Music education |
Music Terms

Music education |

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terms and concepts

The process of mastering the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for musical activity, as well as the totality of knowledge and related skills and abilities obtained as a result of training. Under M. o. often understand the very system of organization of muses. learning. The main way of obtaining M. o. – preparation under the guidance of a teacher, most often in the account. institution. An important role can be played by self-education, as well as the assimilation of knowledge and skills in the process of prof. music practice or participate in amateur activities. making music. Distinguish M. about. general, which provides knowledge, skills and abilities to the extent that is needed for amateur activities or only for the perception of music, and M. o. special, preparing for prof. work (composing, performing, scientific, pedagogical). M. o. can be primary (lower), middle and higher, a cut in almost all countries is special. character. General didactic. the principle of nurturing education is also directly related to M. o. and is reflected in its content, methods and organizational forms. General and special M. o. suggests an organic unity of musical education and music. education: not only a music teacher is a general education. schools, teaching children and giving them a general musical education, educates them by means of music and leads to its understanding, but the teacher prof. music schools of any level, introducing the future of music. figure to special knowledge and skills, at the same time forms his personality – worldview, aesthetic and ethical ideals, will and character.

M. o. – the category of historical, and in a class society – class-historical. Goals, content, level, methods and organizational. M.’s forms about. determined by changing throughout the history of muses. culture, social relations, nat. specificity, the role of music. art-va in the life of this society, muz.-aesthetic. views, style of music. creativity, existing forms of music. activities, functions performed by musicians, dominant general pedagogical. ideas and the level of development of muses. pedagogy. M.’s character about. also due to the age of the student, his abilities, the type of music. activities for which they are preparing him, and many others. other music. The teaching of a child is built differently from that of an adult, and playing, say, the violin is different than playing the piano. At the same time, it is generally recognized in modern leading music. Pedagogy (for all the incalculable differences in its forms and methods) are two principles: general M. o. cannot and should not be replaced by a special one (in which the emphasis is often placed on teaching technical skills, mastering musical-theoretical information, etc.); general music. upbringing and training is that obligatory basis on which it is necessary to build special. M. o.

In the early stages of the development of human society, when there was no special function of a musician and all members of the tribal collective themselves created primitive production-magic. ice actions and performed them themselves, muses. the skills, apparently, were not specifically taught, and they were adopted by the younger from the elders. In the future, music and magic. functions were taken over by shamans and tribal leaders, thus laying the foundation for the separation in subsequent times of syncretic. arts. profession, in which the musician was at the same time. dancer and lyricist. When art. culture, even in the conditions of pre-class society, has reached a relatively high level, there was a need for special. learning. This, in particular, is evidenced by the facts relating to societies. the lives of the Indians of the North. America before its colonization by Europeans: among the natives of the North. America, there was a fee for teaching new songs (from the voice); the ancient inhabitants of Mexico had a musical education. institutions for teaching songs and dances, and the ancient Peruvians taught melodious recitation of the epich. legends. Approximately by the time when in the civilizations of the ancient world the ritual-cult, palace, military began to be clearly divided. and pomegranate music and when formed dec. types of musicians standing at different social levels (temple musicians led by a priest-singer; palace musicians praising the deity-monarch; military. wind and percussion musicians, sometimes of relatively high military ranks; finally, the musicians, often wandering, sang and played during the bunks. festivities and family celebrations), include the first scattered information about M. about. The oldest of them belong to Egypt, where by the end of the period of the Old Kingdom (c. 2500 BC. e.) adv. singers passed special training, and later, during the period of the XII dynasty of the Middle Kingdom (2000-1785), the priests, judging by the surviving images, acted as teachers who taught to sing to the accompaniment of zither, clapping and stamping. It is assumed that Memphis was for a long period the focus of schools in which cult and secular music was studied. In ancient China in the 11th-3rd centuries. BC. э. during the Zhou era. about., to-roe sent special. palace department under the supervision of the emperor, played a prominent role in the life of society and included ch. arr. that boys were taught to sing, play instruments and dance. Greece was one of the first countries where they attached such great importance to the socio-political. side of music, its “ethos” and where the muses. training openly pursued the politico-ethical. educate. goals. It is generally accepted that the origins of the Greek M. about. were founded on the island of Crete, where the boys of the free classes learned to sing, instr. music and gymnastics, which were considered as a kind of unity. At 7 in. BC. э. another Greek island, Lesvos, was a “continuous conservatory.” Here, headed by Terpander, who perfected the kithara, a school of kitfareds was formed and the foundations of the art of prof. kyfaristics, i.e. the ability to recitatively pronounce the text, sing and accompany. The art of the aeds (singers-narrators), who were part of the workshop of artisans in ancient Greece and were the keepers of certain oral traditions, was passed down from generation to generation. М. about. The aeda consisted in the fact that the teacher (often the father) taught the boy to play the cithara, measured melodic recitation, and the rules of poetry. versification and passed on to him a certain number of songs composed by the teacher himself or that had come down to him by tradition. In Sparta, with its paramilitary way of life and state. supervising the progress of education, choir. singing was considered a necessary side of the education of young men, who periodically had to perform at societies and festivities. In Athens, in the process of the so-called. musical education, the boys studied among others. subjects and music, and teaching was closely connected with the assimilation of the best examples of Greek. literature and didactic. poetry. Usually, up to the age of 14, boys were engaged in playing the cithara in private paid schools and mastered the art of citharistics. A monochord was used to refine the intervals and pitches. significant influence on music. training in Greece was rendered by musical and aesthetic. and pedagogical views of Plato and Aristotle. Plato believed that “music education” is available to every young person and that there should not and cannot be the question of the student’s musicality or non-musicality. Information about M. about. in Dr. Rome is very scarce. T. because Rome became political. center in the 2nd century. BC. e., during the heyday of the Hellenistic. civilization, then the Roman music. culture and, apparently, the Roman M. about. developed under the well-known influence of Hellenism. Music, however, has often been regarded as scientific. discipline, outside of its direct links with life, and this could not but affect learning. Happy Birthday. sides, M. about. often limited to teaching some-eye practical.

The ethical side of musical education, which was at the forefront of the ancient Greeks, received much less attention during the Roman Empire.

In the years of the early and classical medieval music. culture was created by figures who stood at different levels of the social hierarchy: musicians-theorists and musicians-practitioners (cantors and instrumentalists, primarily organists) associated with the church and cult music, trouvers, troubadours and minnesingers, adv. musicians, bards-narrators, mountains. wind instrumentalists, vagants and goliards, spielmans and minstrels, etc. These diverse, often antagonistic, groups of professional musicians (as well as noble amateur musicians, according to their muses. preparation, sometimes not inferior to professionals) mastered knowledge and skills in different ways: some – in singing. schools (chap. arr. at monasteries and cathedrals), and starting from the 13th century. and in high fur boots, others – in the conditions of muses. shop training and in practice directly. transmission of traditions from the master to the students. In the monasteries, which in the early Middle Ages were hotbeds of Greco-Roman education, they studied, along with the Greek. and lat. languages ​​and arithmetic, music. Monastic, and somewhat later, cathedral choristers. schools were the foci prof. М. o., and most of the prominent muses came out of the walls of these schools. figures of that time. One of the most important singers. schools was the “Schola Cantorum” at the papal court in Rome (foundation approx. 600, reorganized in 1484), which served as a model for accounting. establishments similar. type in the cities of Zap. Europe (many of them reached a high level, in particular the schools in Soissons and Metz). Choir teaching methods. singing relied on the assimilation of chants by ear. The teacher used the methods of cheironomy: the movement of the voice up and down was indicated by conditional movements of the hand and fingers. To master the theoretical information existed special. three. handwritten manuals, usually in the form of dialogues between a teacher and a student (for example, book. “Dialogue de musica” – “Dialogues about music”, attributed to O. von Saint-Maur); they were often learned by heart. For clarity, figures and tables were used. As in antiquity, the monochord served to explain the intervals between sounds. Music methods. education underwent some changes after the reform of Guido d’Arezzo (11th century), which formed the basis of the modern. musical writing; he introduced a four-line stave, the letter designation of the keys, as well as syllabic names. steps of the six-step fret. From about the 10th c. monastic schools focus ch. arr. in the practice of ritual chanting and lose interest in music and science. education. Although they continue to hold a leading position in the music church for many years to come. enlightenment, gradually initiative in the field of development of muses. cultures, in particular o., goes to the cathedral schools. Here, an ever-increasing (especially in the 12th century) tendency is outlined to combine musical-theoretical. education with practice, performing and composing. One of the leading teachers institutions of this type was the school at the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Paris), which served as a prototype for future metris. In a horse. 12 in. in Paris, a “university corporation” of masters and students arose, which laid the foundation for the University of Paris (main. 1215). In it, at the faculty of art, along with the development of church music. everyday life was studied within the framework of the “seven free arts” and music. In accordance with the views common in those years in Europe, the greatest attention was paid to scientific and theoretical. side, considered in the spirit of theological, abstract rationalism. At the same time, members of the university corporation, being sometimes not only theoretical musicians, but also practitioners (performers and composers), were in close contact with everyday music. This also affected the music. learning. In the 12-14 centuries. high fur boots, in which music was studied. science, arose in other Western European cities: in Cambridge (1129), Oxford (1163), Prague (1348), Krakow (1364), Vienna (1365), Heidelberg (1386). In some of them, musical-theoretical. tests were required for bachelor’s and master’s degrees. The largest university teacher-musician of this era was I. Muris, knowledge of the works of whom for many years was considered mandatory in Europe. un-tah For the Middle Ages. М. about. was also characteristic: serious, by no means amateurish, music. training, which often received knightly youth, in schools at monasteries and Catholic. temples, at courts, as well as in the process of acquaintance during travels and campaigns with foreign muses. cultures; practical training of instrumentalists (ch. arr. trumpeters, trombonists and violists) under conditions that had developed by the 13th century. craft corporations of musicians, where the nature and duration of work with future performers were determined by special workshop rules developed over decades; training of professional musicians instrumentalists and cathedral organists (the methods of the latter were generalized in the 15th century. in the outstanding work of the blind organist Master K.

