of her requests and tastes, her usual circumstances of perception of M., etc. (see Musical education, Musical education). A certain role is also played by the differentiation of perception according to psychological. signs (analyticity or syntheticity, the predominance of a rational or emotional beginning, one or another attitude, a system of expectations in relation to M. and to art in general).

M. performs important social functions. Responding to the diverse needs of the Society, it comes into contact with dec. types of people. activities – material (participation in labor processes and related rituals), cognitive and evaluative (reflection of the psychology of both individual people and social groups, expression of their ideology), spiritual and transformative (ideological, ethical and aesthetic impact), communicative (communication between people). Particularly large societies. M.’s role as a means of spiritual education of a person, the formation of beliefs, morals. qualities, aesthetic tastes and ideals, the development of emotions. responsiveness, sensitivity, kindness, a sense of beauty, stimulation of creativity. abilities in all areas of life. All these social functions of M. form a system, which changes depending on the social-historical. conditions.

Music history. Regarding the origin of M. in the 19th century. and early 20th century hypotheses were put forward, according to which the origins of M. were the intonations of emotionally excited speech (G. Spencer), the singing of birds and the loving calls of animals (C. Darwin), the rhythms of the work of primitive people (K. Bucher), their sound signals (K. Stumpf), magic. spells (J. Combarier). According to modern materialistic science based on archeology. and ethnographic data, in primitive society there was a long process of gradual “maturing” of M. inside the practical. activities of people and the primitive syncretic that has not yet emerged from it. complex — pre-art, which harbored the embryos of M., dance, poetry, and other types of art and served the purposes of communication, organization of joint labor and ritual processes and emotional impact on their participants in order to educate the spiritual qualities necessary for the team. Initially chaotic, unorganized, covering a wide range of succession of a large number of sounds of indefinite height (imitation of birds singing, howling of animals, etc.) were replaced by tunes and tunes, consisting of only a few. tones differentiated by logical. value into reference (stable) and side (unstable). Multiple repetition of melodic and rhythmic. formulas entrenched in societies. practice, led to a gradual awareness and assimilation of the possibilities of logic. organization of sounds. The simplest musical-sound systems were formed (musical instruments played an important role in their consolidation), elementary types of meter and mode. This contributed to the initial awareness of potential expressions. possibilities of tones and their combinations.

During the period of decomposition of the primitive communal (tribal) system, when art. activity is gradually separated from practical, and syncretic. The pre-art complex is gradually disintegrating, and art is also born as an independent entity. type of claim. In the myths of different peoples related to this time, the idea of ​​M. as a powerful force capable of influencing nature, taming wild animals, healing a person from diseases, etc. is recorded. With the growth of the division of labor and the emergence of classes, initially a single and homogeneous music. the culture belonging to the whole of society is divided into the culture of the ruling classes and the culture of the oppressed (the people), as well as professional and non-professional (amateur). From this time on, it begins to be independent. the existence of music. folklore as folk unprofessional lawsuit. Muses. creativity of people masses becomes in the future the foundation of the muses. the culture of society as a whole, the richest source of images and express. funds for prof. composers.

Muses. culture of slaveholding and early feuds. states of the Ancient World (Egypt, Sumer, Assyria, Babylon, Syria, Palestine, India, China, Greece, Rome, the states of Transcaucasia and Central Asia) is already characterized by the extensive activity of prof. musicians (usually combining a composer and a performer), who served in temples, at the courts of rulers and the nobility, participated in mass ritual actions, societies. festivities, etc. M. retains Ch. arr. practical material and spiritual functions inherited from primitive society and associated with it directly. participation in work, everyday life, military life, civil and religious rites, in the education of youth, etc. However, for the first time, a separation of aesthetics is outlined. functions, the first samples of music appear, intended only for listening (for example, chants and instr. plays performed in Greece at musicians’ competitions). Various are developing. song (epic and lyric) and dance. genres, in many of which poetry, singing and dancing retain their original unity. M. plays a big role in the theater. representations, in particular in Greek. tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides were not only playwrights, but also musicians). Various muses are improving, acquiring a stable form and building. instruments (including harp, lyre, old wind and percussion). The first systems of writing M. appear (cuneiform, hieroglyphic, or alphabetic), although dominance. the form of its preservation and dissemination remains oral. The first musical aesthetics appear. and theoretical teachings and systems. Many philosophers of antiquity write about M. (in China – Confucius, in Greece – Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Democritus, Plato, Aristotle, Aristoxenus, in Rome – Lucretius Carus). M. is considered in practice and in theory as an activity close to science, craft and religion. cult, as a “model” of the world, contributing to the knowledge of its laws, and as the strongest means of influencing nature (magic) and man (the formation of civic qualities, moral education, healing, etc.). In this regard, a strict public (in some countries – even state) regulation of the use of M. of different types (up to individual modes) is established.

