Tambourine – an ancient musical instrument of the percussion family. The closest relatives are the drum and tambourine. Tambourine is common in Iraq, Egypt.
Ancient tambourine roots
The tambourine has an ancient history and is rightfully considered the ancestor of the tambourine. Mentions of the instrument can be found in several chapters of the Bible. Many peoples of Asia have long been associated with tambourines. In religious rites, it was used in India, met in the arsenal of shamans of indigenous peoples. As a rule, in such cases, bells and ribbons are added to the design. In the skillful hands of a shaman, the tambourine becomes magical. During the rite, uniform sounds, rotation, ringing, dimensional swings put the shaman into a trance. Usually shamans treat ritual tambourines with awe, passing them only from hand to hand by inheritance to their successors.
In the XNUMXth century, the instrument appears in the south of France. It was used by musicians as an accompaniment to playing the flute, and soon began to be used everywhere – on the streets, in operas and ballets. Member of the orchestras. Famous composers, V.A. Mozart, P.I. Tchaikovsky and others turn their attention to him. In the 1843th century, the tambourine gained popularity in America, when in XNUMX in New York at a minstrel concert premiered at the Green Belted Theater, it was used as the main musical instrument.
Distribution and use of tambourine
A tambourine is a kind of small drum, only longer and narrower. For the manufacture used calfskin, in the modern version of plastic. The working surface of the tambourine is called the membrane, stretched over the rim. Discs made of metal are placed between the rim and the membrane. With a little shaking, the discs begin to ring, depending on how to strike the edge of the instrument, the closer the sharper, the farther the muffled. Tambourines come in a variety of sizes, but are generally a compact instrument. With a diameter of no more than 30 cm. The shape of the tool is different. Most often round. Different peoples have tambourines that are semicircular, in the shape of a triangle. Nowadays, even in the shape of a star.
Due to its shape and sound, tambourine has long been used in shamanic rituals, divination, and dances. Round tambourines have found application in folk music: Turkish, Greek, Italian.
There are many ways to play the tambourine. It can be held in the hand or mounted on a stand. You can play with your hand, stick, or hit the leg or thigh with a tambourine. The methods are also different: from stroking to sharp blows.
Modern use of the tambourine
The orchestral tambourine is a direct descendant of the tambourine. In a symphony orchestra, it has become one of the main percussion instruments. Today, modern performers do not bypass it. In rock music, many soloists used the tambourine in their concerts. The list of such performers is quite impressive: Freddie Mercury, Mike Love, John Anderson, Peter Gabriel, Liam Gallagher, Stevie Nicks, John Davison and others. Tambourine is used in different styles: pop music, rock, ethnic music, gospel. In addition, drummers actively use tambourines in modern drum kits.