Nototyping |
Music Terms

Nototyping |

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terms and concepts

Notoprinting – polygraphic reproduction of notes. The need for printing arose shortly after the invention of printing (c. 1450); among the early printed publications, the church dominated. books, in many of which melodies of hymns were given. Initially, empty spaces were left for them, where the notes were entered by hand (see, for example, the Latin Psalter – Psalterium latinum, published in Mainz in 1457). In a number of incunabula (primary editions), in addition to the text, musical staffs were also printed, while the notes were inscribed or drawn according to special. templates. Such publications do not necessarily indicate the infancy of N. (as many researchers have argued) – some experienced music printers also released them in the con. 15th c. (sample – the book “Musical Art” – “Ars mu-sicorum”, published in Valencia in 1495). The reason, apparently, was that in different communities the same prayers were sung in different languages. melodies. By printing some particular melody, the publisher in this case would artificially narrow the circle of buyers of the book.

A set of choral notes. “Roman Mass”. Printer W. Khan. Rome. 1476.

Actually N. arose approx. 1470. One of the earliest surviving musical editions, Graduale Constantiense, was apparently printed no later than 1473 (place of publication unknown). Until 1500, they tried to bring the appearance of printed notes closer to handwritten ones. The tradition of drawing musical lines with red ink, and inscribing the icons themselves with black, hindered the development of musical notation at the first stage, forcing them to find means for two-color printing—separate staves and separate notes, as well as to solve complex technical problems. the problem of their exact alignment. During this period, there were ways N. Set. Each letter could have both one and several. (up to 4) notes. Usually the staves were printed first (the red ink covered a relatively small area and dried faster), and then (the “second run”) the notes and text. Sometimes only notes with text were printed, and the lines were drawn by hand, for example. in “Collectorium super Magnificat” (Collectorium super Magnificat), ed. in Esslingen in 1473. So the works were published, recorded in choral, and sometimes in non-mental notation. Choral music was first printed from typesetting letters by Ulrich Hahn in the “Roman Mass” (“Missale Romanum” Rome 1476). The oldest edition with mensural notation is P. Niger’s “Short Grammar” (“Grammatica brevis”) (printer T. von Würzburg, Venice, 1480).

Set of mensural notes (without rulers) F. Niger. Brief grammar. Printer T. von Würzburg, Venice. 1480.

In it, musical examples illustrate decomp. poetic meters. Although the notes are printed without rulers, they are at different heights. It can be assumed that the rulers had to be drawn by hand.

Wood engraving. “Roman Mass”. Printer O. Scotto. Venice. 1482.

Wood engraving (xylography). Printers considered musical examples in books as a kind of illustration and produced them in the form of engravings. Normal prints were obtained when printing from a convex engraving, i.e. letterpress method. However, the production of such an engraving was very time consuming, because. it was necessary to cut off most of the surface of the board, leaving only the printing elements of the form – musical signs). From early woodcuts. publications stand out “Roman masses” by the Venetian printer O. Scotto (1481, 1482), as well as “Musical flowers for Gregorian tunes” (“Flores musicae omnis cantus Gregoriani”, 1488) by the Strasbourg printer I. Prius.

The woodcut method was used by Ch. arr. when printing music-theoretical. books, as well as books, in which there were songs. Very rarely, collections of churches were printed using this method. tunes. Engraving turned out to be cheap and convenient when printing musical examples that are repeated in various languages. publications. Such examples were often given in sheets. Printing forms often passed from one printer to another; It is possible to determine for which edition these examples were engraved for the first time by the unity of the font in the text of the examples and in the book itself.

Woodcut. N. developed until the 17th century. From 1515 this technique was also used to print figurative music. In the 1st floor. 16th century many were printed in this way. Lutheran prayer books (for example, “Singing Book” – “Sangbüchlein” by I. Walther, Wittenberg, 1524). In Rome in 1510, New Songs (Canzone nove) by A. de Antikis were published, which at the same time. was a wood carver and composer. Excellent examples of woodcuts are his subsequent editions (Missae quindecim, 1516, and Frottolo intabulatae da suonar organi, 1517). In the future, Antikis, along with woodcuts, also uses engraving on metal. One of the earliest music publications printed from engraving on metal is “Canzones, Sonnets, Strambotti and Frottola, Book One” (“Canzone, Sonetti, Strambotti et Frottole, Libro Primo” by the printer P. Sambonetus, 1515). Before the beginning 16th century most book publishers did not have their own music engravers and music sets; musical examples in pl. cases were made by itinerant music printers.

