Theater music |
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Theater music |

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terms and concepts, musical genres

theater music — music for performances in dramas. theater, in synthesis with other types of art-va participating in the stage. embodiment of drama. Music can be provided by the playwright, and then it is, as a rule, motivated by the plot and does not go beyond everyday genres (signals, fanfares, songs, marches, dances). Muses. episodes introduced into the performance at the request of the director and composer usually have a more generalized character and may not have a direct plot motivation. T. m. is an active playwright. a factor of great semantic and formative significance; she is able to create a emotional atmosphere, emphasize DOS. the idea of ​​the play (for example, Beethoven’s Victorious Symphony in the music for the drama Egmont by Goethe, the music of Mozart’s Requiem in Pushkin’s Mozart and Salieri), specify the time and place of the action, characterize the character, influence the tempo and rhythm of the performance, highlight the main . culmination, to give unity to the performance with the help of through intonation. development and keynotes. According to the playwright function, music can be in harmony with what is happening on the stage (consonant musical background) or contrast with it. Distinguish music, taken out of the scope of the stage. actions (overture, intermissions, headpieces), and intrastage. Music can be specially written for the performance or composed of fragments of already known compositions. The scale of the numbers is different – from fragments to several. cycles or otd. sound complexes (so-called accents) to large symphonies. episodes. T. m. enters into a complex relationship with the dramaturgy of the play and directing: the composer must conform his intentions with the genre of the play, the playwright’s style, the era in which the action takes place, and the director’s intention.

The history of t. m. goes back to the most ancient types of theater, inherited from religions. ritual actions of their synthetic. character. In ancient and ancient east. drama united word, music, dance on an equal footing. In other Greek. tragedy that grew out of the dithyramb, muses. the basis was the choir. unison singing accompanied by instruments: will enter. song of the choir (parod), center. songs (stasima), concludes. choir (eksod), choirs accompanying dances (emmeley), lyric. dialogue-complaint of the actor and the choir (kommos). Classic in India. the theater was preceded by musical drama. types of beds theatre. performances: lila (music-dance drama), katakali (pantomime), yakshagana (combination of dance, dialogue, recitation, singing), etc. Later ind. the theater has kept music and dance. nature. In the history of the whale theater the leading role also belongs to the mixed theatrical-muses. representations; a synthesis of music and drama is carried out in a peculiar way in one of the leading theatres. genres of the Middle Ages – zaju. In zaju, the action was concentrated around one character, who performed several characters in each act. arias to special tunes canonized for a given situation. Arias of this kind are moments of generalization, concentration of emotions. voltage. In Japan, from the old types of theater. representations stand out especially bugaku (8th century) – predv. performances with gagaku music (see Japanese music). An important role is also played by music in the theaters noh (from the 14th to 15th centuries), joruri (from the 16th century), and kabuki (from the 17th century). No plays are built on a declamatory-melodious basis with a drawn-out pronunciation of the text in a specific voice. timbre. The choir comments on the action, conducts a dialogue, narrates, accompanies the dance. The introduction is songs of wanderings (miyuki), at the culmination a dance for contemplation (yugen) is performed. In joruri – old Japanese. puppet theater – the singer-narrator accompanies the pantomime with a chant, in the spirit of nar. epic tale by narration to the accompaniment of shamisen. In the kabuki theater, the text is also chanted, and the performance is accompanied by a nar orchestra. tools. Music directly related to acting is called “degatari” in kabuki and is performed on stage; sound effects (genza ongaku) ​​symbolically depict the sounds and phenomena of nature (the beats of drumsticks convey the sound of rain or the splash of water, a certain knock indicates that it has snowed, a blow on special boards means the appearance of the moon, etc.), and the musicians – performers are placed behind a screen of bamboo sticks. At the beginning and at the end of the play, a large drum (ceremonial music) sounds, when the curtain is raised and lowered, the “ki” board is played, special music is played at the moment of “seriage” – the scenery is raised onto the stage. Music plays an important role in kabuki. accompaniment of pantomime (dammari) and dance. scenes (keiroto, sesagoto).