In the era of the Middle Ages in Europe, there is a muse. culture of a new type – feudal, uniting prof. art, amateur music and folklore. Since the church dominates in all areas of spiritual life, the basis of prof. music art is the activity of musicians in temples and monasteries. Secular prof. art is represented at first only by singers who create and perform epic. legends at the court, in the houses of the nobility, among warriors, etc. (bards, skalds, etc.). Over time, amateur and semi-professional forms of chivalry music-making developed: in France – the art of troubadours and trouveurs (Adam de la Halle, 13th century), in Germany – minnesingers (Wolfram von Eschenbach, Walter von der Vogelweide, 12-13th centuries) , as well as mountains. artisans. In the feud. castles and cities cultivated all sorts of genres, genres and forms of songs (epic, “dawn”, rondo, le, virelet, ballads, canzones, laudas, etc.). New muses come into life. tools, incl. those who came from the East (viola, lute, etc.), ensembles (unstable compositions) arise. Folklore flourishes among the peasantry. There are also “folk professionals”: storytellers, wandering synthetics. artists (jugglers, mimes, minstrels, shpilmans, buffoons). M. again performs Ch. arr. applied and spiritual-practical. functions. Creativity acts in unity with performance (as a rule – in one person) and with perception. Collectivity dominates both in the content of mass and in its form; the individual beginning submits to the general, without standing out from it (the musician-master is the best representative of the community). Strict traditionalism and canonicity reign throughout. The consolidation, preservation and dissemination of traditions and standards (but also their gradual renewal) was facilitated by the transition from neumes, which only approximately indicated the nature of the melodic. movement, to linear notation (Guido d’Arezzo, 10th century), which made it possible to accurately fix the pitch of tones, and then their duration.

Gradually, albeit slowly, the content of music, its genres, forms, and means of expression are enriched. In Zap. Europe from the 6th-7th centuries. a strictly regulated system of monophonic (monodic, see Monophonic, Monody) church is taking shape. M. on the basis of diatonic. frets (Gregorian chant), combining recitation (psalmody) and singing (hymns). At the turn of the 1st and 2nd millennium, polyphony is born. New woks are being formed. (choral) and wok.-instr. (choir and organ) genres: organum, motet, conduct, then mass. in France in the 12th century. the first composer (creative) school was formed at the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Leonin, Perotin). At the turn of the Renaissance (ars nova style in France and Italy, 14th century) in prof. M. monophony is supplanted by polyphony, M. begins to gradually free himself from purely practical. functions (serving church rites), it enhances the importance of secular genres, incl. songs (Guillaume de Machaux).

In Vost. Europe and Transcaucasia (Armenia, Georgia) develop their own muses. cultures with independent systems of modes, genres and forms. In Byzantium, Bulgaria, Kievan Rus, later Novgorod, cult znamenny singing flourishes (see Znamenny chant), osn. on the diatonic system. voices, limited only to pure wok. genres (troparia, stichera, hymns, etc.) and using a special notation system (hooks).

At the same time, in the East (the Arab Caliphate, the countries of Central Asia, Iran, India, China, Japan), a feudal muses was being formed. a special type of culture. Its signs are the widespread dissemination of secular professionalism (both courtly and folk), acquiring a virtuoso character, limitation to oral tradition and monodich. forms, reaching, however, high sophistication in relation to melody and rhythm, the creation of very stable national and international systems of muses. thinking, combining a strictly defined. types of modes, genres, intonation and compositional structures (mugams, makams, ragi, etc.).

During the Renaissance (14-16 centuries) in the West. and Center, Europe feudal music. culture begins to turn into a bourgeois one. Secular art flourishes on the basis of the ideology of humanism. M. in means. degree is exempted from the mandatory practical. destination. More and more come to the fore its aesthetic. and know. functions, its ability to serve as a means of not only managing people’s behavior, but also reflecting internal. the human world and the surrounding reality. In M. the individual beginning is allocated. She gains greater freedom from the power of traditional canons. establishments. Perception is gradually separated from creativity and performance, the audience is formed as independent. music component. culture. Blooming instr. amateurishness (lute). The household wok receives the widest development. playing music (in the homes of citizens, circles of music lovers). Simple polygoals are created for him. songs – villanella and frottola (Italy), chansons (France), as well as more difficult to perform and often refined in style (with chromatic features) 4- or 5-goal. madrigals (Luca Marenzio, Carlo Gesualdo di Venosa), incl. to the verses of Petrarch, Ariosto, Tasso. Semi-professional musicians are active in Germany. associations of townspeople-artisans – workshops of mastersingers, where numerous. songs (Hans Sachs). Anthems of mass social, nat. and religious movements: Hussite hymn (Czech Republic), Lutheran chant (Reformation and Peasant War of the 16th century in Germany), Huguenot psalm (France).