In the Renaissance, the leading muses. figures oppose scholasticism in music theory and in music. learning, see the meaning of music lessons in practice. music-making (in composing music and performing), make attempts to harmonize theory and practice in the assimilation of muses. knowledge and the acquisition of skills, they are looking for in the music itself and in the music. learning the ability to combine aesthetic. and ethical beginning (a principle borrowed from ancient aesthetics). About this general line of muses. Pedagogy is also evidenced by the practical orientation of a number of uch. books published in con. 15 – beg. 16th centuries (in addition to the mentioned treatise Pauman), – the works of the French. scientist N. Vollik (jointly with his teacher M. Schanpecher), German – I. Kohleus, who withstood a number of editions, Swiss – G. Glarean, etc.

The development of M. about. The system of relatively accurate and at the same time flexible musical notation, which was formed in the Renaissance, and the beginning of musical notation contributed to this. Reformed music. writing and printed publication of music. records and books with musical examples created the prerequisites that greatly facilitated the muses. teaching and transmission of music. experience from generation to generation. Musical efforts. pedagogy were aimed at the formation of a new type of musician, gradually gaining a leading position in music. culture, – an educated practical musician, who improved in the choir from childhood. singing, playing the organ, etc. ice instruments (ever-increasing, especially since the 16th century, the value of instr. music affected learning), in music. theory and art-ve to compose music and to-ry later continued to engage in a variety of prof. ice activity. Narrow specialization in modern. understanding, as a rule, was not: a musician, of necessity, had to be able to move from one type of activity to another, and the craft of composing music and improvisation in the years when composing was not independent. profession, everyone receiving M. about. The formation of a new type of musician of a wide profile led to the emergence of schools of music. skill, at the same time these schools themselves led by means. ice personalities contributed to the formation of professional musicians. These individual schools, hosted in different historical periods and in different countries are different. organizational forms, usually created in large centers, where there were conditions for training and practical. activities of young musicians. In some schools, the emphasis was on the encyclopedia. music theorist education and writing practice, in others (especially in the 18th century) – on performing arts (among vocalists, for example, and in the formation of virtuoso skill). Among the prominent musicians who founded these schools are a number of names from G. Dufai, X. Isaka, Orlando Lasso, A. Willart and J. Tsarlino (15th-16th centuries) to J. B. Martini, F. E. Baha, N. Porpora and J. Tartini (18th century). Music schools. professionalism were created in close connection with one or another nat. ice culture, however, the impact of these national. schools for music pedagogy dr. countries was very significant. Quite often activity, eg, niderl. teachers proceeded in Germany, German – in France, and French., Niderl. or it. young musicians completed M. about. in Italy or Switzerland, etc. about. achievements of individual schools became pan-European. commons. Music organization. learning took place in various forms. One of the most important (mainly in France and the Netherlands) is metriza. In this singer school under the Catholic temples systematically. teaching boys music (singing, playing the organ, theory) and at the same time. general education subjects were administered from an early age. Means the number of the largest polyphonic masters of the 15th-17th centuries. received M. about. in metriza, which existed until the Great French. revolution (only in France was then approx. 400 meters). Schools similar in type also existed in other countries (for example, the school at the Seville Cathedral). In Italy, from orphanages (conservatorio), where musically gifted boys (Naples) and girls (Venice) were taken, in the 16th century. there were special ice three. establishments (see Conservatory). In addition to orphanages “with a musical bias” in Italy, others were created. music schools. Outstanding masters taught in some of the conservatories and schools (A. Scarlatti, A. Vivaldi and others). At 18 in. All-European fame was enjoyed by the Philharmonic Academy in Bologna (see. Bologna Philharmonic Academy), a member and actual leader of the swarm was J. B. Martini. Music. training continued in high fur boots; However, in different countries it was carried out in different ways. A general trend is characteristic: the teaching of music in the 15th-16th centuries. gradually freed from scholasticism, and music begins to be studied not only as a science, but also as an art. Thus, the university teacher G. In his lectures and writings, Glare-an considered music both as a science and as an art. practice In the 17th century, when the study of music. theories in most of Europe. high fur boots tended to decline (interest in music and science. disciplines began to revive only to the middle. 18th century), in England the traditions of the old musical-theoretical. learning has been preserved. However, the role of playing music in the humanistic circles and with English. The yard was very significant, so the Oxford and Cambridge universities sought to prepare professionals and amateurs who not only knew musical theory, but also had practical skills. skills (along with singing, students learned to play the lute, viol and virginal). In some cities of Germany, music. training from the university “artistic. f-tov ”moved to private boarding corporations organized within the faculties. So, in Cologne at the beginning. 16 in. there were four such corporations, independent of each other, but reporting to one leader. Music. training was also organized in chapels (at secular or spiritual courts), where the adv. Kapellmeister – often an authoritative musician – taught music to young instrumentalists, future participants in the court. ensembles, as well as children from noble families. Obtaining general, and sometimes special. М. about. also contributed to certain organizations that did not pursue uch. goals, eg. German amateur communities of singing masters (meistersingers), members of which, obeying strictly regulated traditions. rules and handing over for a number of years special. tests, gradually climbed the “ladder of titles” from “singer” to “writer of lyrics” and, finally, to “master”. A slightly different type of music. “brotherhood” (sing. and instr.) were also available in others. Europ. countries. General M. o., to-roe starting from about the 16th century. more clearly separated from the special, was carried out in different types of secondary schools Ch. arr. cantors in charge of the school church. music. At 17 in. in Protestant countries (M. Luther and others representatives of the Reformation attached great ethical. meaning to the broad M. o.) cantors, in addition to teaching school subjects, also taught singing and led the school choir, which performed a number of duties in the church. and mountains. life. In some schools, cantors also led instr. classes, providing an opportunity to play music for children and adolescents who, for one reason or another, could not sing. However, as a rule, the path to the instrument then went through singing. In connection with the greater attention to natural science and mathematics, as well as the influence of rationalism, etc. factors in the 18th century. the meaning and volume of music. classes in lat. schools have declined (with a few exceptions, such as in Thomasschule in Leipzig). If the cantors in previous years received university training, were widely knowledgeable in the field of the humanities and often had the title of bachelor or master, then in the 2nd jol. 18 in. they turned into school music teachers, whose education was limited to teachers’ seminary. On music. education was seriously influenced by outstanding thinkers – the Czech J. A. Comenius (17th century) and the Frenchman J. G. Rousseau (18th century). Uch. manuals, published in the 16-18 centuries, reflected the state of the muses. pedagogy, contributed to the development of general and special. М. about. and contributed to the acquaintance of musicians of one country with the musical and pedagogical achievements of another. Treatises of the 16th and 17th centuries (Thomas of San ta Maria, 1565; J. Diruta, 1 hour, 1593, with a number of subsequent reprints, 2 hours, 1609; Spiridion, 1670) were dedicated. ch. arr. playing keyboard instruments and the theory of music composition. Means the number of the most interesting and withstood the test of time uch. publications, as if summing up and consolidating the achievements of instr., wok. and music-theoretical. education, was published in the 18th century: the book of I. Mattheson “The Perfect Kapellmeister” (“Der vollkommene Capelmeister …”, 1739), comprehensively covering the music. practice of his time, uch. manuals on general bass and the theory of composition by F. AT. Marpurga – “Treatise on Fugue” (“Abhandlung von der Fuge”, TI 1-2, 1753-1754); “Guide to the general bass and composition” (“Handbuch bey dem Generalbasse und Composition”, Tl 1-3, 1755-58), works by I. Й. Fuchs “Step to Parnassus” (“Gradus ad Parnassum …”, 1725, in lat. lang., then published in German, Italian, French. and English. lang.) and J. B. Martini “Example or fundamental practical experience of counterpoint” (“Esemplare o sia saggio fondamentale pratico di contrappunto …”, pt. 1-2, 1774-75); treatises and schools, in which DOS. attention is paid to learning to play music. instruments, M. Saint-Lambert “Performance on the harpsichord” (“Principes de Clavecin”, 1702), P. Couperin “The Art of Playing the Harpsichord” (“L’art de toucher le Clavecin”, 1717), P. E. Bach “An Experience in the Correct Way of Playing the Clavier” (“Versuch über die wahre Art, das Ciavier zu spielen”, Tl 1-2, 1753-62), I. AND. Quantz “Experience in the management of playing the transverse flute” (“Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen”, 1752, with subsequent reprints. in German, French and more yaz.), L. Mozart’s “The Experience of a Solid Violin School” (“Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule”, 1756, with subsequent reprints); wok work. pedagogy P. F. Tosi “Discourses on old and new singers” (“Opinioni de’cantori antichi e moderni”, 1723, translated with additions on it. yaz. AND. F. Agricola, 1757, as well as on others. Europ. write.). At 18 in. a large musical literature was created, in which the authors deliberately set educational and pedagogical tasks – from the original schools for the violin, cello, viola, harp, flute, bassoon, oboe, clavier and singing M. Correta (1730-82) to such masterpieces as “Essercizi” (known as sonatas) by D. Scarlatti, inventions and symphonies I. C.