In the Middle Ages. Zap. Europe, where is the theater. the legacy of antiquity was consigned to oblivion, prof. drama developed. arr. in line with the church lawsuit. In the 9th-13th centuries. in the Catholic churches, the clergy played in front of the altar lat. liturgical dramas; in the 14th-15th centuries. liturgical the drama developed into a mystery with spoken dialogues, performed outside the temple at the national. languages. In a secular environment, music sounded during the advent. festivities, masquerade processions, nar. representations. From prof. music for the secular Middle Ages. The performances have preserved Adam de la Halle’s “The Game of Robin and Marion”, in which small song numbers (virele, ballads, rondo) alternate, wok. dialogues, dances with instr. escort.

In the Renaissance, Western-European. the art turned to the traditions of antiquity. theatre; Tragedy, comedy, pastoral flourished on the new soil. Usually they were staged with magnificent muses. allegorical interludes. and mythological. content, consisting of wok. numbers in the madrigal style and dances (Chintio’s play “Orbecchi” with music by A. della Viola, 1541; “Trojanki” by Dolce with music by C. Merulo, 1566; “Oedipus” by Giustiniani with music by A. Gabrieli, 1585; “Aminta” by Tasso with music by C. Monteverdi, 1628). During this period, music (recitatives, arias, dances) often sounded during the advent. masquerades, festive processions (for example, in Italian Canti, Trionfi). In the 16th century based on polygons. madrigal style arose a special synthetic. genre – madrigal comedy.

English became one of the most important stages in the history of T. m. theater 16th century Thanks to W. Shakespeare and his contemporaries – playwrights F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher – in English. the theater of the Elizabethan era developed stable traditions of the so-called. incidental music – small plug-in muses. numbers, organically included in the drama. Shakespeare’s plays are replete with author’s remarks that prescribe the performance of songs, ballads, dances, processions, greeting fanfares, battle signals, etc. Many music and episodes of his tragedies perform the most important dramaturgy. function (songs of Ophelia and Desdemona, funeral marches in Hamlet, Coriolanus, Henry VI, dances at the Capulet’s ball in Romeo and Juliet). The productions of this time are characterized by a number of musical stage performances. effects, including a special choice of instruments depending on the stage. situations: in the prologues and epilogues, fanfares sounded when high-ranking persons came out, when angels, ghosts, and other supernatural beings appeared. forces – trumpets, in scenes of battles – a drum, in shepherd scenes – an oboe, in love scenes – flutes, in hunting scenes – a horn, in funeral processions – trombone, lyric. the songs were accompanied by a lute. In the “Globe” t-re, in addition to the music provided by the author, there were introductions, intermissions, often the text was pronounced against the background of music (melodrama). The music played in Shakespeare’s performances during the author’s lifetime has not been preserved; known only to English essays. authors of the Restoration era (second half of the 2th century). At this time, the heroic dominated the theater. drama and mask. Performances in the genre of heroic. the dramas were filled with music; the verbal text actually only held the muses together. material. The mask that originated in England in con. In the 17th century, during the Reformation, it moved into the public theater, retaining a spectacular divertissement character. In the 16th century in the spirit of the mask, many were remade. Shakespeare’s plays (“The Tempest” with music by J. Banister and M. Locke, “The Fairy Queen” based on “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” and “The Tempest” with music by G. Purcell). An outstanding phenomenon in English. T. m. of this time is the work of G. Purcell. Most of his works belong to the field of T. m., however, many of them, due to the independence of the muses. dramaturgy and the highest quality of music are approaching an opera (The Prophetess, The Fairy Queen, The Tempest, and other works are called semi-operas). Later in English soil formed a new synthetic. genre – ballad opera. Its creators J. Gay and J. Pepusch built the dramaturgy of their “Opera of the Beggars” (17) on the alternation of conversational scenes with songs in Nar. spirit. To English. drama is also drawn by G. F. Handel; in 1728 he composed the music for Ben Jonson’s The Alchemist, and in 1732 for Smollett’s Alceste after Euripides.

In Spain, the initial stage of development of nat. classical drama is associated with the genres of rappresentationes (sacred performances), as well as eclogues (shepherd’s idyll) and farce – mixed theatrical and muses. prod. with the performance of songs, recitation of poetry, dances, the traditions of which were continued in the zarzuelas. The activities of the largest Spanish artist are connected with work in these genres. poet and comp. X. del Encina (1468-1529). In the 2nd floor. 16th-17th centuries in the dramas of Lope de Vega and P. Calderon, choirs and ballet divertissements were performed.