In prof. M. reaches its pinnacle chorus. polyphony a cappella (polyphony of “strict style”) is purely diatonic. warehouse in the genres of mass, motet or secular polygon. songs with virtuoso use of complex imitations. forms (canon). Main composer schools: the Franco-Flemish or Dutch school (Guillaume Dufay, Johayanes Okeghem, Jacob Obrecht, Josquin Despres, Orlando di Lasso), the Roman school (Palestrina), the Venetian school (Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli). Major masters of the choir are moving forward. creativity in Poland (Vaclav from Shamotul, Mikolaj Gomulka), Czech Republic. Simultaneously for the first time gains independence instr. M., in a swarm also develops imitation. polyphony (organ preludes, ricercars, canzones by the Venetians A. and G. Gabrieli, variations by the Spanish composer Antonio Cabezon). Scientific is revived. thought about M., new means are created. music-theoretical. treatises (Glarean in Switzerland, G. Tsarlino and V. Galilei in Italy, etc.).

In Russia, after liberation from Mong.-Tat. the yoke blossoms M., in prof. M. reaches a high development of Znamenny singing, unfolds creativity. the activities of outstanding composers-“singers” (Fyodor Krestyanin), the original polyphony (“three lines”) is born, major muses are active. collectives (choir of “sovereign singing clerks”, 16th century).

The process of transition in Europe from the muses. culture of the feudal type to the bourgeois continues in the 17th century. and 1st floor. 18th century The general dominance of secular M. is finally determined (although in Germany and some other countries, church M. retains great importance). Its content covers a wide range of topics and images, incl. philosophical, historical, modern, civil. Along with playing music in the aristocratic. salons and noble estates, in the houses of representatives of the “third estate”, as well as in the account. institutions (universities) is intensively deployed public. music life. Its hearths are permanent muses. institutions of an open nature: opera houses, philharmonic. (concert) about-va. Violas are being replaced by modern. bowed string instruments (violin, cello, etc.; outstanding masters of their manufacture – A. and N. Amati, G. Guarneri, A. Stradivari from Cremona, Italy), the first pianoforte was created (1709, B. Cristofori, Italy). Printing music (which originated as early as the end of the 15th century) is developing. The music is expanding. education (conservatories in Italy). From muses. science stands out criticism (I. Mattheson, Germany, early 18th century).

In the development of composer creativity, this period was marked by the crossing influences of such arts. styles, such as baroque (Italian and German instr. and chorus M.), classicism (Italian and French opera), rococo (French instr. M.) and a gradual transition from previously established genres, styles and forms to new, retaining dominance. position in Europe M. up to the present day. Among the monumental genres, next to the continuing existence of “passions” (passions) on religion. themes and the mass, the opera and the oratorio quickly come to the fore. Cantata (solo and choral), instr. concert (solo and orchestral), chamber-instr. ensemble (trio, etc.), solo song with instr. escort; the suite takes on a new look (its variety is partita), which combines everyday dances. At the end of the period, the formation of modern. symphonies and sonatas, as well as ballets as independent. genre. In parallel with the imitation polyphony of the “free style”, which reaches its peak, with the wide use of chromatism, on the basis of the same modes (major and minor), the one that matured even earlier, inside the polyphony and in everyday dance, is affirmed. M., homophonic-harmonic. warehouse (the upper voice is the main one, the rest are chord accompaniment, see Homophony), harmonic crystallize. functions and a new type of melody based on them, the practice of digital bass, or general bass, is widely spread (improvisation by the performer on the organ, harpsichord or lute of harmonic accompaniment to a melody or recitative based on the lower voice written out by the composer – bass with conditional, digital notation of harmony) . Simultaneously with polyphonic forms (passacaglia, chaconne, fugue) add up some homophonic ones: rondo, old sonata.