Great French. The revolution marked a turning point in the history of musical culture and, in particular, in M. about. The creation of the Paris Conservatory is directly related to this event. Approx. 18 in. М. about. is formed under the influence of new factors and undergoes beings. changes, although some old pedagogical traditions and teaching methods remain unchanged for decades. Democratization of music-theatre. and conc. life, the emergence of new opera theaters, the creation of new orchestra. collectives, flourishing instr. music and virtuosity, the wide development of home music-making and all kinds of singers. societies, a little more concern in the department. countries about teaching music in high school – all this required more muses. figures (performers and teachers), as well as focusing on improvement in a particular narrow specialty. Fundamentally the most significant in this specialization was that the training of the performing arts as an interpreter and virtuoso, as well as an amateur, was separated from the training of composition and improvisation, and the training of a theoretical musician, albeit to a somewhat lesser extent, was separated from the training of a composer. Specialization in a field of one kind or another will perform. art-va, as well as the requirements of virtuosity from the interpreter, to-rye presented muses. literature, led to the creation of a new type of account. allowances – sketches intended Ch. arr. for the development of instr. technique (sketches by M. Clementi, I. Cramer, K. Cherny and others. for fp.; R. Kreuzer, J. Mazasa, Sh. Berio and others. for violin, etc.). Music education was also affected by the ever-increasing and qualitatively changed in comparison with the 18th century. the role of various educational institutions – private, city and state. Following the Paris one, one after another, conservatories or the like are opened. institutions (academies, higher musical schools, colleges) in pl. countries of Europe. These uch. institutions were very different not only in terms of pedagogical qualifications. composition, but also according to the tasks that were set before them. Many of them taught professionals and amateurs, children, teenagers and adults, students of different levels of development and training. The focus of most of the conservatories was to perform. art-in, in some-ryh teachers were also trained for schools and muses. family upbringing. At 19 in. hem. the conservatories, except for the Parisian, did not play any significant. role in the education of composers. The methods of teaching musicians at the conservatory were different. So, in France, in contrast to other countries, from the beginning 19 in. the basis for the formation of musicians of various specialties (at all stages of training) was the course of solfeggio and musical dictation. An important place in this country was occupied by a competitive examination system. In the 2nd half. 19 in. in the press for many For years, there have been disputes between supporters of conservatory education and their opponents, who preferred the education of musicians outside the academic. establishments. Critics of the conservative education system (among them was R. Wagner) believed that the extensive training of professional musicians hinders the formation of art. individuality of the most gifted of them. Defenders of the conservatories (in the early 20 in. their arguments were summed up by G. Krechmar), agreeing with a number of private remarks of his opponents (who wrote about the formal-scholastic study of musical-theoretical. disciplines and their separation from practice, the narrowness and one-sidedness of the repertoire being studied, the loss in other cases by gifted people of strength and time in the course of joint training with mediocre students), at the same time pointed to the decisive advantages of training musicians in the field of teaching. institutions: 1) the opportunity to combine classes in the specialty with the study of additional. ice disciplines (solfeggio, harmony, analysis of forms, history of music, mandatory for all FP. etc.) and practical. playing music in an orchestra, ensemble, choir, and sometimes opera; 2) the stimulating role of individual vivid examples and competition in the process of studying in a team; 3) greater availability of M. about. for a relatively wide range of people. As before, in the development of M. about. An exceptionally important role was played by schools of excellence headed by great teachers or creative musicians (regardless of whether these schools were created in the establishments or outside). Pianistic ones can be distinguished (for example, M. Klementi, K. Cherny, F. Chopin, F. List, A. F. Marmontel, L. Diemera, T. Leshetitsky, L. Godovsky and others), violin (for example, A. Viotana, Y. Joachim, R. Kreutzer), conductors (R. Wagner, G. Malera) and others. schools. At 19 in. Universities have developed two somewhat different systems of M. o., in basic terms preserved in the 20th century. In some countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland, etc.), high fur boots have become centers only for musical-theoretical. education; practical music making (student) choirs, orchestras, ensembles) was of an amateur nature here, sometimes, however, rising to a relatively high level. Summing up the discussion about M. about. in high fur boots, G. Krechmar in 1903 wrote that to study at the un-those practical. discipline would be as illogical as teaching elementary grammar and drawing at the university, and that applicants to the university should be practically well-trained musicians and pass only fundamental musicology here. and general esthetician. disciplines. In other countries (first in Great Britain, then in the USA, etc.), where the training of musicologists also took place in high fur boots, students along with musicologists. disciplines mastered music. practice and music.

In modern capitalist and developing countries, the system of M. about., general and special, is very different. In most countries, only a few special music uch. institutions are financed by the state, while most of them are run by private individuals and societies. organizations; means. number of muses schools do not have a clear profile, and they often conduct classes with professionals and amateurs, with children and adults; tuition fee in pl. uch. institutions is relatively high, and only private scholarship funds make it possible to receive M. o. gifted students from low-income families.

In the UK, music classes in general education. schools of the first two levels (infant- and junior-school) are concentrated Ch. arr. on singing. At the same time, the development of hearing is most often based on the “tonic-sol-fa” method of J. Curwen. United school choirs often perform a rather complex repertoire – from works by Palestrina to Op. R. Vaughan Williams. In the 1970s on the initiative of the Dolmech family, which promoted the block-fly and organized their production in Great Britain, and then in other Western European countries. countries; this instrument along with percussion melodic. instruments (the headquarters of K. Orff) took an important place in the school music. learning. Students of different levels of general education. schools (including seconda-ryschool) may, if they wish, take piano lessons from private teachers. or orc. tools. School orchestras and ensembles are made up of these students. In a number of counties there are land muses. schools, in many cities of private youth music. schools (Junior Music-School). Pupils of various kinds of schools (as well as private teachers) have the opportunity to show their muses. skills in special organizations (Generale Certificate of Education, Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, etc.). After that, the question is decided whether to continue their studies in music. schools of a higher level (musical colleges, conservatories, academies) or in high fur boots. The most famous musicians Schools are located in London (King Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts, King College of Music, King College for Organists), Manchester (King Manchester College of Music) and Glasgow (King Scottish Academy of Music). In large cities where there are high fur boots and muses. colleges, often a joint plan of their work is drawn up, aimed not only at training musicologists, but also practicing musicians, incl. teachers. In Italy, general education. schools pay little attention to music. Here, in addition to private and church. music schools, there are state. conservatories and mountains. music lyceums (the educational programs of the latter differ little from the conservatory ones). To be admitted to final tests, students of conservatories throughout the account. course must pass the exams for the lower and higher levels. For composers, organists, pianists, violinists and cellists uch. the course lasts 10 years. At the Conservatory “Santa Cecilia” (Rome), for composers and instrumentalists who graduated from one of the conservatories, courses have been established that give higher music. qualification. In Siena, at the Academy of Chidzhana (run by an international public organization) are held, as in many others. higher uch. institutions of other European countries, summer seminars to improve the skills of musicians (classes are led by teachers from different countries).

In France, since 1946, music has occupied an increasing place in the curriculum. general education programs. schools. Training is conducted according to a single state. program, in which a lot of attention is paid to the development of hearing and the production of voice. In the state and private music. schools, and also in conservatories M. about. received by amateurs and professionals; means. some of the students are children. In addition to the Paris Conservatory, there are also authoritative private higher education institutions in the capital. institutions. The largest of them are: “Ecole de Músique de classical religios” (founded in 1853 by L. Niedermeyer), “Schola Cantorum” (founded in 1894 by A. Gilman and V. d’Andy), “Ecole Normale de Músique” (founded by L. Niedermeyer). in 1919 A. Cortot and A. Manzho). It is characteristic that in France, where in the organization of training in special. music In schools, the competitive system plays an important role; music teachers for lyceums are also selected for the competitive exam, which consists in checking the music. and pedagogical knowledge and skills of the candidate. The training of music teachers of the highest qualification (for general education secondary schools) takes place in Paris at the Lyceum. J. La Fontaine, where special 3-year courses.