In France, recitatives, choirs, instr. episodes to the classicist tragedies of J. Racine and P. Corneille were written by M. Charpentier, J. B. Moreau and others. The joint work of J. B. Molière and J. B. Lully, who created a mixed genre – comedy-ballet (” Marriage involuntarily”, “Princess of Elis”, “Mr. de Pursonyak”, “Georges Dandin”, etc.). Conversational dialogues alternate here with recitatives, arias, dances. exits (entrées) in the tradition of the French. adv. ballet (ballet de cour) 1st floor. 17th century

In the 18th century in France, the first product appeared. in the genre of melodrama – lyric. the stage “Pygmalion” by Rousseau, performed in 1770 with music by O. Coignet; it was followed by the melodramas Ariadne auf Naxos (1774) and Pygmalion (1779) by Venda, Sofonisba by Nefe (1782), Semiramide by Mozart (1778; not preserved), Orpheus by Fomin (1791), Deaf and a Beggar (1802) and The Mystery (1807) by Holcroft.

Up to the 2nd floor. 18th century music for the theatre. performances often had only the most general connection with the content of the drama and could be freely transferred from one performance to another. German composer and theorist I. Scheibe in “Critischer Musicus” (1737-40), and then G. Lessing in “Hamburg Dramaturgy” (1767-69) put forward new requirements for the stage. music. “The initial symphony should be associated with the play as a whole, intermissions with the end of the previous and the beginning of the next action …, the final symphony with the finale of the play … It is necessary to keep in mind the character of the protagonist and the main idea of ​​the play and be guided by them when composing music” (I. Sheibe). “Since the orchestra in Our plays in some way replaces the ancient choir, connoisseurs have long expressed a desire that the nature of the music … be more consistent with the content of the plays, each play requires a special musical accompaniment for itself” (G. Lessing). T. m. soon appeared in the spirit of new requirements, including that belonging to the Viennese classics – W. A. ​​Mozart (for the drama “Tamos, King of Egypt” by Gebler, 1779) and J. Haydn (for the play “Alfred, or the King -patriot” Bicknell, 1796); However, L. Beethoven’s music to Goethe’s Egmont (1810) had the greatest influence on the further fate of the theater, which is a type of theater that generally conveys the content of the key moments of the drama. The importance of large-scale, complete in form symphonies has increased. episodes (overture, intermissions, finale), which could be separated from the performance and performed at the end. stage (music for “Egmont” also includes Goethe’s “Songs of Clerchen”, melodramas “Death of Clerchen”, “Egmont’s Dream”).

T. m. 19th century. developed in the direction outlined by Beethoven, but in the conditions of the aesthetics of romanticism. Among the products 1st floor. 19th century music by F. Schubert to “Rosamund” by G. von Chezy (1823), by C. Weber to “Turandot” by Gozzi translated by F. Schiller (1809) and “Preziosa” by Wolff (1821), by F. Mendelssohn to “Ruy Blas” by Hugo , “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” by Shakespeare (1843), “Oedipus in Colon” and “Atalia” by Racine (1845), R. Schumann to “Manfred” Byron (1848-51). A special role is assigned to music in Goethe’s Faust. The author prescribes a large number of woks. and instr. rooms – choirs, songs, dances, marches, music for the scene in the cathedral and Walpurgis Night, military. music for the battle scene. Most means. music works, the idea of ​​which is associated with Goethe’s Faust, belong to G. Berlioz (“Eight scenes from? Faust”, 1829, later converted into the oratorio “The Condemnation of Faust”). Vivid examples of genre-domestic nat. T. m. 19th century. – “Peer Gynt” by Grieg (to the drama by G. Ibsen, 1874-75) and “Arlesian” by Bizet (to the drama by A. Daudet, 1872).