In countries where at this time the process of formation of united nations (Italy, France, England, partly Germany) takes place (or ends), highly developed national. music culture. Among them are dominance. the role is retained by the Italian. It was in Italy that opera was born (Florence, at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries), and the first classical operas were created. examples of this new genre (the first half of the 1th century, the Venetian school, C. Monteverdi), its stable varieties are formed, which spread throughout Europe: a serious opera, or opera seria, heroic. and tragic. character, on mythological. and historical plots (second half of the 17th century, Neapolitan school, A. Scarlatti), and comic, or opera buffa, on everyday subjects (first half of the 2th century, Neapolitan school, G. Pergolesi). In the same country, the oratorio (17) and the cantata appeared (outstanding examples of both genres are from G. Carissimi and A. Stradella). Finally, at the base of the heyday loves. and conc. performance (the largest violin virtuosos – J. Vitali, A. Corelli, J. Tartini) is intensively developing and updating instr. M .: organ (1st half of the 18th century, G. Frescobaldi), orchestral, ensemble, solo for strings. tools. In the 1600nd floor. 1 – beg. 17th century the genres of concerto grosso (Corelli, Vivaldi) and solo instr. concerto (Vivaldi, Tartini), varieties (“church” and “chamber”) trio sonata (for 2 strings or wind instruments and clavier or organ – by Vitali) and solo sonata (for violin or for solo violin and clavier – by Corelli, Tartini, for the clavier by D. Scarlatti).

In France, there are special national. genres op. for music t-ra: “lyric. tragedy ”(a monumental type of opera) and opera-ballet (J. B. Lully, J. F. Rameau), comedy-ballet (Lully in collaboration with Moliere). A galaxy of outstanding harpsichordists—composers and performers (late 17th—early 18th centuries, F. Couperin, Rameau)—who developed rondo forms (often in plays of a programmatic nature) and variations, came to the fore. In England, at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, in the era of Shakespeare, there arose Europe’s first school of composers for piano music—the virginalists (W. Bird and J. Bull). M. occupies a large place in the Shakespearean theater. In the 2nd floor. 17th century outstanding examples of nat. opera, chorus, organ, chamber-instr. and clavier M. (G. Purcell). In the 1st floor. 18th century creativity is unfolding in the UK. activities of G. F. Handel (oratorios, opera seria), at the same time. the birth of a national comic genre. opera – ballad opera. In Germany in the 17th century original oratorio works (“passions”, etc.) and the first examples of fatherlands appear. opera and ballet (G. Schutz), flourishes org. art (D. Buxtehude, I. Froberger, I. Pachelbel). In the 1st floor. 18th century means. prod. in many genres (“passions”, other oratorio genres; cantatas; fantasies, preludes, fugues, sonatas for organ and clavier, suites for clavier; concertos for orchestra and for separate instruments, etc.) creates J. S. Bach , whose work was the result and the pinnacle of all previous development of the European. polyphony and all M. baroque. In Spain, original music theaters are born. opera-type genres with colloquial dialogues: zarzuela (dramatic content), tonadilla (comic). In Russia, polyphony in cult music is on the rise (partes singing of the late 17th and early 18th centuries—choir concertos by V. Titov and N. Kalachnikov). Simultaneously in the era of the reforms of Peter I, secular professional music was born (panegyric cantes), and the development of urban everyday music was activated (lyric cantes, psalms). The development of the European M. 2nd floor. 18th century and early 19th century proceeds under the influence of the ideas of the Enlightenment, and then the Great French. revolution, which not only gave rise to a new mass-everyday music (marches, heroic songs, including the Marseillaise, mass festivals and revolutionary rituals), but also found a direct or indirect response in other music. genres. Baroque, “gallant style” (rococo) and noble classicism give way to the dominant place of bourgeois. (enlightenment) classicism, which affirms the ideas of reason, equality of people, service to society, high ethical ideals. In the French The highest expression of these aspirations was the operatic work of K. Gluck, in the Austro-German – symphonic, operatic and chamber works of the representatives of the Viennese classical school J. Haydn, W. A. ​​Mozart and L. Beethoven, who most fully and deeply embodied heroism struggle for the freedom and brotherhood of peoples.

Happen means. advances in all areas prof. M. Gluck and Mozart, each in their own way, are reforming the opera genre, trying to overcome the ossified conventionality of the aristocratic. “serious” opera. In different countries, close to each other democracies are rapidly developing. genres: opera buffa (Italy – D. Cimarosa), comic. opera (France – J. J. Rousseau, P. Monsigny, A. Gretry; Russia – V. A. Pashkevich, E. I. Fomin), Singspiel (Austria – Haydn, Mozart, K. Dittersdorf). During the Great French revolution appears “opera of salvation” on the heroic. and melodrama. plots (France – L. Cherubini, J. F. Lesueur; Austria – Beethoven’s Fidelio). Separated as independent. ballet genre (Gluck, Beethoven). In the work of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, it is fixed and receives a classic. the embodiment of the genre of symphony in its modern. understanding (4-part cycle). Prior to that, in the creation of the symphony (as well as in the final formation of the symphony orchestra of the modern type), Czech (J. Stamitz) and German played an important role. musicians who worked in Mannheim (Germany). In parallel, the classic big sonata type and chamber-instr. ensemble (trio, quartet, quintet). The form of the sonata allegro is being developed and a new, dialectical one is being formed. the method of musical thinking is symphonism, which reached its peak in Beethoven’s work.