In Germany, there is no centralized management of cultural issues, and therefore the formulation of education in the federal states is somewhat peculiar. In general education music education is compulsory in schools. Choral, as well as children’s and bunks. music schools set as their goal to give a general M. o. In some of these schools, learning to play the music. instruments according to a special program begins at the age of 4. For gifted children at dep. general education schools are open to music. classes, and in some cities established special. music schools. Gor. and private music schools are united in the FRG societies. organization – the Union of German. music schools, to-ry since 1969 began to develop training programs for all muses. specialties. The tasks of prof. education is decided by conservatories (as a rule, secondary musical educational institutions), higher schools of music. lawsuit, music. academies and un-you (the main arr. musicologists study here).

L. Barenboim

In the USA origin M. about. associated with the emergence of 18th century numerous chanter schools that prepared for the choir. singing in churches and in religion. meetings; teachers were usually not professional musicians, but priests who used the experience of English. church singing. In 1721, the first manuals for such schools appeared; their authors were the priest J. Tufts and T. Walter. with religious activities. the community of the Moravian Brethren (the settlement of Bethlehem, near Philadelphia, 1741) is associated with the first experience of regular M. o.

To the beginning 19 in. the practice of private lessons began to develop. In 1830’s amer. enlightener L. Mason insisted on the introduction of mandatory. music lessons in the school curriculum. The absence of higher muses. three. institutions and the inability to improve at home forced many. amer. musicians to study in Europe (ch. arr. in France and Germany). Later in Oberlin (Ohio) was founded mus. college (1835), in the same place – the conservatory (1865), in 1857 – Mus. Academy in Philadelphia, in 1862 – music. f-t of Harvard College, in 1867 – New England. conservatory in Boston, Mus. college in Chicago and the Conservatory in Cincinnati, in 1868 – the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, in 1885 – Nat. conservatory in New York, in 1886 – Amer. conservatory in Chicago, in 1896 – music. Faculty of Columbia University. Many of these muses institutions were created at the expense of patrons. In 1876, the National Music Teachers Association (MTNA). To the setting of M. about. strong influence was exerted by the traditional European. education system (the Paris Conservatory became the prototype of many US conservatories, ac. manuals were mainly used German). Immigrants from European countries in con. 19 – beg. 20 cc gave impetus to the development of Amer. perform. schools, i.e. because many of the virtuoso musicians who arrived took up teaching. work (I. Vengerova, I. Levin, E. Zimbalist and others); new accounts were created. institutions. Of particular importance was the activity of the Juilliard Muses. schools in New York in 1926), the Eastman School of Music in Rochester (1921), the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia (1924), the San Francisco Conservatory. Muses began to gain more and more importance. f-you at high fur boots. In 1930’s in connection with the spread of fascism in a number of European countries, many emigrated to the United States. outstanding musicians who have connected their activities with the Amer. un-tami (P. Hindemith – with Yale University, A. Schoenberg – with California in Los Angeles, P. G. Lang – with Columbia, etc.). If earlier high fur boots in the USA were limited to the training of teachers (performers and composers usually received a conservatory education), then over time they began to train creative personnel, as well as musicologists for conducting musical research. New trends have been developed in the universities of South. California and Indiana, and in the 1950s and 60s. have become a typical phenomenon for most US universities. In 50’s began to feel an acute shortage of teachers. frames. At the suggestion of comp. N. Dello Gioio Ford Foundation created the Project of the modern. music, according to Krom, young composers were to lead the process of M. about. in schools, which would make learning more creative. nature. In the 60-70s. the principle of experimentation in staging music. three. process became different. trait of the Amer. М. about. It includes the use of Z. Kodaya, K. Orfa, T. Suzuki, as well as experiences with computers and sound synthesizers, the creation of higher jazz teaching. establishments (Boston, etc.). In 70-ies. preschool and junior school music. education in the United States is based on the use of the principle of learning-game, which includes singing, rhythmic. exercises, familiarity with musical notation, listening to music. In high school (college) music classes usually include playing instruments; common choir. ensembles, wind and jazz groups, symphony. orchestras. Mn. Universities attract highly professional performers to work. ensembles, as well as composers under contract for one year or more. three. years for teaching and creativity.

In Canada, M. o. has a lot in common with M. o. in the USA. Among the special music uch. the largest institutions are the Academy of Music in Quebec (founded in 1868), the Canadian Conservatory in Toronto (1870), the conservatory in Montreal (1876), Toronto (1886), and Halifax (1887). The best educators are focused on music. high fur boots of Toronto, Montreal, etc. Many of the high fur boots have a choir. and chamber ensembles, and some – symphonic. orchestras.

In Australia, music schools of the simplest type were created in the 1st half. 19th century Later there were muses. college in Adelaide (foundation in 1883; transformed into a conservatory), music. a school in Melbourne (later the N. Melba Conservatory), a conservatory in Sydney (founded in 1914), in the New South. Wells and others. At the beginning. 20th century music created. f-you in high fur boots of Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide. From con. 1960s in the account programs began to be introduced modern. music, new principles and teaching methods began to be applied. The leading role in this movement belongs to the Canberra Muses. school, main in 1965, according to the type of Amer. Juilliard School. Summer students began to function. camps (since the mid-1960s; Melbourne, Adelaide), in which music classes were held, concerts were held, and meetings with prominent musicians were held. The activity of the Australian Muses is of great importance. examination commission conducting annual tests on theoretical. subjects and playing instruments in order to enhance the overall muses. level. In 1967, the Association of Moscow Regions was created.

In the countries of Lat. America M. o. developed approximately the same way: from private practice and primitive muses. schools to the organization of music. colleges, conservatories and muses. f-tov at high fur boots, and at first European was copied. system and only in the 1950s. began to emerge national forms. Musicians of the countries of Lat. Americans who previously studied in Europe and the United States are increasingly choosing to study in their own country. The leading countries in the field of statement M. about. — Argentina, Brazil, Mexico.

In Argentina, the first musical uch. institution (Academy of Music) was opened in 1822 in Buenos Aires, on the initiative of comp. A. Williams, a conservatory was created here (1893, later also named after A. Williams). Later in Buenos Aires – music. center of Lat. America, two more conservatories were founded – the National named after C. L. Buchardo (1924) and the Municipal named after M. de Falla. All R. 60-70s music arose. uch. institutions in Cordoba (experimental group of the School of Fine Arts, 1966), Higher School of Music in Mendoza, music. f-you at the Catholic. universities in Buenos Aires and the universities of La Plata, Higher Music. in-t at the University of Litoral in Rosario and others. An important event was the creation of Lat.-Amer. center of higher music. researches at Ying-those T. Di Tellya (1965). The activity of Argent is of great importance. Society of Music teachers (founded in 1964).

In Brazil, the first musical uch. institution – King. conservatory in Rio de Janeiro (1841, since 1937 – National School of Music). A big contribution to M.’s development about. introduced Komi. E. Vila Lobos, who founded a number of muses. schools, as well as the National choir conservatory. singing (1942, mainly for pedagogical purposes), then Vraz. music academy. O. L. Fernandis (1945, Rio de Janeiro). To the most important music uch. Brazilian institutions also own Braz. the conservatory in Rio de Janeiro (founded in 1940), the Conservatory of Drama and Music in Sao Paulo (founded in 1909). In the 1960s there were new experimental forms of M. about.: Svobodny mus. seminar at the University of Bahia, Summer courses in Teresopolis (near Rio de Janeiro), Mus. Seminar Pro Arte (Rio de Janeiro); music organized. schools in Recife, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, etc.

In Mexico, the centers of higher M. o. are Mex. nat. conservatory and music. un-ta school in Mexico City, as well as music. branch of the National Institute of Fine Arts (Mexico City), Guadalajara Conservatory, etc.

Practically in all countries Lat. America has the highest muses. uch. institutions (conservatories or music. F-you high fur boots), to-rye differ mainly in the level of setting account. process, rather than programs and teaching methods.

OK. ser. 19th century European penetration began. forms M. o. to Asian and African countries. The Eurocentric concept, according to which the majority of non-Europeans. civilizations recognized as underdeveloped or even primitive, almost completely denied nat. cultural values. Missionaries and then Christ. religious organizations accustomed Africans to the Catholic. or Protestant church. singing. The colonial administration planted in European schools. education system, incl. and musical. Later, many gifted musicians from Asian and African countries began to study in Great Britain (Trinity College, where many composers from West Africa received their education), France, Germany, and the USA. At home, they cultivated Western European. music and teaching principles. T. o., music. literacy and professionalism as such have become close to Western European. music educate. qualification. Positive tendencies in M. about. connected, on the one hand, with enlightenment. activities of the department prominent European musicians in Asia and Africa (for example, A. Schweitzer), on the other hand, with the attempts of national figures. cultures to find an acceptable compromise between the East. and app. systems (experiments of R. Tagore in Shantiniketon).