In the future, both bases were developed and improved. type N., outlined as early as the 15th century – typesetting and engraving.

In 1498, O. dei Petrucci received from the Venice Council the privilege of printing music using movable type (he improved W. Khan’s method and applied it to printing mensural notes). The first edition was issued by Petrucci in 1501 (“Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A”). In 1507-08, for the first time in the history of N., he published a collection of pieces for the lute. Printing according to the Petrucci method was carried out in two runs – first lines, then on top of them – diamond-shaped musical signs. If the notes were with text, another run was required. This method allowed printing only one-head. music. The preparation of publications was costly and time-consuming. Petrucci’s editions for a long time remained unsurpassed in the beauty of the musical font and in the accuracy of the connection of musical signs and rulers. When, after the expiration of Petrucci’s privilege, J. Giunta turned to his method and reprinted Motetti della Corona in 1526, he could not even come close to the perfection of the editions of his predecessor.

From the beginning 16th century N. intensively develops in many others. countries. In Germany, the first edition printed according to the Petrucci method was P. Tritonius’ Melopea, published in 1507 in Augsburg by the printer E. Eglin. Unlike Petrucci, Eglin’s lines were not solid, but were recruited from small components. The editions of the Mainz printer P. Schöffer “Organ Tablature” by A. Schlick (Tabulaturen etlicher, 1512), “Song Book” (Liederbuch, 1513), “Chants” (“Сantiones”, 1539) were not inferior to Italian ones, and sometimes even surpassed them.

Further improvements to the method of typing notes were made in France.

Single print from P. Attenyan’s set. “Thirty-Four Songs with Music”. Paris. 1528.

The Parisian publisher P. Attenyan began to issue sheet music from the set by means of a single print. For the first time he published in this way “Thirty-four songs with music” (“Trente et quatre chansons musicales”, Paris, 1528). The invention, apparently, belongs to the printer and type caster P. Oten. In the new font, each letter consisted of a combination of a note with a small part of the stave, which made it possible not only to simplify the printing process (to carry it out in one run), but also to type polygonal. music (up to three voices on one staff). However, the very process of recruiting polyphonic muses. prod. was very time-consuming, and this method was preserved only for a set of monophonic compositions. Among other French. printers who worked on the principle of a single press from a set – Le Be, the letters of which were subsequently acquired by the firm of Ballard and Le Roy and, being protected by the king. privilege, were used until the 18th century.

Musical letters at dec. publishers differed in the size of the heads, the length of the stems and the degree of perfection of execution, but the heads in editions of mensural music initially retained a diamond shape. Round heads, which were common in musical notation already in the 15th century, were first cast in 1530 by E. Briard (he also replaced ligatures in mensural music with the designation of the full duration of notes). In addition to the editions (for example, the works of the comp. Carpentre), round heads (the so-called musique en copie, i.e. “rewritten notes”) were rarely used and became widespread only in con. 17th century (in Germany, the first edition with round heads was published in 1695 by the Nuremberg publisher and printer V. M. Endter (“Spiritual Concertos” by G. Wecker).

Double printing from the set. A and B — font and print by O. Petrucci, C — font by E. Briard.

Set in Breitkopf font. Sonnet by an unknown author, set to music by I. F. Grefe. Leipzig. 1755.

Main the lack of a musical set to ser. 18th century there was the impossibility of reproducing chords, so it could only be used for issuing monophonic muses. prod. In 1754, I. G. I. Breitkopf (Leipzig) invented a “movable and collapsible” musical font, which, like a mosaic, consisted of separate. particles (total approx. 400 letters), e.g. every eighth was typed with the help of three letters – a head, a stem and a tail (or a piece of knitting). This font made it possible to reproduce any chords, practically with its help it was possible to prepare the most complex products for publication. In Breitkopf’s type, all the details of the musical set fit well (without gaps). The musical drawing was easy to read and had an aesthetic appearance. The new N. method was first used in 1754 with the publication of the aria Wie mancher kann sich schon entschliessen. A promotional edition of a sonnet set to music praising the benefits of Breitkopf’s invention followed in 1755. The first major publication was the pasturel Triumph of Devotion (Il trionfo della fedelta, 1756), written by the Saxon princess Maria Antonia Walpurgis. In a short time, with the help of the set, Breitkopf reached unprecedented development. Only now N. was able to compete successfully in all areas with handwritten notes, which until that time had not lost their dominance in the music market. Breitkopf published works of almost all major German. composers of this era – the sons of J. S. Bach, I. Mattheson, J. Benda, G. F. Telemann and others. The Breitkopf method found numerous. imitators and followers in Holland, Belgium and France.