At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. in the approach to T. m. new tendencies were outlined. Outstanding directors of this time (K. S. Stanislavsky, V. E. Meyerhold, G. Craig, O. Falkenberg, etc.) abandoned the music of conc. type, demanded special sound colors, unconventional instrumentation, organic inclusion of muses. drama episodes. The director’s theater of this time brought to life a new type of theater. composer, taking into account not only the specifics of the drama, but also the features of this production. In the 20th century 2 tendencies interact, bringing music closer to drama; the first of them is characterized by the strengthening of the role of music in drama. performance (experiments of K. Orff, B. Brecht, numerous authors of musicals), the second is connected with theatricalization of muses. genres (stage cantatas by Orff, The Wedding by Stravinsky, theatrical oratorios by A. Honegger, etc.). The search for new forms of combining music and drama often leads to the creation of special syntheses. theatrical and musical genres (“The Story of a Soldier” by Stravinsky is “a fairy tale to be read, played and danced”, his “Oedipus Rex” is an opera-oratorio with a reader, “Clever Girl” by Orff is an opera with large conversational scenes), as well as to the revival of old forms of synthetic. theatre: antique. tragedy (“Antigone” and “Oedipus” by Orff with an attempt to scientifically restore the manner of pronouncing the text in the ancient Greek theater), madrigal comedy (“Tale” by Stravinsky, partly “Catulli Carmina” by Orff), middle-century. mysteries (“The Resurrection of Christ” by Orff, “Joan of Arc at the stake” by Honegger), liturgical. dramas (the parables “The Cave Action”, “The Prodigal Son”, partly “The Carlew River” by Britten). The genre of melodrama continues to develop, combining ballet, pantomime, choral and solo singing, melodeclamation (Emmanuel’s Salamena, Roussel’s The Birth of the World, Onegger’s Amphion and Semiramide, Stravinsky’s Persephone).

Many prominent musicians of the 20th century work intensively in the genre of T. m .: in France, these are joint works. members of the “Six” (the sketch “The Newlyweds of the Eiffel Tower”, 1921, according to the author of the text J. Cocteau – “a combination of ancient tragedy and modern concert revue, choir and music hall numbers”), other collective performances (for example, “The Queen Margot” Bourdet with music by J. Ibert, D. Millau, D. Lazarus, J. Auric, A. Roussel) and theater. prod. Honegger (music for “Dance of Death” by C. Laronde, biblical dramas “Judith” and “King David”, “Antigone” by Sophocles, etc.); theater in Germany. Orff’s music (in addition to the above-mentioned works, the satirical comedy The Sly Ones, the text is rhythmic, accompanied by an ensemble of percussion instruments; a synthetic play A Midsummer Night’s Dream by Shakespeare), as well as music in the theater by B. Brecht. Muses. the design of Brecht’s performances is one of the main means of creating the effect of “alienation”, designed to destroy the illusion of the reality of what is happening on the stage. According to Brecht’s plan, music should consist of emphatically banal, light-genre song numbers – zongs, ballads, choirs, which have an inserted character, the verbal text of which expresses the author’s thought in a concentrated manner. Prominent German collaborators collaborated with Brecht. musicians — P. Hindemith (An Instructive Play), C. Weil (The Threepenny Opera, Mahagonny Opera sketch), X. Eisler (Mother, Roundheads and Sharpheads, Galileo Galilei, Dreams Simone Machar” and others), P. Dessau (“Mother Courage and her children”, “The Good Man from Sezuan”, etc.).

Among other authors of T. m. 19 – 1st floor. 20th century – J. Sibelius (“King of Christians” by Paul, “Pelléas and Mélisande” by Maeterlinck, “The Tempest” by Shakespeare), K. Debussy (mystery G. D’Annunzio “The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian”) and R. Strauss (music for the play by Molière “The tradesman in the nobility” in a free stage adaptation by G. von Hofmannsthal). In the 50s – 70s. 20th century O. Messiaen turned to the theater (music for the drama “Oedipus” for the waves of Martenot, 1942), E. Carter (music for the tragedy of Sophocles “Philoctetes”, “The Merchant of Venice” by Shakespeare), V. Lutoslavsky (“Macbeth” and “The Merry Wives of Windsor ” Shakespeare, “Sid” Corneille – S. Wyspiansky, “Bloody Wedding” and “The Wonderful Shoemaker” F. Garcia Lorca, etc.), authors of electronic and concrete music, including A. Coge (“Winter and a voice without a person » J. Tardieu), A. Thirier (“Scheherazade”), F. Arthuis (“Noise around the personality fighting J. Vautier”), etc.

