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Music Terms

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lat. augmentatio; German Augmentation, Vergräerung; French augmentation; ital. per authentication

1) A method for converting a melody, theme, motive, fragment of music. product, rhythmic drawing or figure, as well as pauses by playing sounds (pauses) of longer duration. U. assumes an accurate recording of the rhythm, which became possible thanks to the mensural notation; its occurrence dates back to the ars nova era and is associated with a trend towards rhythmic. independence polyphonic. voices and the principle of isorhythmia (see Motet). U. is widely used in strict music, especially by the Franco-Flemish contrapuntalists — G. Dufay (considered the author of the first canon in U.), J. Okegem (for example, in Missa prolationum), J. Obrecht, Josquin Despres. U. simply and convincingly for hearing reveals a temporary relationship between polyphonic. votes and scale ratio between sections of the form; as any means that reveals the subordination, system, logic of the organization of sounds, U. has a formative value and in this sense in polyphonic. music is on a par with imitation, complex counterpoint, conversion and other methods of converting polyphonic. topics (in combination with which it is often used). The ancient contrapuntalists practically did not do without U. in the forms on the cantus firmus in masses, motets: well-audible chorales in U. in the architectonic. in relation to fasten the work into a whole, figuratively – naturally associated (in the context of all means of expression) with the embodiment of the idea of ​​greatness, objectivity, universality. U. masters of strict writing were combined with imitation and the canon. Imitation (canon), in which certain risposts are given in U., as well as imitation (canon), in which all voices begin at the same time, and one or some go to U., is called imitation (canon) in U. In the example below, the effect of U. is enhanced by maintaining counterpoint in the lower and upper voices (see column 666).

An example of the mensural canon of Josquin Despres is given in Art. Canon (column 692) (otherwise called proportional: written by the composer on one line and calculated according to the author’s instructions). In the cantus firmus forms, the latter is repeatedly reproduced in U. (in whole or in parts, more often inaccurately, sometimes with smaller notes filling the melodic jumps; see an example in column 667).

U. – as opposed to decreasing – enlarges, singles out one voice from the general polyphonic. masses, elevates it thematically. significance. In this regard U. has found application in ricerkara — a form in a cut the leading role of the individualized polyphonic was gradually defined. themes and edges immediately preceded the most important form of free style – the fugue (see the example in column 668).

J. S. Bach, summing up the experience of European. polyphony, often used by W., for example. in the mass in h-moll – in Credo (No 12) and Confiteor ((No 19), 5-head double fugue on chorale: 2nd theme (measure 17), connection of themes (measure 32), connection of themes with the chorale basses (measure 73), the connection of themes with the chorale in U. in tenors (measure 92)). Having reached the highest perfection in cantatas, passions, organ adaptations of Bach’s chorales, the forms on the cantus firmus actually disappeared from composer practice; later U. received a variety of applications in non-polyphonic. music, while continuing to be an attribute of the fugue. The accepted designation of the theme of the fugue in W. -. U. is occasionally found in the exposition (Contrapunctus VII from Bach’s The Art of Fugue; Shchedrin’s Fugue Es-dur No. 19).

J. Animuccia. Christe eleyson from the mass of Conditor aime syderum.

More often it finds a place in the stretta (in measures 62 and 77 of the dis-moll fugue from the 1st volume of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier; in measures 62 and 66 of the As-dur fugue op. 87 by Shostakovich), which combines other methods of transformation ( in measure 14 of the c-moll fugue from the 2nd volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier, the theme is in U., in circulation and normal movement; in measures 90 and 96 of the Des-dur fugue

Cantus firmus in G. Dufay’s mass at L’homme armé. The beginnings of the conducts are given, the contrapunctuating voices are omitted: a – the main view; b – increase with additional sounds; c, d, e — magnification options; f – reduction. op. 87 of Shostakovich, the theme in normal motion and at the same time the theme in U., in measure 150, the theme and its double and triple U.). W. enhances the main. will express. the quality of the stretta is the concentration of thematism, semantic richness, which is especially noticeable in fugues with symphony. development (stretta in the development section of the symphonic poem “Prometheus” by Liszt; virtuoso stretta from the cantata