Engraving on copper. “Spiritual Delight” Printer. S. Verovio. Rome. 1586.

To con. 18th century the situation has changed – muz. the texture became so complicated that typing became unprofitable. When preparing editions of new, complex works, especially orc. scores, it became expedient to use the engraving method, by that time significantly improved.

In the 20th century the set method is occasionally used only when printing musical examples in books (see, for example, the book by A. Beyschlag “Ornament in Music” – A. Beyschlag, “Die Ornamentik der Musik”, 1908).

Well-executed engraving on copper in conjunction with the intaglio printing method was first applied by Rome. printer S. Verovio in the publication “Spiritual Delight” (“Diletto spirituale”, 1586). He used the Niederl technique. engravers, to-rye in reproductions of paintings by artists such as Martin de Vos, reproduced entire pages of music. Verovio’s editions were engraved by Niederl. master M. van Buiten.

The engraving method was time-consuming, but it made it possible to transfer a musical drawing of any complexity and therefore became widespread in many countries. countries. In England, this method was first used in preparation for the publication of O. Gibbons’ Fantasy for Viols, 1606-1610 (b. d.); one of the earliest English The engravers were W. Hole, who engraved Parthenia (1613). In France, the introduction of engraving was delayed due to the privilege of the Ballard publishing house on N. in type-setting.

Engraving. I. Kunau. New clavier exercise. Leipzig. 1689.

The first engraved edition appeared in Paris in 1667 – Niver’s “Organ Book” (engraver Luder). Already in con. 17th century pl. French composers seeking to circumvent Ballard’s monopoly gave their compositions for engraving (D. Gauthier, c. 1670; N. Lebesgue, 1677; A. d’Anglebert, 1689).

Engraving. G. P. Handel. Variations from suite E-dur for clavier.

Engraved notes dec. countries look different: French – old-fashioned, Italian – more elegant (reminiscent of a manuscript), Eng. the engraving is heavy, close to typesetting, the German engraving is crisp and clear. In musical publications (especially of the 17th century), the designation “intavolatura” (intavolatura) referred to engraving, “score” (partitura) to a set of notes.

In the beginning. 18th century French gained particular fame. music engravers. During this period, many engravers-artists were engaged in engraving of music, paying great attention to the design of the entire publication.

In 1710 in Amsterdam, the publisher E. Roger began to number his publications for the first time. During the 18th century publishing house pl. countries followed suit. Since the 19th century it is universally accepted. The numbers are placed on the boards and (not always) on the title page. This facilitates the printing process (the accidental hit of pages from other editions is excluded), as well as the dating of old editions, or at least the dating of the first issue of this edition (because the numbers do not change during reprints).

A radical revolution in the engraving of music, which separated it from the art of art. engravings, occurred in the 20s. 18th century In the UK, J. Kluer began to use instead of copper boards made of a more pliable alloy of tin and lead. On such boards in 1724 were engraved products. Handel. J. Walsh and J. Eyre (J. Hare) introduced steel punches, with the help of which it was possible to knock out all the constantly encountered signs. It means. degree unified the appearance of notes, made them more readable. The improved process of musical engraving has spread in many places. countries. OK. 1750 for engraving began to use plates 1 mm thick made of durable zinc or an alloy of tin, lead and antimony (called garth). However, the method of musical engraving itself has not undergone creatures. changes. First on the board spec. a raster (a chisel with five teeth) cuts musical lines. Then keys, note heads, accidentals, verbal text are knocked out on them with punches in a mirror form. After that, the actual engraving is carried out – with the help of a graver, those elements of musical writing are cut out, which, due to their individual shape, cannot be punched out with punches (calms, knittings, leagues, forks, etc.). Until con. 18th century N. was made directly from the boards, which led to their rapid wear. With the invention of lithography (1796), special pieces were made from each board. print for transfer to a lithographic stone or later – to a metal. forms for flat printing. Due to the laboriousness of manufacturing boards with engraved muses. prod. were considered the most valuable capital of any music publishing house.