In the M. Slavic peoples (Russia, Poland, Czech Republic), the development of wok continues. genres (choir. concert in Russia – M. S. Berezovsky, D. S. Bortnyansky, everyday romance), the first fatherlands appear. opera, the ground is being prepared for the creation of nat. music classics. Throughout Europe. prof. M. polyphonic. styles are mostly replaced by homophonic-harmonic ones; the functional system of harmony is finally formed and consolidated.

In the 19th century in most European countries and in North. America completes the education of muses. culture “classic.” bourgeois type. This process takes place against the backdrop of and under the influence of the active democratization of all societies. and music. life and overcoming class barriers inherited from feudalism. From aristocratic salons, court theaters and chapels, small conc. halls intended for a closed circle of a privileged public, M. goes into the vast premises (and even on the square), open to democratic access. listeners. There are many new muses. theaters, conc. institutions, enlighten. organizations, music publishers, music. uch. institutions (including conservatories in Prague, Warsaw, Vienna, London, Madrid, Budapest, Leipzig, St. Petersburg, Moscow, and others; somewhat earlier, at the end of the 18th century, a conservatory was founded in Paris). Muses appear. magazines and newspapers. The process of performance is finally separated from creativity as independent. type of music activities, represented by a huge number of ensembles and soloists (the most outstanding performers of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century: pianists – F. Liszt, X. Bulow, A. G. and N. G. Rubinstein, S. V. Rachmaninov; violinists – N. Paganini, A. Vieton, J. Joachim, F. Kreisler; singers – G. Rubini, E. Caruso, F. I. Chaliapin; cellist P. Casals, conductors – A. Nikish, A. Toscanini). Delimitation prof. creativity with performance and appeal to a mass audience contribute to their rapid development. At the same time, the stratification of each of the nat. cultures into proper bourgeois and democratic. The commercialization of music is growing. life that progressive musicians are fighting against. M. occupies an increasingly important place in the social and political. life. A general democratic and then a workers’ revolution develops. song. Its best samples (“International”, “Red Banner”, “Varshavyanka”) are acquired by international. meaning. Next to the previously formed nat. Young composer schools of a new type are flourishing: Russian (founded by M. I. Glinka), Polish (F. Chopin, S. Moniuszko), Czech (B. Smetana, A. Dvorak), Hungarian (F. Erkel, F. Liszt), Norwegian (E. Grieg), Spanish (I. Albeniz, E. Granados).

In the composer’s work of a number of European. countries in the 1st half. 19th century romanticism is affirmed (German and Austrian M. – E. T. A. Hoffmann, K. M. Weber, F. Schubert, F. Mendelssohn, R. Schumann; French – G. Berlioz; Hungarian – Liszt; Polish – Chopin , Russian – A. A. Alyabiev, A. N. Verstovsky). Its characteristic features in M. (compared to classicism): heightened attention to the emotional world of the individual, individualization and dramatization of lyrics, the promotion of the theme of discord between the individual and society, between the ideal and reality, and an appeal to the historical. (mid-century), folk-legendary and folk-everyday scenes and pictures of nature, interest in national, historical. and geographic the originality of reflected reality, a more concrete embodiment of the national on the basis of songs of different peoples, the strengthening of the role of the vocal, song beginning, as well as colorfulness (in harmony and orchestration), a freer interpretation of traditions. genres and forms and the creation of new ones (symphonic poem), the desire for a diverse synthesis of M. with other arts. Programmed music is being developed (based on plots and themes from the folk epos, literature, painting, etc.), instr. miniature (prelude, musical moment, impromptu, etc.) and a cycle of programmatic miniatures, romance and chamber wok. cycle, “grand opera” of a decorative type on the legendary and historical. themes (France – J. Meyerbeer). In Italy, the opera buffa (G. Rossini) reaches the top, nat. varieties of romantic operas (lyrical – V. Bellini, G. Donizetti; heroic – early G. Verdi). Russia is forming its own national music classics, acquiring world significance, original types of folk-historical are formed. and epic. operas, as well as symphonies. M. on the bunk. themes (Glinka), the romance genre reaches a high level of development, in which psychological features gradually mature. and everyday realism (A. S. Dargomyzhsky).