The cultural revival in most countries of Asia and Africa has caused an in-depth interest in the traditions. forms of national lawsuit. Many difficult problems arose: to notate nar. music or cultivate it in oral tradition, preserve folklore unchanged or develop it, use Western European. experience or not apply it. A network of muses is already taking shape in many countries. institutions, training programs are being developed, and there are qualified specialists.

In Japan, the process of building muses. in-tov modern. type began earlier than in other countries of Asia and Africa – in the beginning. 19th century In 1879 the Japanese the government for the M.’s organization about. Amer. was invited to the country’s schools. musician-educator L. W. Mason (he worked there for three years; school musical practice in Japan retained the name “Mason’s songs” for a long time). From Ser. 1970s school programs are developed and supervised by the Ministry of Education. Great value in children’s M. about. had the method of T. Suzuki, associated with the development of auditory skills through the violin. games. Among the higher institutions of Japan stand out: un-you art in Tokyo (formerly Academic School of Music) and Osaka, Mus. Tentsokugakuan Academy (since 1967), music. Kiusu University School, Chiba, Toyo College.

In India the centers M. about. became the Academy of Music, Dance and Drama (“Sangeet Natak Academy”, 1953) in Delhi with branches in many others. states of the country, music. College “Carnatic” in Madras, University of Gandharva in Bombay, Academy of Music in Thiruvananthapuram, music. universities in Mysore, Varanasi (Benares), Delhi, Patna, Calcutta, Madras and other cities. The best masters of ind. are involved in teaching. music – ustads that previously acted in isolation and did not have the necessary conditions for a systematic. teaching young people (playing the sitar and wine, the art of ragi, improvisation, etc.). Training programs cover the whole variety of ind. music, and also reflect its connection with other arts (dance, drama). Zap. M.’s systems about. India has not received much development.

Means. the system of M. about has undergone transformations. primary, secondary and higher schools in Arab. countries. In Cairo, Egypt, a conservatory was established in 1959 with theoretical and perform. f-tami; Since 1971, the Academy of Slaves has been operating. music (formerly the School of Oriental Music, then, since 1929, the Institute of Arabic Music), where traditional music is studied. music and game on nat. tools. M.’s development about. in schools contributed to the education of pedagogical. personnel (Inst. for the training of music teachers in Zamalek, Cairo). In Iraq, music the center was the Academy of Fine Arts with a department of music (founded in 1940, Baghdad), in Algeria – the National Institute of Music, consisting of three departments (research, pedagogical and folklore), etc. In many of these educational institutions, Soviet musicians.

In Iran, there are national Conservatory and Conservatory of Europe. music, main in 1918 in Tehran, the Conservatory in Tabriz (1956), as well as the music departments of universities in Tehran and Shiraz. A music studio for children and youth has been created at the radio and television of Iran.

In Turkey, higher M. o. concentrated in the conservatories of Istanbul and Ankara.

Complex processes occur in M. o. African countries. The first conservatories on the continent (in Cape Town, Johannesburg, the East African Conservatory in Nairobi) have been operating for decades, but they were mainly intended for non-Africans. After gain of independence in the majority of the countries of Africa M. the lake is actively entered. It received special development in Ghana, where the Faculty of Music and Drama was created at the University of Ligon, the Institute for the Study of Africa (musical research is the basis of its activities), Nat. Academy of Music in Winneba, African Institute of Music in Accra, mus. f-t Ying-ta in Cape Coast. Muses. Colleges of Akropong and Achimota brought up several. generations of Ghanaian musicians.

Music is of great importance in Nigeria. universities of Lagos, Ibadan and Ile-Ife, as well as colleges in Zaria and Onich. A relatively high level was achieved by M.’s production of o. in Senegal, Mali (National School of Music in Conakry) and Guinea, music departments at the universities of Makerere (Uganda), Lusaka (Zambia), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) are beginning to play an increasingly important role.

In the conservatories african countries is studied mainly app. music (theoretical disciplines and playing instruments), and on music. f-tah un-tov special attention is paid to nat. music, the Institute for the Study of Africa is busy with the problem of preserving and developing the folklore of the continent.

The staging of M. o. is becoming increasingly important. in the beginning. and secondary schools (in many countries music is a compulsory subject). The most important task is the transmission of traditions. heritage, but its methods remain largely the same as centuries ago.

M.’s problem about. – one of the main in the preservation and development of the ancient cultures of Asia and Africa, therefore UNESCO, Intern. music Council, International Society of Music teachers and others pay special attention to it.

Programs are being developed that take into account the specifics and degree of development of M. o. in this country, new, sometimes experimental teaching methods are used (for example, according to the systems of Z. Kodaly and K. Orff), conferences, congresses and seminars are held, advisory assistance and personnel exchanges are carried out.

J. K. Mikhailov.

Music education in the pre-revolutionary period. Russia and the USSR. About M. o. in Dr. Little information has been preserved in Russia. In the pedagogy that developed among the people, along with proverbs, sayings, fairy tales and songs, syncretism also played an important role. (including music) art. actions, in which a mixture of other languages ​​was reflected. and Christian rituals. In Nar. the environment was born a type of buffoon – a professional multilateral “actor”, skills to-rogo were acquired in the process of family or shop training. From generation to generation, poetic music was also passed on. traditions of composers of heroic-glorifying chants. The systematic teaching of music (more precisely, church singing) took place both in schools established at churches and monasteries, where the clergy and literate people needed by the state were trained, and directly in temple choirs, which were not only performing groups, but also singing schools. . Church singers and chanters were brought up in such schools (see Znamenny chant).

During the period of feudal isolation of the Russian lands, the capital cities of the specific principalities – Vladimir, Novgorod, Suzdal, Pskov, Polotsk, etc. – became the centers of the church. poison. cultures and here developed their local singers. schools that relied on the general principles of znamenny singing, but introduced certain peculiar features into it. Information about one of the oldest and best singers has been preserved. schools of the 12th century, established by Andrey Bogolyubsky in Vladimir. Somewhat later, the leading role in the church. Novgorod began to play singing and in teaching this art, which for many years retained its leading position. Novgorod singer. The school has prepared outstanding figures of music. culture of that time – performers, composers of music, theorists and teachers. During the period of organizing a centralized Rus. state-va, headed by Moscow nat. singer. the school absorbed the achievements of many local schools and most of all Novgorod. Two Novgorodians – brothers S. and B. Rogovyh, activity to-rykh belongs to the middle. 16th century, considered the founders of Moscow. church schools. singing. Savva Rogov enjoyed special fame as a teacher. His famous students – Fedor Krestyanin (later a famous teacher) and Ivan the Nose were taken by Ivan the Terrible as a courtier. masters of singing in Moscow. The traditions of the Novgorod school were also developed by the third illustrious student of Rogov – Stefan Golysh, musical and pedagogical. activity to-rogo took place in the Urals in the possession of the Stroganov merchants. Distribution and development of singing. culture was promoted by the decree of the “Stoglavy Cathedral” (Moscow, 1551), which made it necessary for priests and deacons to create Moscow at home in all cities. Russia schools for teaching children not only to read and write, but also “church psalter singing.” The establishment of these schools was intended to replace the education of the so-called. masters of literacy (clerks and “worldly people” who were engaged with the department children reading, writing, praying and singing) and expand the network of uch. institutions that existed in the 14th-15th centuries. in some cities Dr. Russia. Church masters. singing, which were part of the advent. hora (created in con. 15th century), were often sent to other cities, monasteries and churches to raise the level of the choir. performance. The simplest musical-theoretical. singers served as aids. alphabets (included in decomp. collections of the 15th-17th centuries, see Musical alphabet), in which a brief set and outlines of signs of the hook letter were given. Approval of the new, many goals. choir style. singing (cf. Partes singing) and the related replacement of znamenny writing with 5-linear notation in the 2nd floor. 17 in. revolutionized the way music is taught. Systematic. a set of rules for partes singing is given in the treatise by N. AP Diletsky “Music Grammar”, intended for the training of singers and composers. Unlike the famous “alphabets”, based on purely empirical. principle, the work of Diletsky is characterized by rationalistic. orientation, the desire not only to state the rules, but also to explain them. A special type of account allowances, which enjoyed a well-known distribution in con. 17th century, represent the so-called. double-signs, containing a parallel presentation of tunes in znamenny and 5-linear notation. The “Key of Understanding” by Tikhon Makarievsky belongs to this type. With horse. 15th century, when in Moscow. Rus began to invite foreign musicians, the involvement of Russian began. know in instr. and wok.

