more precisely drunk, ital., lit. – quiet; abbreviation p
One of the most important dynamic notation (see Dynamics). In meaning, it is the antipode to the designation forte. Along with Italian the term “R.” in German countries. language, the designation leise is sometimes used, in the countries of English. language – soft (abbr. so). In Russia in con. 17th century the term “quiet” was used in the same meaning (found in manuscripts of partes singing). In multi-choir music and in works of the “concert style,” the meaning of R. often acquired the designation echo (see Echo). The designations piano and forte were first used by G. Gabrieli (1597). A derivative of R. is the designation pianissimo (pianissimo, more precisely pianissimo, Italian, from piu piano or piano piano, lit. – very quiet, abbreviated designation – pp). Intermediate between R. and pianissimo dynamic. shade – mezzopiano (mezzopiano, more precisely mezzopiano, Italian, lit. – not too quiet). In the 19th century the designation fortepiano (piano, more precisely piano, Italian, abbreviated – fp) was widespread, prescribing the performance of a given sound (chord) forte with an instant transition after it to the sound of R. Later, the term sforzando began to be used to denote an instant transition from forte to R. Back in the 18th century the term “R.” was also used with such clarifying Italian. definitions such as meno (mino – less), molto (multo – very), roso (puko – quite), quasi (kubzi – almost), etc. In the 19th century. composers began to resort to notations of loudness levels less than mezzoforte – up to rrrrrr (in the play “Autumn” from the pianoforte cycle “The Seasons” by P. I. Tchaikovsky).