All R. and 2nd floor. 19th century some Western European composers continue romantic. direction in opera (R. Wagner), symphony (A. Bruckner, Dvorak), software instr. M. (Liszt, Grieg), song (X. Wolf) or seek to combine the stylistic principles of romanticism and classicism (I. Brahms). Keeping in touch with the romantic tradition, original ways are Italian. opera (its pinnacle is the work of Verdi), French. opera (Ch. Gounod, J. Wiese, J. Massenet) and ballet (L. Delibes), Polish and Czech opera (Moniuszko, Smetana). In the work of a number of Western European. composers (Verdi, Bizet, Wolf, etc.), the tendencies of realism are intensifying. They manifest themselves especially clearly and widely in the Russian M. of this period, which is ideologically connected with the democratic. societies. movement and advanced literature (the late Dargomyzhsky; the composers of The Mighty Handful are M. A. Balakirev, A. P. Borodin, M. P. Mussorgsky, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov and Ts. A. Cui; P. I. Tchaikovsky). Based on Russian nar. songs, as well as M. East rus. composers (Mussorgsky, Borodin and Rimsky-Korsakov) are developing new melodic, rhythmic. and harmonic. funds significantly enriching Europe. fret system.

From Ser. 19th century in Zap. Europe, a new musical theater is being formed. genre – operetta (France – F. Herve, J. Offenbach, Ch. Lecoq, R. Plunket; Austria – F. Suppe, K. Millöker, J. Strauss-son, later Hung. composers, representatives of the “neo-Viennese” school of F. Legar and I. Kalman). In prof. creativity stands out on its own. the line of “light” (everyday dance) M. (waltzes, polkas, gallops by I. Strauss-son, E. Waldteuffel). The entertainment scene is born. M. as independent. music industry. life.

In con. 19th century and early 20th century in Europe A period of transition begins in Moscow, corresponding to the beginning of imperialism as the highest and last stage of capitalism. This period is marked by a crisis of a number of predecessors. ideological and stylistic trends.

The established traditions are largely revised and often updated. In connection with the change in the general “spiritual climate”, new methods and styles are emerging. Music resources are expanding. expressiveness, there is an intensive search for means capable of conveying a sharpened and refined perception of reality. At the same time, the tendencies of individualism and aestheticism are growing, in a number of cases there is a danger of losing a large social theme (modernism). In Germany and Austria, the romantic line ends. symphony (G. Mahler, R. Strauss) and music is born. expressionism (A. Schoenberg). Other new trends also developed: in France, impressionism (C. Debussy, M. Ravel), in Italy, verismo (operas by P. Mascagni, R. Leoncavallo, and, to some extent, G. Puccini). In Russia, the lines coming from the “Kuchkists” and Tchaikovsky (S. I. Taneev, A. K. Glazunov, A. K. Lyadov, S. V. Rakhmaninov) continue and partially develop, at the same time. new phenomena also arise: a kind of music. symbolism (A. N. Skryabin), modernization of nar. fabulousness and “barbarian” antiquity (early I. F. Stravinsky and S. S. Prokofiev). The foundations of the national music classics in Ukraine (N. V. Lysenko, N. D. Leontovich), in Georgia (Z. P. Paliashvili), Armenia (Komitas, A. A. Spendiarov), Azerbaijan (U. Gadzhibekov), Estonia (A. Kapp ), Latvia (J. Vitol), Lithuania (M. Čiurlionis), Finland (J. Sibelius).

Classic European music system. thinking, based on major-minor functional harmony, is undergoing profound changes in the work of a number of composers. Dep. the authors, preserving the principle of tonality, expand its base using natural (diatonic) and artificial modes (Debussy, Stravinsky), saturate it with abundant alterations (Scriabin). Others generally abandon this principle, moving on to atonal music (Schoenberg, American C. Ive). The weakening of harmonics connections stimulated the revival of theoretical. and creative interest in polyphony (Russia – Taneyev, Germany – M. Reger).

From 1917-18 bourgeois music. culture entered a new period of its history. Its development is strongly influenced by such social factors as the involvement of millions of people in the political. and societies. life, the powerful growth of the mass will liberate. movements, the emergence in a number of countries, as opposed to the bourgeois, new societies. system – socialist. Means. impact on the fate of M. in modern. bourgeois society also had a rapid scientific and technical. progress, which led to the emergence of new mass media: cinema, radio, television, recordings. As a result, metaphysics has spread globally, penetrating into all the “pores” of societies. life, rooted with the help of mass media in the lives of hundreds of millions of people. Enormous new contingents of listeners joined it. Its ability to influence the consciousness of members of society, all their behavior, has greatly increased. Muses. life in developed capitalist. countries acquired an outwardly stormy, often feverish character. Its signs were the abundance of festivals and competitions, accompanied by advertising hype, the rapid change of fashion, a kaleidoscope of artificially caused sensations.