In the southwest Russia, which was part of the 16-17 centuries. in structure of the Polish-Lithuanian state-va, the known value in M.’s distribution about. had a so-called fraternal schools, established religious and educational. organizations and served as a stronghold of Russian, Ukrainian. and Belarusian., the population against the nat. oppression and conversion to Catholicism. Following the Lvov school (founded in 1586), approx. 20 fraternal schools. In these advanced for their time account. institutions (many pedagogical principles of these schools were later reflected in the “Great Didactics” by Ya. A. Comenius) taught singing and subjects of the quadrivium, which included music. On the basis of the Kyiv fraternal school (founded in 1632) and the school of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra (founded in 1615) that merged in 1631, the first Ukrainian school was established. higher education institution – the Kiev-Mohyla collegium (since 1701 – the academy), in which, along with other subjects, music was also studied. In Moscow, on the model of the Kyiv Collegium, in 1687 Slavic-Greek-Lat was opened. academy, where the church was also taught. singing and the “seven free arts”.

In the 18th century under the influence of the reforms of Peter I, to-rye contributed to the inclusion of the country in the general course of development of Europe. civilization, content and organization of M. o. endured creatures. change. Liberation of the Music culture from church guardianship, the narrowing of the role of cult music, the ever-expanding secular music-making (military orchestras and choirs in the streets and squares, dance and table music at “assemblies”, musical and theatrical performances, the emergence of the end of life) and, finally , the growing craving for amateur music-making in a noble society – all this affected the character of M. o. It reveals several trends: the most important is beginning to acquire music. education in secular, and not only in spiritual education. in-tah; into life diff. spiritual teachers. institutions penetrate secular instr. music; M. o., especially in the 2nd floor. 18th century, directed not only to the needs of the court. and, in part, the church. everyday life, but also to meet the needs of much wider societies. circles. The need for practicing musicians and the need for a general M.o. throughout the 18th century. increased more and more. Muses. the education of the nobility was carried out by Ch. arr. visitors bandmasters, concertmasters of orchestras and claviers, among whom were major masters. The training of professional musicians was carried out most often in educational institutions, which can conditionally be divided into two types. Some set the task of training professional musicians, ch. arr. orchestrators and singers. Even at the beginning 18th century in Moscow, and then in St. Petersburg, military musicians discharged from abroad and serving at the court. orchestras were taught to play the wind (brass and wood) and percussion. instruments of young people, selected from the composition of the adv. choristers. In 1740, at the Advent. chapel (transferred to St. Petersburg in 1713), which for more than two centuries brought up qualified choristers, a choir. conductors, and in the department cases and composers (D. S. Bortnyansky, M. S. Berezovsky), were established under the direction of. conductor Orchestra I. Gyubner classes learning to play the orc. tools. Earlier, in 1738, a school of singing and instrumentation was opened in Glukhov, Ukraine. music (playing the violin, harp and bandura); here at hand. a special regent was given the initial M. o. mainly the future adv. choristers. Among other uch. establishments – St. Petersburg. theatre. school (founded in 1738, but finally formed by 1783), in which they taught not only stage performances, but also music. art-wu, and music. classes of the Academy of Arts. opened in the 1760s. and existed for several decades (among the pupils – comp. B. I. Fomin). About the attention, which was paid in the 18th century. organizations prof. M. o., testify to the governments. decrees (unfulfilled) on the establishment of the Ekaterinoslav Music. academy.

In account. institutions of a different type, an important aspect of the upbringing of the nobility, and in part of the raznochin, youth is the general philology. The first secular school, in the program of a swarm since the 1730s. included systematic music lessons, was the Cadet Corps (then the land gentry). Due to the practical the need for many of these institutions often trained professional musicians. To such students institutions should be assigned to music. classes established in the 1st floor. 18th century in the gymnasium at the Academy of Sciences, in the 2nd floor. 18th century — in Moscow. un-those (noble and raznochinny gymnasiums and the Noble Boarding School at the un-those), in the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens and the “petty-bourgeois department” with it, in Moscow. and Petersburg. educate. houses, in the Kazan gymnasium, subordinated to Moscow. un-tu, and in a number of gymnasiums in other provinces. Music lessons in many of these schools. establishments stood at a great height (they were led by prominent musicians, often foreigners). Thus, pupils of the Smolny Institute (the system of musical education that had developed in it was later transferred to other class-noble educational institutions of a similar type) were trained not only in performing (playing the harp, piano, singing), but also music theory, and in some cases composition. In the future, some of the pupils from the impoverished nobles began to prepare for the musical and pedagogical. activities. Due to the fact that in many landlord estates and mountains. noble houses organized serf choirs, instr. (including horn) ensembles and orchestras, as well as t-ry, it became necessary to train musicians from serfs. It was carried out both at home (foreign musicians, who were invited to the estates), and in special. music schools for serfs, created in the cities. Apparently, the first such schools began to function in the 1770s. Here they taught singing, playing the orc. and keyboards, as well as general bass and composing music. Sometimes, in order to prepare the necessary repertoire, serf musicians were sent to such schools in whole groups.

In the pedagogical classes in the last quarter of the 18th century. (especially after the collection of folk songs by V. Trutovsky, 1776-95, and I. Prach, 1790, came out of print), Russian began to play an increasingly important role. nar. song and dance (in the original, arrangements and transcriptions). M.’s distribution about. in different layers of Russian Society has created the need to publish practical. uch. allowances (first transferable). One of the first manuals that played an important role in the history of Russian. M. o., was the “Clavier School, or Brief and Solid Indication for Concord and Melody” by G. S. Lelein (1773-74), which relied on clavier practice, contained general provisions of the theory of composition and was distinguished by a well-known enlightenment. latitude. In the beginning. 19th century translations of some other music came out. textbooks (for example, L. Mozart – “The Fundamental Violin School”, 1804; V. Manfredini – “Harmonic and melodic rules for teaching all music”, translated by S. A. Degtyarev, 1805), as well as a domestic school for piano. I. Pracha (1815).

Until the 60s. 19th century in the Russian system. prof. M. o. there were no fundamental changes, although the need for musicians of various specialties increased and ever higher demands were placed on the quality of their training. In the theater schools of St. Petersburg and Moscow, not only dramatic actors were trained, but also singers and orchestra members for opera houses, and at the beginning. 19th century “higher” musical classes were established for those who were especially successful. These uch. establishments, as well as Pridv. chanter the chapel were the only governments. in-tami, which set the task of training professional musicians. M. o. expanded at the chapel: in con. 1830s orc classes were opened. instruments, and somewhat later, the classes of fp. and essays. In the beginning. 2nd quarter of the 19th century music schools for serfs lost their former importance and gradually ceased to exist. important role in the dissemination of music. cultures (partly in the training of professional musicians) were still played by middle and higher uch. institutions, in which there were muses. classes, – gymnasiums, high fur boots (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Kharkov), Mining in-t, Uch-sche jurisprudence, women’s closed in-you. In these women’s institutes, despite a number of shortcomings in the organization of M.O., a system of education was formed (which included playing the instrument, ensemble music, solfeggio, harmony, and pedagogical practice), which later became the basis for teaching. plan of conservatories, and teachers of women’s institutes prepared serious works on music issues. (ch. arr. fp.) pedagogy. Specialist. private music. there were very few schools (one of them was opened by D.N. Kashin in 1840 in Moscow), and home music. training continued to be highly effective. Private lessons were given by foreigners who linked their fate with Russian. music culture (I. Gesler, J. Field, A. Henselt, L. Maurer, K. Schubert, A. Villuan), rus. composers (A. L. Gurilev, A. E. Varlamov and others), instrumentalists and composers (A. O. Sikhra, D. N. Kashin, N. Ya. Afanasiev and others), and in the 50s . young A. G. and N. G. Rubinstein and M. A. Balakirev. Lessons at home were usually limited to the practice of playing some instrument or singing; music-theoretical. and music-historical. students generally did not receive education. Refill this creatures. gap only to a very small extent could public. lectures, to-rye arranged with con. 1830s ch. arr. In Petersburg. Arising in these years plans for the organization of special. music uch. institutions testified to an urgent need for a broader, deeper and more versatile M. o. One of these plans belonged to the conductor Moscow. Great Treasurer F. Scholz, who presented in 1819 a project for the establishment of the Muses in Moscow. conservatory. The project was not implemented, Scholz only managed to achieve in 1830, shortly before his death, permission to organize free teaching of general bass and composition at his home. The author of another unrealized project was A. G. Rubinshtein, who proposed in 1852 to open in St. Petersburg at the Academy of Arts of the Muses. in-t and developed the structure of this institution.