Step by step engraving process.

In the 20th century musical drawing photomechanical. method is transferred to zinc (for zincographic cliches) or to thin plates (zinc or aluminum), which are forms for offset printing. As originals, instead of the boards, the slides taken from them are retained.

In Russia, the first experiments with N. date back to the 17th century. They were connected with the need to unify the church. singing. In 1652, the carver Mosk. From the Printing House, F. Ivanov was instructed to start a “signed printing business”, i.e. N. with the help of non-linear musical signs. Steel punches were cut and type was cast, but not a single edition was printed using this type, apparently in connection with the Church. reforms of Patriarch Nikon (1653-54). In 1655 a special commission for the correction of the church. chanter books, which worked until 1668. A. Mezenets (its leader) replaced the cinnabar marks (specifying the pitch) with “signs” printed in the same color at the main. signs, which made it possible to publish a song. books without resorting to complicated two-color printing. In 1678, the casting of the musical font was completed, made by I. Andreev on the instructions of Mezenets. In the new font, the “banners” were placed on the otp. letters, which allowed you to dial a variety of combinations. N. through this font was also not implemented. By this time, linear musical notation began to spread in Russia, and the Mezenz system turned out to be an anachronism already at its inception. The first experience brought to completion in Russian. N. was associated with the transition to linear musical notation – these were comparative (“double-sign”) tables of hook and linear notes. The publication was made ca. 1679 from engraved boards. The author and performer of this edition (the title page and imprint are missing), apparently, was the organist S. Gutovsky, about which in the documents of Moscow. The Armory has a record dated 22 Nov. 1677 that he “made a wooden mill that prints Fryazh sheets” (i.e. copper engravings). Thus, in Russia in con. 17th century Both methods of engraving, which were widespread at that time in the West, were mastered: typesetting and engraving.

In 1700, Irmologist was published in Lvov – the first printed monument of Russian. Znamenny singing (with linear musical notation). The font for it was created by the printer I. Gorodetsky.

In 1766, the printer Mosk. Synodal printing house S. I. Byshkovsky proposed a musical font developed by him, distinguished by beauty and perfection. Liturgical music books were printed in this font: “Irmologist”, “Oktoikh”, “Utility”, “Holidays” (1770-1772).

Page from the edition: L. Madonis. Sonata for violin with digital bass. SPB. 1738.

According to V.F. Odoevsky, these books are “an inestimable national treasure, which no country in Europe can boast of, because according to all historical data, the same tunes that have been used in our churches for 700 years have been preserved in these books” .

Secular writings until the 70s. 18th century were printed exclusively in the printing house of the Academy of Sciences and Arts, the printing plates were made by engraving on copper. The first edition was “A Song composed in Hamburg for the solemn celebration of the coronation of Her Majesty Empress Anna Ioannovna, Autocrat of All Russia, the former tamo August 10 (according to a new calculation), 1730” by V. Trediakovsky. In addition to a number of other welcome “tray sheets” printed in connection with decomp. court celebrations, in the 30s. the first editions of the instr. music – 12 sonatas for violin with digital bass by G. Verocchi (between 1735 and 1738) and 12 sonatas (“Twelve different symphonies for the sake of violin and bass …”) by L. Madonis (1738). Of particular note is the one published in the 50s. and the later-famous collection “In the meantime, idleness, or a collection of various songs with attached tones for three voices. Music by G. T. (eplova)”. In the 60s. The printing house of the Academy of Sciences acquired Breitkopf’s music font (immediately after its invention). The first edition made using the set method was V. Manfredini’s 6 clavier sonatas (1765).

From the 70s. 18th century N. in Russia is developing rapidly. Numerous appear. private publishers. firms. Notes are also printed in various formats. magazines and almanacs (see Music publishers). In Russian N. applied all the advanced achievements of printing. technology.