A. Gabrieli. Reachercar (stretta in magnification).

“After reading the psalm” Taneyev, No 3, number 6; measure 331 is the theme in U. and measure 298 is the theme in U. with the theme in normal motion in the code of the 2nd function. Myaskovsky’s sonatas; an example of the introduction of a theme into U. at the culmination – outside the stretta – a fugue from the 1st suite of P. I. Tchaikovsky). Stretta – main. the form of the canon in W., although it is sometimes found outside the stretta (the beginning of the scherzo of the 1st symphony by Shostakovich; the beginning of the 1st part of the quartet of the Latvian composer R. Kalson; as a detail of the texture in bars 29-30 from No 1 of the Lunar Pierrot” by Schoenberg), including as a complete piece (variation IV from “Canonical Variations on a Christmas Carol”, BWV 769, No 6 in “Musical Offering” and Canon I in Bach’s “Art of Fugue” – endless canons in U. and in circulation; No. 21 from Lyadov’s Canons; Stanchinsky’s Prelude Ges-dur; No. 14 from Shchedrin’s Polyphonic Notebook). In non-polyphonic U. music is often a means of melodic. saturation of the lyric. themes (measure 62 in the 5th movement of Brahms’ German Requiem; bars 8-10 from No 9 of Rachmaninov’s All-Night Vigil; in his 2nd piano concerto, a reprise of the side part of the 1st movement; 4th measure after number 9 in the 1st movement of Hindemith’s “The Painter Mathis” symphony; two bars to number 65 in Berg’s Violin Concerto). S. S. Prokofiev used U. with a share of cheerful slyness (the song “Chatterbox” – Allegro As-dur; “Peter and the Wolf” – number 44). The opposite effect is achieved in the third scene of the third act of Berg’s opera Wozzeck, where the polka rhythm (measure 3, “invention for one rhythm”) in U. acts as an expressionist device for expressing the hero’s delusional state (in particular, measures 3 , 122, stretta in measure 145). U. is less often used as a developmental tool (bars 187, 180 in the 363st part of Scriabin’s 371rd symphony; 1th part of Myaskovsky’s 3th symphony, numbers 4 and 5, as well as the 87th measure before the number 89 and 4- the 15st measure after the same number in the 1st movement of the symphony is the “slowing down” of harmonic development with the help of W.; the 1st movement of Shostakovich’s 1th symphony, numbers 5-17; the performance of a side part in the development of the 19st movement of the piano. Sonata No 1 by Prokofiev), usually in local or general climaxes – solemn (7th part of the 4th quartet, numbers 6 and 193, 195th part of the piano quintet, number 4, Taneyev), dramatic (220th part of 4 -th symphony by Shostakovich, numbers 1 and 28) or poignantly tragic (34st part of Myaskovsky’s 1th symphony, number 6; ibid. numbers 48-52 in the 53th part: leitmotif, Za ira, Dies irae, main part 4- th part). In Russian holding music in W. serves as a means of embodying the epic. relics (the main part in the reprise in two-fold, in the coda in four-fold U. in the 1st part of Borodin’s 1nd symphony; the choir “Dispersed, cleared up” from the opera “Boris Godunov” by Mussorgsky; the end of “Epics about Birds” from “2 Russian Songs” for the Lyadov Orchestra; No 8 from the cantata “Alexander Nevsky”, choir of the militia, numbers 7 and 276, from the 282th scene of the opera “War and Peace” by Prokofiev; beginning and number 8 of the 89nd part of the 2th symphony by Shostakovich ).

Unusual Forms of U. Use in New Music of the 20th Century determined by its general tendency towards complexity and calculation. In dodecaphone music, U can be an organizing moment in the presentation of serial material.

A. Webern. Concerto op 24, 1st movement. Increasing and decreasing progression of rhythm.

harmonic freedom makes the most complex combinations with W. possible, for example. effective implementation of the topic in U. in polyphony. In Stravinsky’s double canon (based on the style of the Venetians G. and A. Gabrieli), the 2nd proposte is an inaccurate U. of the first (see the example in columns 670 and 671). U. and reduction are the most important elements of virtuoso rhythmic. techniques of O. Messiaen. In book. “The technique of my musical language” he points out their non-traditions. forms in relation to the structure of the rhythmic. figures and polyrhythms. and polymetric polyphonic ratio. votes (see example in column 671). Regarding the concept of U. in the ratio of polyphonic. voices, Messiaen explores rhythmic. canons (the melodic pattern is not imitated), in which the risposta is changed with a dot after the note (“Three small liturgies of the divine presence”, 1st part, risposta in U. one and a half times), and a combination of figures (often ostinato) with different U. and reductions (sometimes partial, inaccurate, in a sideways movement; see the example in column 672).

I. F. Stravinsky. Canticum sacrum, part 3, bars 219-236. The string parts duplicating the choir have been omitted. P, I, R, IR – series options.

O. Messiaen. Canon. Example No 56 from the 2nd part of the book “The Technique of My Musical Language”.

2) In mensural notation, augmentation is an increase in the duration of a note by half, indicated by a dot after the note. It is also called a recording method in which notes are played in a two- or three-fold increase in duration: 2/1 (proportio dupla), 3/1 (proportio tripla).

O. Messiaen. Epouvante. Example No 50 from the 2nd part of the book “The Technique of My Musical Language”.

References: Dmitriev A., Polyphony as a factor of shaping, L., 1962; Tyulin Yu., Art of counterpoint, M., 1964; Z Kholopov Yu., On three foreign systems of harmony, in: Music and Modernity, vol. 4, M., 1966; Kholopova V., Questions of rhythm in the work of composers of the first half of the 1971th century, M., 1978; Theoretical observations on the history of music, Sat. Art., M., 1978; Problems of musical rhythm, Sat. Art., M., 2; Riemann H., Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, Bd 1907, Lpz., 1500; Feininger L., Die Frühgeschichte des Kanons bis Josquin des Prez (um 1937), Emsdetten in Westf., 1; Messiaen O., Technique de mon langage musical, v. 2-1953, P., XNUMX. See also lit. at Art. mensural notation.

V. P. Frayonov

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