Russian T. m. has a long history. In ancient times, dialogue scenes played by buffoons were accompanied by “demonic songs”, playing the harp, domra, and horns. In Nar. drama that grew out of buffoon performances (“Ataman”, “Mavrukh”, “Comedy about Tsar Maximilian”, etc.), sounded Russian. song and instr. music. The genre of Orthodox music developed in the church. liturgical actions – “Washing of the feet”, “Stove action”, etc. (15th century). In the 17-18 centuries. wealth of music design was different so-called. school drama (playwrights – S. Polotsky, F. Prokopovich, D. Rostovsky) with arias, choirs in the church. style, secular piping, laments, instr. numbers. The Comedy Choromina (founded in 1672) had a large orchestra with violins, violas, flutes, clarinets, trumpets, and an organ. Since the time of Peter the Great, celebrations have spread. theatrical performances (prologues, cantatas) based on the alternation of dramas. scenes, dialogues, monologues with arias, choirs, ballets. Major Russians (O. A. Kozlovsky, V. A. Pashkevich) and Italian composers were involved in their design. Until the 19th century in Russia there was no division into opera and drama. troupes; partly for this reason during will continue. time, mixed genres prevailed here (opera-ballet, vaudeville, comedy with choirs, musical drama, drama “on music”, melodrama, etc.). Means. role in Russian history. T. m. played tragedies and dramas “on music”, which largely prepared the Russian. classical opera in the 19th century In the music of O. A. Kozlovsky, E. I. Fomin, S. I. Davydov to tragedies in ancient. and mythological. stories and Russian. patriotic dramas by V. A. Ozerov, Ya. operas of the 19th century high heroic drama. problems, the formation of large choirs took place. and instr. forms (choirs, overtures, intermissions, ballets); in some performances such operatic forms as recitative, aria, song were used. Russian features. nat. styles are especially vivid in the choirs (for example, in Natalya the Boyar’s Daughter by S. N. Glinka with music by A. N. Titov); symp. episodes stylistically adjoin the traditions of the Viennese classic. school and early romanticism.

In the 1st floor. 19th century A. N. Verstovsky, who designed approx. 15 AMD prod. (for example, music for Pushkin’s Gypsies staged by V. A. Karatygin, 1832, for Beaumarchais’s The Marriage of Figaro, 1829) and created a number of staged cantatas in the traditions of the 18th century. (for example, “A Singer in the Camp of Russian Warriors” to lyrics by V. A. Zhukovsky, 1827), A. A. Alyabyev (music for the magically romantic performance of A. A. Shakhovsky based on Shakespeare’s The Tempest, 1827; “ Rusalka” by Pushkin, 1838; the melodrama “Prisoner of the Caucasus” based on the text of Pushkin’s poem of the same name, 1828), A. E. Varlamov (for example, music for Shakespeare’s Hamlet, 1837). But mostly in the 1st floor. 19th century music was selected from already known products. different authors and was used in performances to a limited extent. New period in Russian. theater in the 19th century opened M. I. Glinka with music for the drama by N. V. Kukolnik “Prince Kholmsky”, written shortly after “Ivan Susanin” (1840). In the overture and intermissions, the figurative content of the main moments of drama, develop symphony. principles of post-Beethoven t. m. There are also 3 small works by Glinka for dramas. theater – an aria of a slave with a choir for the drama “Moldavian Gypsy” by Bakhturin (1836), orc. introduction and choir for Myatlev’s “Tarantella” (1841), Englishman’s couplets for the play “Bought Shot” by Voikov (1854).

Rus. T. m. 2nd floor. 19th century to a large extent connected with the dramaturgy of A. N. Ostrovsky. Connoisseur and collector of Russian. nar. songs, Ostrovsky often used the technique of characterization through a song. His plays sounded old Russian. songs, epic chant, parables, petty-bourgeois romance, factory and prison songs, and others. – P. I. Tchaikovsky’s music for The Snow Maiden (19), created for the performance of the Bolshoi Theater, in which opera, ballet and drama were to be combined. troupes. This is due to the abundance of music. episodes and their genre richness, bringing the performance closer to opera (introduction, intervals, symphonic episode for a scene in the forest, choirs, melodramas, songs). The plot of the “spring fairy tale” required the involvement of folk song material (lingering, round dance, dance songs).