In the capitalist countries, two cultures stand out even more clearly, opposing in their ideological. directions to each other: bourgeois and democratic (including socialist. elements). Burzh. culture appears in two forms: elite and “mass”. The first of these is anti-democratic; often it denies the capitalist. way of life and criticizes bourgeois. morality, however, only from the positions of the petty-bourgeois. individualism. Burzh. “Mass” culture is pseudo-democratic and actually serves the interests of dominations, classes, distracting the masses from the struggle for their rights. Its development is subject to the laws of capitalism. commodity production. A whole “industry” of light weight has been created, bringing huge profits to its owners; M. is widely used in its new advertising function. Democratic music culture is represented by the activities of many progressive musicians fighting for containment. a lawsuit that affirms the ideas of humanism and nationality. Examples of such a culture are, in addition to the works of musical theater. and conc. genres, many revolutionary songs. movement and anti-fascist struggle of the 1920-40s. (Germany -X. Eisler), modern. political protest songs. In its development, along with prof. Broad masses of semi-professionals and amateurs have played and continue to play a large role as musicians.

In the 20th century composer creativity in the capitalist. countries is distinguished by an unprecedented diversity and diversity of stylistic trends. Expressionism reaches its peak, characterized by a sharp rejection of reality, heightened subjectivity, and intensity of emotions (the New Viennese School—Schoenberg and his students A. Berg and A. Webern, and the Italian composer L. Dallapiccola—developed a strictly regulated system of atonal melodic dodecaphony). Neoclassicism is widely spread, characterized by the desire to get away from the irreconcilable contradictions of modern. societies. life in the world of images and muses. forms of the 16th-18th centuries, strongly pronounced rationalism (Stravinsky in the 20-50s; Germany – P. Hindemith; Italy – O. Respighi, F. Malipiero, A. Casella). The influence of these trends to one degree or another was also experienced by other major composers, who, on the whole, however, managed to overcome the limitations of the currents due to their connection with the democratic. and realistic. trends of the era and from Nar. creativity (Hungary – B. Bartok, Z. Kodai; France – A. Honegger, F. Poulenc, D. Millau; Germany – K. Orff; Poland – K. Shimanovsky; Czechoslovakia – L. Janacek, B. Martinu; Romania – J. Enescu, Great Britain – B. Britten).

In the 50s. there are different currents of music. avant-garde (Germany – K. Stockhausen; France – P. Boulez, J. Xenakis; USA – J. Cage; Italy – L. Berio, partly L. Nono, who stands apart due to his advanced political positions), completely breaking with the classical. traditions and cultivating specific music (montage of noise), electronic music (montage of sounds obtained by art), sonorism (montage of disparate musical sounds of unusual timbres), aleatorics (combination of separate sounds or sections of musical form on the principle of chance). Avant-gardism, as a rule, expresses the mood of the petty-bourgeois in the work. individualism, anarchism or sophisticated aestheticism.

A characteristic feature of the world M. 20th century. – awakening to a new life and the intensive growth of muses. cultures of developing countries of Asia, Africa, Lat. America, their interaction and rapprochement with European cultures. type. These processes are accompanied by a sharp struggle of progressive musicians, on the one hand, against the leveling influences of Western Europe. and North American. elitist and pseudo-mass M., infected with cosmopolitanism, and on the other hand, against the reactionaries. conservation trends nat. cultures in an unshakable form. For these cultures, the countries of socialism serve as an example of solving the problem of the national and international in Moldova.

After the victory of the Great October Socialist. revolution in the Soviet country (after the 2nd World War of 1939-1945 and in a number of other countries that embarked on the path of socialism), a musical music was formed. culture of a fundamentally new type—socialist. It is distinguished by a consistently democratic, nationwide character. An extensive and ramified network of public music has been created in the socialist countries. institutions (theaters, philharmonic societies, educational institutions, etc.), opera and concert groups performing musical and aesthetic. enlightenment and education of the whole people. In cooperation with prof. lawsuit develop mass music. creativity and performance in the forms of amateur performances and folklore. All nations and nationalities, incl. and did not have previously written music. cultures, got the opportunity to fully reveal and develop the original features of their people. M. and at the same time join the heights of the world prof. art, to master such genres as opera, ballet, symphony, oratorio. National music cultures actively interact with each other, exchanging personnel, creative ideas and achievements, which leads to their close rallying.