In the 20th century musical editions are printed ch. arr. on offset presses. The translation of the musical original into printed forms is carried out by photomechanics. way. Main N.’s problem lies in the preparation of the musical original. Each complex music prod. has an individual design. So far, a sufficiently simple and cost-effective solution to the problem of mechanized production of musical originals has not been found. As a rule, they are made by hand, while the quality of work depends on the art. (graphic) talents of the master. Used next. ways of preparing originals for N.:

Engraving (see above), the use of which is declining in all countries, because due to the laboriousness and harmfulness of work on the garth, the ranks of masters are almost not replenished.

Stamping notes with printing ink on millimeter paper using a set of stamps, templates and drawing pen. This method, introduced in the 30s 20th century, is the most common in the USSR. It is less time consuming than engraving, and allows you to reproduce originals of any complexity with great accuracy. This method is adjoined by the drawing of notes on transparent paper, which is used in the preparation of musical publications in printing houses that do not have stampers.

calligraphic correspondence of notes (only keys are stamped). The production of musical originals in this way has gained popularity in many countries. countries and begins to be introduced into the USSR.

Transfer of musical signs to musical paper according to the principle of children’s decals (Klebefolien). Despite the laboriousness and the associated high cost, the method is used in a number of foreign countries. countries.

Noteset (a modification that has nothing to do with the Breitkopf font). The method was developed and put into production in 1959-60 by employees of the Polygraphy Research Institute together with employees of the Soviet Composer publishing house. When typing, the text of the music page is mounted on a black board. All elements – rulers, notes, leagues, subtext, etc. – are made of rubber and plastic and coated with a phosphor. After checking and correcting defects, the board is illuminated and photographed. The resulting transparencies are transferred to printed forms. The method has justified itself well in the preparation of editions of mass vocal literature, orc. votes, etc.

Attempts are being made to mechanize the process of making a musical original. So, in a number of countries (Poland, USA) music notation machines are used. With sufficiently high-quality results, these machines are inefficient. In the USSR, they did not receive distribution. Possibilities are being explored to adapt phototypesetting machines for typesetting notes. Phototypesetting machines from the beginning. 70s 20th century are becoming ubiquitous for text typing, tk. they are highly productive, they immediately give a ready-made positive for offset printing and work on them is not harmful to health. Attempts to adapt these machines for N. are being made by many. firms (the Japanese firm Morisawa has patented its photocomposite machine in many countries). The greatest prospects for rationalizing the production of a musical original belong to phototypesetting.

In addition to the above methods, the use of old editions for N. is common, which, after correction and necessary retouching, serve as an original for photographing and subsequent transfer to printed forms. With the improvement of photographic methods associated with the widespread use of reprints (reprints of original editions of the classics), as well as facsimile editions, which are high-quality reproductions of the author’s manuscript or k.-l. an old edition with all their features (among the latest Soviet facsimile editions is the publication of the author’s manuscript of “Pictures at an Exhibition” by M. P. Mussorgsky, 1975).

For small print runs, as well as for preliminary. familiarization of specialists notes are printed on photocopiers.

References: Bessel V., Materials for the history of music publishing in Russia. Appendix to the book: Rindeizen N., V. V. Bessel. Essay on his musical and social activities, St. Petersburg, 1909; Yurgenson V., Essay on the history of musical notation, M., 1928; Volman B., Russian printed notes of the 1957th century, L., 1970; his, Russian musical editions of the 1966th – early 1970th centuries, L., 50; Kunin M., Musical printing. Essays on history, M., 1896; Ivanov G., Music publishing in Russia. Historical reference, M., 1898; Riemann H., Notenschrift und Notendruck, in: Festschrift zum 1-jahrigen Jubelfeier der Firma CG Röder, Lpz., 12; Eitner R., Der Musiknotendruck und seine Entwicklung, “Zeitschrift für Bücherfreunde”, 1932, Jahrg. 26, H. 89; Kinkeldey O., Music in Incunabula, Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 118, v. 1933, p. 37-1934; Guygan B., Histoire de l’impression de la musique. La typographie musicale en France, “Arts et métiers graphiques”, 39, No 41, 43, No 250, 1969, 35; Hoffmann M., Immanuel Breitkopf und der Typendruck, in: Pasticcio auf das 53-jahrige Bestehen des Verlages Breitkopf und Härtel. Beiträge zur Geschichte des Hauses, Lpz., (XNUMX), S. XNUMX-XNUMX.

H. A. Kopchevsky

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