The traditions of M. I. Glinka were continued by M. A. Balakirev in music for Shakespeare’s King Lear (1859-1861, overture, intermissions, processions, songs, melodramas), Tchaikovsky – for Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1891) and others. (the music for “Hamlet” contains a generalized program overture in the tradition of lyrical-dramatic symphonism and 16 numbers – melodramas, songs of Ophelia, the gravedigger, a funeral march, fanfare).

From the works of other Russian. composers of the 19th century the ballad of A. S. Dargomyzhsky from the music to “Catherine Howard” by Dumas père (1848) and his two songs from the music to “The Schism in England” by Calderon (1866), ed. numbers from the music of A. N. Serov to the “Death of Ivan the Terrible” by A. K. Tolstoy (1867) and “Nero” by Gendre (1869), the choir of the people (scene in the temple) by M. P. Mussorgsky from the tragedy of Sophocles “Oedipus Rex” (1858-61), music by E. F. Napravnik for dramas. poem by A. K. Tolstoy “Tsar Boris” (1898), music by Vas. S. Kalinnikov to the same production. Tolstoy (1898).

At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. in T. m. there has been a profound reform. K. S. Stanislavsky was one of the first to suggest, in the name of the integrity of the performance, that we confine ourselves only to the muses indicated by the playwright. numbers, moved the orchestra behind the stage, demanded that the composer “get used to” the director’s idea. The music for the first performances of this type belonged to A. S. Arensky (intermissions, melodramas, choirs to Shakespeare’s The Tempest at the Maly T-re, staged by A. P. Lensky, 1905), A. K. Glazunov (Lermontov’s Masquerade) in post by VE Meyerhold, 1917, in addition to dances, pantomimes, Nina’s romance, Glazunov’s symphonic episodes, Glinka’s Waltz-Fantasy and his romance The Venetian Night are used. In the beginning. 20th century The Death of Ivan the Terrible by Tolstoy and The Snow Maiden by Ostrovsky with music by A. T. Grechaninov, Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night with music by A. N. Koreshchenko, Macbeth by Shakespeare and The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish with music by N. N. Cherepnin. The unity of the director’s decision and the music. performances of the Moscow Art Theater with music by I. A. Sats (music for Hamsun’s “Drama of Life” and Andreev’s “Anatem”, Maeterlinck’s “The Blue Bird”, Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” in post. English directed by G. Craig, etc.) differed in design.

If the Moscow Art Theater limited the role of music for the sake of the integrity of the performance, then directors such as A. Ya. Tairov, K. A. Mardzhanishvili, PP Komissarzhevsky, V. E. Meyerhold, E. B. Vakhtangov defended the idea of ​​synthetic theater. Meyerhold considered the director’s score of the performance as a composition built according to the laws of music. He believed that music should be born from the performance and at the same time shape it, he was looking for contrapuntal. fusion of music and stage plans (involved D. D. Shostakovich, V. Ya. Shebalin and others in the work). In the production of The Death of Tentagil by Maeterlinck at the Studio Theater on Povarskaya (1905, composed by I. A. Sats), Meyerhold tried to base the entire performance on music; “Woe to the mind” (1928) based on the play “Woe from Wit” by Griboedov, he staged with music by J. S. Bach, W. A. ​​Mozart, L. Beethoven, J. Field, F. Schubert; in post. A. M. Fayko’s play “Teacher Bubus” music (about 40 fp. of the plays by F. Chopin and F. Liszt) sounded continuously, as in silent cinema.