To the beginning 1860s Russian ice culture “threatened a gap between the compositional intelligentsia, striving to conquer the heights of art, and listeners from the environment of Russian democracy, who were very motley in their tastes” (B. AT. Asafiev, “There were three of them…”, Sat. “Soviet Music”, vol. 2, 1944, p. 5-6). Only extensive preparation of the fatherlands could help the cause. performers, teachers and composers, to-rye would be able to further raise the level of Russian. ice life not only in Moscow and St. Petersburg, but throughout the country. During this period, the activity of A. G. Rubinstein and his associates, who set out to organize under the auspices of Rus. ice ob-va (opened in 1859) the first Russian. conservatory. This activity proceeded in difficult conditions: in clashes with the frontier. reactionary. circles and in an atmosphere of heated debate with those who feared the “nationalless academism” created by prof. three. institutions. Established under Rus. ice ob-ve in 1860 mus. classes (singing, piano, violin, cello, elementary theory, choir. singing and practice essay) served as the basis for the discovery in 1862 of St. Petersburg. conservatory (until 1866 it was called Mus. teacher) headed by A. G. Rubinstein. In the same year, in opposition to the conservatory M. A. Balakirev and G. Ya Lomakin founded in St. Petersburg Free Music. school, one of the the tasks of which were to give a general M. about. (elementary musical-theoretical information, the ability to sing in a choir and play in an orchestra, etc.) for music lovers. In 1866, also on the basis of the previously organized (in 1860) muses. classes, the Moscow was established. conservatory, the director of which was the initiator of its creation, N. G. Rubinstein. Both conservatories played a huge role in the development of Russian. prof. М. about. and won world recognition primarily because they were taught by outstanding musicians: in St. Petersburg – A. G. Rubinstein (among his students of the first graduation was P. AND. Tchaikovsky), F. О. Leshetitsky (since 1862), L. C. Auer (since 1868), N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov (since 1871), A. TO. Lyadov (since 1878), F. М. Blumenfeld (since 1885), A. N. Esipova (since 1893), A. TO. Glazunov (since 1899), L. AT. Nikolaev (from 1909) and others; in Moscow – N. G. Rubinstein, P. AND. Tchaikovsky (since 1866), S. AND. Taneev (since 1878), V. AND. Safonov (since 1885), A. N. Scriabin (since 1898), K. N. Igumnov (since 1899), A. B. Goldenweiser (since 1906), N. TO. Mettner (since 1909) and others. Over the decades, the structure of conservatories that trained musicians in all specialties has changed, but their following features have remained constant: the division into two departments – the lower one (students were accepted even in childhood) and the higher one; “scientific classes” (served to improve general education. student level); awarding to students who completed the full course of the conservatory and passed the special. final exams, a diploma of a “free artist” (until the 1860s. This title was received only by graduates of the Academy of Arts). Conservatories contributed to the formation of Russian. perform. and composer schools. True, fatherland. vok. The school was formed much earlier under the immediate the influence of M. AND. Glinka and A. C. Dargomyzhsky, who taught the department. pupils not only the general principles of music. performance, but also the singer. skill; one of those who nurtured the composers of the new Russian school was M. A. Balakirev, who instructed young musicians in the spirit of Glinka’s precepts. An incomparably wider scope is acquiring the activities of the founders of those schools that have developed in the conservatories. The founders of the two largest Russian. composer schools became: in St. Petersburg – N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, in Moscow – P. AND. Chaikovsky. In the 2nd half. 19 and early 20 cc number of Russian ice three. establishments gradually increased. Local branches Rus. ice about-va opened muses. school in Kyiv (1863), Kazan (1864), Saratov (1865), and later in others. cities of the country. Subsequently, the schools in Saratov (1912), Kyiv and Odessa (1913) were reorganized into a conservatory. In 1865, the chapter was established. directorate Rus. ice about-va, to which the swarm passed “all the duties and concerns about the development of M.o. in Russia”. The purpose of organizing this directorate, which was headed by one of the members of the royal family, was to ensure that the government, without officially leading the muses. three. institutions, had the opportunity to control their affairs and interfere in their work from a class-caste position. In 1883, the Musical Drama Theater was opened at the npiB-ax conservatory. school near Moscow. Philharmonic. about-ve. In 1887 A. G. Rubinstein with the project of universal children’s music. education, proposing to introduce in the lower grades all handicraft and bunks. school, classical and real gymnasiums, cadet corps obligatory choir. singing, solfeggio and elementary music theory. This utopian project for those years was carried out only in some privileged areas. establishments. Means role in the development of Russian. М. about. played by many private musicians. schools open in con. 19 – beg. 20 cc in St. Petersburg (Music-drama. courses E. AP Rapgofa, 1882; Muses. classes I. A. Glisser, 1886; Specialist. fp school. games and courses of pianists-methodologists S. F. Schlesinger, 1887), Moscow (music. school B. Yu Zograf-Plaksina, 1891; sisters Evg. F., Elena F. Gnesins, 1895; AT. A. Selivanova, 1903), Kyiv, Odessa, Kharkov, Rostov-on-Don, Tbilisi, etc. cities. Conservatories, uch-shcha and muses. pre-revolutionary schools Russia existed mainly due to the relatively high tuition fees, and therefore M. about. only children of wealthy parents or individual gifted students supported by patrons or, as an exception, exempted from tuition fees could receive. In order to attach to the music. culture of the wider population, progressive musicians con. 19 – beg. 20 centuries, in a sense continuing the tradition of free music. schools, began to create uch. establishments (some were called Nar. conservatories), where it was possible to receive M. about. free or for a small fee. In St. Petersburg, these schools included: Public Music. class Pedagog. the museum (bas. in 1881), which served as the basis for research in the field of children’s music. pedagogy; Free children’s music. school them. Glinka, organized in 1906 on the initiative of M. A. Balakireva and S. М. Lyapunova; Name conservatory, which was opened in 1906 by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov A. TO. Lyadov A. AT. Verzhbilovich, and L. C. Auer (graduates were awarded the qualification of Nar. music and singing teachers). One of the most effective and authoritative institutions of this type was Nar. conservatory in Moscow in 1906), the most prominent musicians took part in the establishment and activities of the swarm – S. AND. Taneev, E. E. Lineva, B. L. Yavorsky, N. Ya

Oct The revolution entailed radical changes in the organization and staging of M. about. Guidance and financial care of the muses. three. institutions were taken over by the state (Decree of the Council of the Nar. Commissioners on the transfer of all accounts. establishments in Vedepie Nar. of the Commissariat of Education of July 5, 1918), paving the way for the widespread dissemination of the general M. about., providing students with prof. three. institutions free education and scholarships. This opened up access to education for working youth, incl. and representatives of culturally backward nationalities. Among governments. events that contributed to the attraction to higher music. school of workers and peasants, were the organization of the so-called. United Arts. workers’ faculty, the transfer of his music. department (established in 1923) under the authority of the Moscow. conservatory (1927) and then the opening of workers’ schools in Moscow. (1929) and Leningrad. (1931) conservatories. In the very first post-revolutionary years, the general principles that formed the basis of the restructuring of M. about. The most significant of them: 1) the proclamation of the obligation of universal music. education (decree of the Muses. Department of Narkomiros on the teaching of singing and music in a unified labor school, no later than 19 Oct. 1918) and the recognition of the great importance of the general M. about. both to raise the culture of the people, and to identify musically capable people suitable for prof. music lessons; 2) an understanding of the need to train musicians who would have a well-defined specialization (performing, composing, teaching, enlightenment, musicology) and at the same time possess a wide range of knowledge in their specialty, in related subjects and societies. disciplines; 3) awareness of the enormous role of production. practices in the uch. institution and beyond (this led to the organization of opera studios at the conservatories; the first of them was opened in 1923 at Petrograd. conservatory); 4) establishing a requirement that a musician of any profession could combine his prof. educational activities. For the formation of the system of owls. М. about. especially important role was played by organizational and methodical. searches in the period 1917-27. Crucial for the further development of prof. М. about. were signed B. AND. Lenin Decree of the Council of the People. Komissarov dated July 12, 1918 on the transition of Petrograd. and Mosk. conservatories “under the jurisdiction of the People’s Commissariat for Education on an equal footing with all higher educational institutions with the elimination of dependence on the Russian Musical Society”, as well as subsequent resolutions of the same year, which announced provincial and city. three. establishments Rus. ice about-va state. At the end of the first and at the very beginning of the second decade of the 20th century. music in the spotlight. public – questions of the general M. about. and in this regard the work is massively enlightening. schools that opened in Petrograd, Moscow, etc. cities. The schools had different names: Nar. ice schools, music schools education, nar. conservatory, folk general music courses education, etc. In the work of these institutions that laid methodical. the basics of owls. general M. o., prominent musicians took part: in Petrograd – B. AT. Asafiev, M. H. Barinova, S. L. Ginzburg, N. L. Grodzenskaya, W. G. Karatygin, L. AT. Nikolaev, V. AT. Sofronitsky and others; in Moscow – A. AT. Alexandrov, N. Ya Bryusova A. F. Gedike, A. D. Kastalsky, W. N. Shatskaya and others. At the initial stage of development of owls. М. about. its organizers faced a number of difficulties. The roots of some went to the pre-revolutionary. music practice training, when the training of future professionals and amateurs was not differentiated, M. about. was not divided into stages depending on the age of the students. Dr. difficulties were caused by the emergence, often spontaneous (especially in 1918-20), of many diverse muses. three. establishments of special and general type. They were called schools, courses, studios, circles, technical schools and even conservatories and institutes, did not have a clear profile and could not be attributed with sufficient certainty to primary, secondary or higher education. institutions. Parallelism in the work of these accounts. institutions began to slow down the development of M. about. The first and still very imperfect attempt to create a harmonious system of M. about. was undertaken in 1919 in the “Basic Provisions on the State Musical University” (this name meant the entire network of special schools). and general M. about. from elementary to advanced). Following the thought of A. AT. Lunacharsky that the entire system of general education, from kindergarten to university, should be “one school, one continuous ladder”, the compilers of the “Basic Provisions …” subdivided the special. ice three. institutions into three levels in accordance with the level of music. knowledge and skills of students. However, they could neither divide the tasks of education, upbringing and enlightenment, nor set the age limits for education at the three levels of the “Music University”. Further work on the typification of music. three. institutions and updating their programs, in which the most prominent owls took part. musicians associated with the activities of B. L. Yavorsky, who from 1921 headed the Mus. Department of the General Directorate of Vocational Education. For the subsequent restructuring M. about. his report “On the principles of constructing curricula and programs in a professional music school” (read on May 2, 1921) had a serious impact, in which, in particular, for the first time in music. pedagogy of the 20th century the thesis was put forward with such perseverance: “the element of creativity should be included in the programs of all courses” taken in the educational. institutions at various levels. Approximately in 1922, a characteristic trend was outlined, which continued to affect in subsequent years – more and more attention is paid to the questions of prof. М. about. and spec. disciplines (playing instruments, singing). The organization of the first specialized secondary muses also belongs to this time. schools – music. technical schools, in the 30s. renamed to school. To the 2nd floor. 20s a certain structure has developed. o., preserved for a number of years: 1) initial M. about. in the form of two types of schools – 4-year-old 1st stage (for children), which worked in parallel with the labor school and were either independent. three. institutions, or the first links of the muses. technical schools, and courses of general M. about. for adults who had only music – enlighten. tasks; 2) average prof. М. about. – technical schools (performing and instructor-pedagogical); 3) higher – conservatory. In connection with the reform about. in 1926 the Center was organized in Leningrad. ice technical school, in the work of which new creativity was reflected. trends and searches in music. pedagogy, which had a serious impact on the further development of owls. М. about. Among the teachers of the technical school there were outstanding Leningraders. musicians. In the history of the higher M. about. an important milestone was the Nar document. Commissariat of Education, prepared on the basis of the reports of the most prominent figures of Soviet musical culture A. B. Goldenweiser, M. F. Gnesina, M. AT. Ivanov-Boretsky, L. AT. Nikolaeva A. AT. Ossovsky and others, – “Regulations on the Moscow and Leningrad Conservatories” (1925). This document finally legitimized the belonging of the conservatories to the highest level of M. o., their structure was established (scientific-composer, performing and instructor-pedagogical. f-you), the profile of graduates and the terms of training were determined, the institute of graduate students was established. With sir. 20s musicologists also began to be trained in conservatories (earlier, before the revolution, there was no institution that would train such specialists). However, the beginning of higher musicology. education in the Soviet country – 1920, when in Petrograd, at the Institute of the History of Art, the Faculty of Music History was opened (it existed until 1929 in the form of Courses for the Training of Specialists in the History of Art). By 1927, the ordering of the general structure of owls. М. about. was largely completed, although it has undergone subsequent changes. So, 4-year-old muses. schools were converted into 7-year schools (in 1933), and music schools were established at a number of conservatories. ten-year schools, the faculty system of conservatories was expanded (from ser. 30s), organized by musical and pedagogical. in-you (the first was opened in 1944 Muz.-Pedagogical. in-t im.

