Quartet |
Music Terms

Quartet |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, musical genres, opera, vocals, singing

ital. quartetto, from lat. quartus – fourth; French quatuor, German. Quartet, english. quartet

1) An ensemble of 4 performers (instrumentalists or vocalists). Instr. K. can be homogeneous (stringed bow, woodwind, brass instruments) and mixed. Of the instrumental k., the most widely used was the string k. (two violins, viola, and cello). Often there is also an ensemble of fp. and 3 strings. instruments (violin, viola and cello); it’s called fp. K. The composition of K. for wind instruments can be different (for example, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon or flute, clarinet, horn and bassoon, as well as 4 instruments of the same type – horns, bassoons, etc.). Among the mixed compositions, in addition to those mentioned, K. for spirit is common. and strings. instruments (flute or oboe, violin, viola and cello). Wok. K. can be female, male, mixed (soprano, alto, tenor, bass).

2) Music. prod. for 4 instruments or singing voices. Among the genres of chamber instr. ensembles are dominated by string K., to-ry in the 2nd floor. 18th century came to replace the previously dominant trio sonata. timbre uniformity of strings. K. entails the individualization of parties, the widespread use of polyphony, melodic. content of each voice. High examples of quartet writing were given by the Viennese classics (J. Haydn, W. A. ​​Mozart, L. Beethoven); they have strings. K. takes the form of a sonata cycle. This form continues to be used in later times. From the composers of the period of music. romanticism an important contribution to the development of the genre of strings. K. was introduced by F. Schubert. In the 2nd floor. 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. in stringed k., the leitmotif principle and monothematism are used; , E. Grieg, K. Debussy, M. Ravel). Deep and subtle psychologism, intense expression, sometimes tragedy and grotesque, and the discovery of new expressive possibilities of instruments and their combinations distinguish the best stringed instruments of the 20th century. (B. Bartok, N. Ya. Myaskovsky, D. D. Shostakovich).

Genre fp. K. enjoyed the greatest popularity in the classical. era (W. A. ​​Mozart); in the subsequent time, composers turn to this composition less often (R. Schumann, S. I. Taneev).

wok genre. K. was especially common in the 2nd floor. 18th-19th centuries; along with wok. K. of mixed composition were created and homogeneous K. – for husband. voices (M. Haydn is considered the ancestor of which) and for wives. voices (many such K. belongs to I. Brahms). Among the authors wok. K. – J. Haydn, F. Schubert. Represented by K. and in Russian. music. As part of a larger composition wok. K. (and cappella and with orchestra accompaniment) are found in opera, oratorio, mass, requiem (G. Verdi, K. from the opera Rigoletto, Offertorio from his own Requiem).

G. L. Golovinsky

Leave a Reply