The peculiarity of music design of a number of performances 20 – early. 30s associated with the experimental nature of their directorial decisions. So, for example, in 1921 Tairov staged Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet” in the Kamerny T-re in the form of a “love-tragic sketch” with grotesque buffoonery, accentuated theatricality, displacing the psychological. experience; in accordance with this, in the music of A. N. Aleksandrov for the performance there was almost no lyric. line, the atmosphere of the comedy of masks prevailed. Dr. an example of this kind is Shostakovich’s music for Shakespeare’s Hamlet in T-re im. Evg. Vakhtangov in the post. N. P. Akimova (1932): the director transformed the play “with a reputation for gloomy and mystical” into a cheerful, cheerful, optimistic. the performance, in which parody and the grotesque prevailed, there was no Phantom (Akimov removed this character), and instead of the insane Ophelia there was an intoxicated Ophelia. Shostakovich created a score of more than 60 numbers – from short fragments interspersed in the text to large symphonies. episodes. Most of them are parody plays (cancan, gallop of Ophelia and Polonius, Argentine tango, philistine waltz), but there are also some tragic ones. episodes (“Musical Pantomime”, “Requiem”, “Funeral March”). In 1929-31 Shostakovich wrote music for a number of performances of Leningrad. t-ra of working youth – “Shot” Bezymensky, “Rule, Britannia!” Piotrovsky, variety and circus performance “Provisionally Murdered” by Voevodin and Ryss in Leningrad. music hall, at the suggestion of Meyerhold, to Mayakovsky’s Bedbug, later to The Human Comedy by Balzac for T-ra im. Evg. Vakhtangov (1934), for the play Salute, Spain! Afinogenov for Leningrad. t-ra im. Pushkin (1936). In the music for Shakespeare’s “King Lear” (posted by G. M. Kozintsev, Leningrad. Bolshoy drama. tr., 1941), Shostakovich departs from the parody of everyday genres inherent in his early works, and reveals in music the philosophical meaning of tragedy in the spirit of problematics his symbol. creativity of these years, creates a line of cross-cutting symphony. development within each of the three cores. figurative spheres of tragedy (Lear – Jester – Cordelia). Contrary to tradition, Shostakovich ended the performance not with a funeral march, but with the theme of Cordelia.

In the 30s. four theater. the scores were created by S. S. Prokofiev – “Egyptian Nights” for the performance of Tairov in the Chamber Theater (1935), “Hamlet” for the Theater-Studio of S. E. Radlov in Leningrad (1938), “Eugene Onegin” and “Boris Godunov » Pushkin for the Chamber Chamber (the last two productions were not performed). Music for “Egyptian Nights” (a stage composition based on the tragedies “Caesar and Cleopatra” by B. Shaw, “Antony and Cleopatra” by Shakespeare and the poem “Egyptian Nights” by Pushkin) includes an introduction, intermissions, pantomimes, recitation with an orchestra, dances and songs with chorus. When designing this performance, the composer used dec. symphonic methods. and operatic dramaturgy – a system of leitmotifs, the principle of individualization and opposition of decomp. intonation spheres (Rome – Egypt, Anthony – Cleopatra). For many years he collaborated with the theater Yu. A. Shaporin. In the 20-30s. a large number of performances with his music were staged in Leningrad. t-rah (Big Drama, Academic t-re of drama); the most interesting of them are “The Marriage of Figaro” by Beaumarchais (director and artist A. N. Benois, 1926), “Flea” by Zamyatin (after N. S. Leskov; dir. HP Monakhov, artist B. M. Kustodiev, 1926), “Sir John Falstaff” based on “The Merry Wives of Windsor” by Shakespeare (dir. N. P. Akimov, 1927), as well as a number of other plays by Shakespeare, plays by Moliere, A. S. Pushkin, G. Ibsen, B. Shaw, owls. playwrights K. A. Trenev, V. N. Bill-Belo-Tserkovsky. In the 40s. Shaporin wrote music for the performances of Moscow. Small trade “Ivan the Terrible” by A. K. Tolstoy (1944) and “Twelfth Night” by Shakespeare (1945). Among the theatre. works of the 30s. big society. T. N. Khrennikov’s music for Shakespeare’s comedy Much Ado About Nothing (1936) had a resonance.

In the field of T. m. there are many products. created by A. I. Khachaturian; they develop the traditions of conc. symp. T. m. (about 20 performances; among them – music for the plays of G. Sundukyan and A. Paronyan, Shakespeare’s Macbeth and King Lear, Lermontov’s Masquerade).