K ser. 70s organization system M. about. in the USSR there is a trace. way. The lowest level is 7-year-old children’s music. schools (additional 8th grade – for those preparing to enter the music. uch-sche), the purpose of which is to give a general M. about. and identify the most capable students who want to get special. М. about. The disciplines studied here include: playing an instrument (fp., bowed, wind, folk), solfeggio, music. diploma and theory, choir. singing and ensembles. To the lowest level of the general M. about. there are also evening schools for teenagers and youth. To the middle stage M. about. include 4-year uch. institutions: music school, in which they train professional musicians of medium qualification (instrumentalists, singers, choirmasters, theorists) to work in orchestras, choirs and teach in children’s music. schools (the most gifted, after graduating from the school, enter the competition in higher education. establishments); music-pedagogical. uch-scha, graduating music teachers for general education. schools and music kindergarten leaders. At certain conservatories and institutes there are 11-year-old specials. ice schools where students, preparing for admission to the music. universities receive lower and secondary M. about. and at the same time. take a general education course. secondary school. The highest level M. about. includes: conservatories, music-pedagogical. in-you and in-you art-in (with the faculty of music); their training duration is 5 years. Here specialists of the highest qualification are trained – composers, instrumentalists, singers, symphonicists, opera and choirs. conductors, musicologists and directors of music. t-ditch The highest level are also musical and pedagogical. f-you in pedagogical. in-tah; future music teachers of the highest qualification (methodologists) are trained here for general education. schools and teachers of music and pedagogy. disciplines for pedagogical. university In most music Schools and universities have evening and correspondence departments, where students receive education without stopping their work. With many muses. universities and n.-and. in-ta postgraduate studies are organized (with 3-year full-time and 4-year education in correspondence departments), intended for the preparation of scientific. workers and teachers of universities on the history and theory of music and perform. lawsuit, music. aesthetics, methods of teaching music. disciplines. Training of teachers-composers and teachers-performers for music. institutions of higher education is carried out in an assistant-internship organized at the leading conservatories and institutes (full-time course of study 2, correspondence course – 3 years). Dissemination received courses for advanced training of teachers of music. schools, uch-shch and high schools at authoritative average and higher muses. three. establishments. Much attention is paid to the establishment of various types of muses. schools in the national republics. In the RSFSR, Belarus and Ukraine, in the republics of the Baltic and Transcaucasia, as well as in the Kazakh, Kirghiz, Tajik, Turkmen and Uzbek SSRs, which were in the pre-revolutionary. time backward areas, created a large network of muses. three. institutions. As of 1975, there are 5234 children’s music institutions in the USSR. schools, 231 music. university, 10 university of isk-v, 12 music teacher. school, 2 music. choreographic school, 20 conservatories, 8 institutes of arts, 3 musical and pedagogical. in-ta, 48 music. f-tov at pedagogical. in-tah. Achievements M. about. in the USSR are also due to the fact that pedagogical. work in the music universities were and are being led by the most prominent composers, performers, musicologists and methodologists. Since 1920-ies. in owls ice universities began a serious n.-and. and methodologist. work, which led to a revision based on the provisions of Marxism-Leninism, the content and teaching methods traditional for pre-revolutionary. conservatory of music theory and music-historical. items, as well as the creation of new accounts. disciplines. In particular, special courses in the history and theory of performance, as well as teaching methods for playing different instruments. The close relationship of pedagogy and scientific. research contributed to the creation of means. number of textbooks and uch. benefits for basic disciplines included in the owl plans. ice

In other socialist countries where M. o. is state-owned, its general structure (the division of musical educational institutions into 3 levels – primary, secondary and higher) is in general similar to that adopted in the USSR (although in some of these countries musicologists are not trained in musical education. institutions, but in high fur boots). At the same time in each country in the M.’s organization about. there are some specific. features due to the peculiarities of its national. culture.

In Hungary, where M. o. based on the same methodology. principles of B. Bartok and Z. Kodály, and where the study of Hungarians occupies a huge place at all levels. nar. music and taking a solfeggio course based on relative solmization, the scheme for building education after 1966 is as follows: 7-year-old general education. school with music bias (and with optional learning to play musical instruments) or 7-year-old music. a school in which children study while attending classes in general education. school; the next step is a 4-year secondary prof. a school (with a general education gymnasium attached to it), and for those who do not intend to become musicians, a 5-year school of general musical education; High School of Music. lawsuit them. F. Liszt (Budapest) with a 5-year course of study, in which musicians are trained in all specialties, incl. musicologists (the department of musicology was organized in 1951) and music teachers for the beginning. schools (at a special department; study for 3 years).

In Czechoslovakia, higher muses. and music-pedagogical. uch. there are institutions in Prague, Brno, and Bratislava; there are conservatories (secondary musical educational institutions) and in a number of other cities. An important role in music-pedagogical. life of the country and in the development of methods of music. learning to play Chesh. and Slovak. music about-va, uniting teachers-musicians of different specialties.

In the GDR there are higher schools of music. lawsuits in Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig and Weimar; schools in Berlin and Dresden include specialized music. school, conservatory (secondary musical institution) and higher education proper. institution. At the Higher Music school in Berlin until 1963 the worker-peasant faculty functioned.

In Poland – 7 higher muses. uch. institutions – in Warsaw, Gdansk, Katowice, Krakow, Lodz, Poznan and Wroclaw. They are preparing musicians decomp. professions, incl. and sound engineers (special department of the Warsaw Higher Musical School). Specialists in the history of music, music. aesthetics and ethnography is being prepared by the Warsaw Institute of Musicology.

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L. A. Barenboim

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