Leading role in world music. claim ve 20 century. belongs to the owls. M. Many outstanding composers came to the fore (including Russians – N. Ya. Myaskovsky, Yu. A. Shaporin, S. S. Prokofiev, D. D. Shostakovich, V. Ya. Shebalin, D. B. Kabalevsky, T. N. Khrennikov, G. V. Sviridov, R. K. Shchedrin; Tatar – N. Zhiganov; Dagestan – G. Gasanov, Sh. Chalaev; Ukrainian – L. N. Revutsky, B. N. Lyatoshinsky; Belarusian – E. K. Tikotsky, A. V. Bogatyrev, Georgian – Sh. Harutyunyan, A. A. Babadzhanyan, E. M. Mirzoyan; Azerbaijani – K. Karaev, F. Amirov; Kazakh – E. G. Brusilovsky, M. Tulebaev; Uzbek – M. Burkhanov; Turkmen – V. Mukhatov; Estonian – E. Kapp, G. Ernesaks, E. Tamberg; Latvian – J. Ivanov, M. Zarin; Lithuanian – B. Dvarionas, E. Balsis), as well as performers (E. A. Mravinsky, EP Svetlanov, G. N. Rozhdestvensky, K. N. Igumnov, V. V. Sofronitsky, S. T. Richter, E. G. Gilels, D. F. Oistrakh, L. B. Kogan, L. V. Sobinov, A. V. Nezhdan ova, I. S. Kozlovsky, S. Ya. Lemeshev, Z. A. Dolukhanova), musicologists (B. V. Asafiev) and other music. figures.

Ideological and aesthetic. the basis of the owls. Mathematics is composed of the principles of partisanship and nationality in art, the method of socialist realism, which provides for a variety of genres, styles, and individual manners. In the owls M. found a new life, many traditions. music genres. Opera, ballet, symphony, retaining the classic. large, monumental form (largely lost in the West), were updated from the inside under the influence of the themes of revolution and modernity. On the basis of the historical revolution. and people-patriotic. theme blossomed choir. and wok.-symp. M. (oratorio, cantata, poem). Owls. poetry (along with classical and folklore) stimulated the development of the romance genre. New genre prof. compositional creativity was the song – mass and everyday (A. V. Aleksandrov, A. G. Novikov, A. A. Davidenko, Dm. Ya. and Dan. Ya. Pokrassy, ​​I. O. Dunaevsky, V. G. Zakharov, M. I. Blanter, V. P. Solovyov-Sedoy, V. I. Muradeli, B. A. Mokrousov, A. I. Ostrovsky, A. N. Pakhmutova, A. P. Petrov). Owls. the song played a huge role in the life and struggle of Nar. masses and had a strong influence on other muses. genres. In all muses. cultures of the peoples of the USSR received modern. refraction and development of the tradition of folklore, and at the same time on the basis of socialist. content was enriched and transformed nat. styles that have absorbed many new intonations and other expressive means.

Means. successes in the construction of music. Cultures have also been achieved in other socialist countries, where many outstanding composers have worked and continue to work (GDR—H. Eisler and P. Dessau; Poland—V. Lutoslawski; Bulgaria—P. Vladigerov and L. Pipkov; Hungary—Z. Kodály, F. Sabo, Czechoslovakia – V. Dobiash, E. Suchon).

References: Serov A. N., Music, music science, musical pedagogy, Epoch, 1864, No 6, 12; reissue – Fav. articles, vol. 2, M., 1957; Asafiev B., Musical form as a process, book. 1, L., 1928, book. 2, M., 1947 (books 1 and 2 together) L., 1971; Kushnarev X., On the problem of music analysis. works, “SM”, 1934, No 6; Gruber R., History of musical culture, vol. 1, part 1, M., 1941; Shostakovich D., Know and love music, M., 1958; Kulakovsky L., Music as art, M., 1960; Ordzhonikidze G., To the question of the specifics of music. thinking, in Sat: Questions of Musicology, vol. 3, M., 1960; Ryzhkin I., Purpose of music and its possibilities, M., 1962; his, On some essential features of music, in Sat.: Aesthetic essays, M., 1962; intonation and musical image. Sat. articles, ed. Edited by B. M. Yarustovsky. Moscow, 1965. Kon Yu., On the issue of the concept of “musical language”, in collection: From Lully to the present day, M., 1967; Mazel L., Zuckerman V., Analysis of a musical work. Elements of music and methods of analysis of small forms, part 1, M., 1967; Konen V., Theater and Symphony, M., 1975; Uifalushi Y., Logic of musical reflection. Essay on its problems, “Questions of Philosophy”, 1968, No. 11; Sohor A., ​​Music as a form of art, M., 1970; his own, Music and society, M., 1972; his, Sociology and musical culture, M., 1975; Lunacharsky A. V., In the world of music, M., 1971; Kremlev Yu., Essays on the aesthetics of music, M., 1972: Mazel L., Problems of classical harmony, M., 1972 (Introduction); Nazaikinsky E., On the psychology of musical perception, M., 1972; Problems of musical thinking. Sat. articles, ed. M. G. Aranovsky, M., 1974.

A. N. Blind

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