In performances based on the plays of owls. playwrights on themes from modern. life, as well as in productions of classic. plays formed a special type of music. design, based on the use of owls. mass, estr. lyric and comic songs, ditties (“The Cook” by Sofronov with music by V. A. Mokrousov, “The Long Road” by Arbuzov with music by V. P. Solovyov-Sedogo, “The Naked King” by Schwartz and “Twelfth Night” by Shakespeare with music by E. S. Kolmanovsky and others); in some performances, in particular in the composition of Mosk. t-ra drama and comedy on Taganka (directed by Yu. P. Lyubimov), included songs of the revolution. and military years, youth songs (“10 days that shook the world”, “The Fallen and the Living”, etc.). In a number of modern productions noticeably gravitate towards the musical, for example. in the play Leningrad. t-ra im. Leningrad City Council (director I. P. Vladimirov) “The Taming of the Shrew” with music by G. I. Gladkov, where the characters perform estr. songs (similar in function to songs in B. Brecht’s theater), or The Chosen One of Fate directed by S. Yu. Yursky (composed by S. Rosenzweig). On the active role of music in the dramaturgy of the performance productions are approaching the type of synthetic. Meyerhold Theater (“Pugachev” with music by Y. M. Butsko and especially “The Master and Margarita” by M. A. Bulgakov with music by E. V. Denisov in the Moscow Theater of Drama and Comedy on Taganka, director Yu. P. Lyubimov). One of the most significant. works – music by G. V. Sviridov for the drama by A. K. Tolstoy “Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich” (1973, Moscow. Maly T-r).

B. 70s. 20 c. in the region of T. m. много работали Yu. M. Butsko, V. A. Gavrilin, G. I. Gladkov, S. A. Gubaidulina, E. V. Denisov, K. A. Karaev, A. P. Petrov, N. I. Peiko, N. N. Sidelnikov, S. M. Slonimsky, M. L. Tariverdiev, A. G. Schnittke, R. K. Shchedrin, A. Ya. Eshpai et al.

References: Tairov A., directed by Zaptsky, M., 1921; Dasmanov V., Musical and sound design play, M., 1929; Satz N. I., Music in the theater for children, in her book: Our way. Moscow Children’s Theater…, Moscow, 1932; Lacis A., Revolutionary Theater of Germany, Moscow, 1935; Ignatov S., Spanish theater of XVI-XVII centuries, M.-L., 1939; Begak E., Musical composition for the performance, M., 1952; Glumov A., Music in the Russian dramatic theater, Moscow, 1955; Druskin M., Theater music, in collection: Essays on the history of Russian music, L., 1956; Bersenev I., Music in a dramatic performance, in his book: Collected articles, M., 1961; Brecht B., Theater, vol. 5, M., 1965; B. Izrailevsky, Music in Performances of the Moscow Art Theater, (Moscow, 1965); Rappoport, L., Arthur Onegger, L., 1967; Meyerhold W., Article. Letter.., ch. 2, M., 1968; Sats I., From notebooks, M., 1968; Weisbord M., F. G. Lorca – musician, M., 1970; Milyutin P., Musical composition of a dramatic performance, L., 1975; Music in the Dramatic Theater, Sat. st., L., 1976; Konen W., Purcell and Opera, M., 1978; Tarshis N., Music for performance, L., 1978; Barclay Squire W., Purcell’s dramatic music, ‘SIMG’, Jahrg. 5, 1903-04; Pedrell F., La musique indigine dans le thûvtre espagnol du XVII siîcle, tam je; Waldthausen E. von, Die Funktion der Musik im klassischen deutschen Schauspiel, Hdlb., 1921 (Diss.); Kre11 M., Das deutsche Theater der Gegenwart, Münch. — Lpz., 1923; Wdtz R., Schauspielmusik zu Goethes «Faust», Lpz., 1924 (Diss.); Aber A., ​​Die Musik im Schauspiel, Lpz., 1926; Riemer O., Musik und Schauspiel, Z., 1946; Gassner J., Producing the play, NY, 1953; Manifold JS, The music in English drama from Shakespeare to Purcell, L., 1956; Settle R., Music in the theater, L., 1957; Sternfeld FW, Musio in Shakespearean tragedy, L., 1963; Cowling JH, Music on the Shakespearean stage, NY, 1964.

T. B. Baranova

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