Doira: instrument composition, history, use, playing technique

Doira: instrument composition, history, use, playing technique

In Uzbek folk culture, the round hand drum is the most popular, used to create various rhythms during national dances.


All Eastern peoples have their own drum and tambourine. Uzbek doira is a symbiosis of two members of the percussion family. Goat skin is stretched over wooden rings. It acts as a membrane. Metal plates, rings are attached to the body, making sounds according to the principle of a tambourine during strikes or rhythmic movements of the performer. Jingles are attached to the inner edge.

Doira: instrument composition, history, use, playing technique

Percussion musical instrument in diameter has a size of 45-50 centimeters. Its depth is about 7 centimeters. The number of jingles is from 20 to 100 and more. The shell is made from beech. To bend a perfectly even hoop, the wood is first soaked, then wound onto a hot iron cylinder.


Drums are the oldest in the world of music. Doira existed in the XNUMXst century. Rock paintings with images of women playing the drum and dancing to its sound have been discovered in the Ferghana Valley.

The Persians called it “dare”, the Tajiks – “daira”, the Georgians – “daire”. For Armenians and Azerbaijanis, this is “gaval” or “daf” – a variant of doira, which sounds only on holidays.

The inhabitants of the East before the Play kept the device near the fire. The heat of the hearth dried the skin, it gave a clearer, more expressive sound. Until recently, only women could play the instrument in some countries. In wealthy families, it was decorated with ornaments.

Doira: instrument composition, history, use, playing technique

Play technique

Only a real virtuoso can perform really beautiful music on the doira. It is not as simple as it might seem. Hitting the center of the leather circle produces a dull, low sound. If the musician strikes closer to the edge, then the dull sound is replaced by a sonorous one.

The technique is different from drumming or playing the tambourine. You can play with either hand, it is important to hold your fingers correctly. They are linked to each other. To make sounds sharp, fast, bright, the performer disengages his fingers, as for a click. Use palm gliding to quieten. Which hand the performer holds the tambourine does not matter.

Doire is used in folk dance improvisations. He is accompanied by representatives of the string family – tara (a type of lute) or kamanch (a special violin). Performing rhythms, the musician can sing, perform recitative. Daire sets the rhythm of the dance, often heard at national weddings.

Дойра _Лейла Валова_29042018_#1_чилик

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