Musical analysis |
(from the Greek. analysis – decomposition, dismemberment) – a scientific study of music. production: their style, form, music. language, as well as the role of each of the components and their interaction in the implementation of the content. Analysis is understood as a research method, DOS. on the division of the whole into parts, constituent elements. Analysis is opposed to synthesis – a method of research, which consists in connecting otd. elements into a single whole. Analysis and synthesis are in close unity. F. Engels noted that “thinking consists as much in the decomposition of objects of consciousness into their elements as in the unification of elements connected with each other into a certain unity. There is no synthesis without analysis” (Anti-Dühring, K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 20, M., 1961, p. 41). Only the combination of analysis and synthesis leads to a deep understanding of the phenomenon. This also applies to A. m., which, in the end, must always lead to a generalization, a synthesis. Such a two-way process leads to a deeper understanding of the objects to be studied. The term “A. m.” understood and used in a broad and narrow sense. So, by A. m. they understand analytical. consideration of any music. patterns as such (for example, one can analyze the structure of major and minor, the principles of operation of harmonic functions, the norms of meter within a certain style, the laws of composition of a whole piece of music, etc.). In this sense, the term “A. m.” merges with the term “theoretical musicology”. A. m. is also interpreted as an analytical. consideration of any element of music. language within a particular music. works. This is a narrower understanding of the term “A. m.” is the leader. Music is a temporary art, it reflects the phenomena of reality in the process of their development, therefore, the most significant value in the analysis of muses. prod. and its individual elements has the establishment of patterns of development.
One of the main forms of art expression. image in music is muses. topic. The study of topics and their comparisons, all thematic. development is the most important moment in the analysis of the work. Thematic the analysis also presupposes the clarification of the genre origins of the themes. Since the genre is associated with a certain type of content and a range of expressive means, clarifying the genre nature of the topic helps to reveal its content.
Analysis is possible. music elements. products used in them expresses. means: meter, rhythm (both in their independent meaning and in their joint action), mode, timbre, dynamics, etc. Harmonic (see Harmony) and polyphonic (see Polyphony) analysis is extremely important, during which texture is also considered as a certain way of presentation, as well as the analysis of melody as the simplest holistic category that contains the primary unity of expression. funds. The next variety of A. m. is the analysis of compositions. production forms. (i.e. the very plan of thematic comparisons and development, see Musical form) – consists in determining the type and type of forms, in clarifying the principles of thematic. development.
In all these varieties, A. m. is associated with a greater or lesser degree of temporary, artificial, but necessary abstraction, the separation of a given element from others. For example, in harmonic analysis it is sometimes necessary to consider the ratio of individual chords, regardless of the role of meter, rhythm, melody.
A special type of analysis – “complex” or “holistic” – is the analysis of music. essays produced on the basis of the analysis of compositions. forms, but combined with the study of all components of the whole in their interaction and development.
Elucidation of the historical and stylistic. and genre prerequisites are necessary in all types of atomism, but it is especially important in a complex (holistic) analysis, the highest goal of which is the study of music. prod. as a social ideological phenomena in its entirety istorich. connections. This type of analysis is on the verge of proper theoretical. and historical musicology. Owls. musicologists generalize the data of A. m. on the basis of the methodology of Marxist-Leninist aesthetics.
A. m. can serve as decomp. goals. Analysis of individual components of music. works (elements of musical language) are used in educational and pedagogical. courses, textbooks, teaching aids and in tooretich. research. In scientific studies in accordance with their type and specific focus are subjected to comprehensive analysis otd. will express. elements, patterns of compositions. forms of music works. In many cases in the presentation of the general theoretical. problems as proof of the proposed position are analyzed respectively. samples – excerpts from music. works or entire works. This is the deductive method. In other cases of this kind, analytical samples are given to lead the reader to conclusions of a generalizing nature. This is the inductive method. Both methods are equally valid and can be combined.
Comprehensive (holistic) analysis otd. works – an integral part of the historical and stylistic. research, disclosure of constantly developing stylistic. patterns, features of a particular nat. culture, as well as one of the methods for establishing the essential and important general patterns of music. lawsuit. In a more concise form, it becomes part of the monographic. research dedicated to one composer. There is a special kind of complex (holistic) analysis, which gives a general aesthetic. appraisal of production without deepening into the analysis will express. means, form features, etc. Such an analysis can be called critical-aesthetic. analysis of the work. With such a consideration of the music. prod. proper analysis and criticism are closely related and sometimes interpenetrate.
A prominent role in the development of scientific. methods A. m. in the 1st floor. 19th century played it. musicologist A. B. Marx (1795-1866). His book Ludwig Beethoven. Life and Work” (“Ludwig van Beethovens Leben und Schaffen”, 1859-1875) is one of the first examples of monographs, including a detailed analysis of the muses. prod.
X. Riemann (1849-1919), based on his theory of harmony, meter, form, deepened the theoretical. music analysis methods. prod. Focusing on the formal side, however, he did not separate technology from aesthetics. estimates and historical factors. Riemann owns such analytical works such as the “Guide to Fugue Composition” (“Handbuch der Fugen-Kompositionen”, Bd I-III, 1890-94, vols. I and II are devoted to the “Well-Tempered Clavier”, vol. III – “The Art of the Fugue” by J.S. Bach), “Beethoven’s Bow Quartets” (“Beethovens Streichquartette”, 1903), “All solo piano sonatas by L. van Beethoven, aesthetic. and formal technical. analysis with historical remarks” (“L. van Beethovens sämtliche Klavier-Solosonaten, ästhetische und formal-technische Analyze mit historischen Notizen”, 1918-1919), thematic. analysis of the 6th symphony and the symphony “Manfred” by Tchaikovsky.
Among the works that developed the theoretical and aesthetic. method of analysis of musical works. in Western Europe musicology, we can name the work of G. Kretschmar (1848-1924) “Guide to concerts” (“Führer durch Konzertsaal”, 1887-90); monograph by A. Schweitzer (1875-1965) “I. S. Bach “(” JS Bach “, 1908), where prod. composer are considered in the unity of three aspects of analysis – theoretical, aesthetic. and performing; a three-volume monograph by P. Becker (1882-1937) “Beethoven” (“Beethoven”, 1911), in which the author analyzes symphonies and piano. sonatas of the great composer based on their “poetic idea”; book by X. Leuchtentritt (1874-1951) “Teaching about Musical Form” (“Musikalische Formenlehre”, 1911) and his own work “Analysis of Chopin’s Piano Works” (“Analyse der Chopin’schen Klavierwerke”, 1921-22), in -Roy high scientific-theoretical. the level of analysis is combined with interesting figurative characteristics and aesthetics. ratings; containing many subtle analyzes of the works of E. Kurt (1886-1946) “Romantic Harmony and Its Crisis in Wagner’s Tristan” (“Romantische Harmonik und ihre Krise in Wagners “Tristan””, 1920) and “Bruckner” (Bd 1-2 , 1925). In the study of A. Lorenz (1868-1939) “The Secret of Form in Wagner” (“Das Geheimnis der Form bei Richard Wagner”, 1924-33), based on a detailed analysis of Wagner’s operas, new categories of forms and their sections are established (synthesizing stage and music regularities of “poetic-musical period”, “substitute part”).
The works of R. Rolland (1866–1944) occupy a special place in the development of atomic art. Among them is the work “Beethoven. Great creative epochs” (“Beethoven. Les grandes epoques cryatrices”, 1928-45). Analyzing Beethoven’s symphonies, sonatas and opera in it, R. Rolland creates a kind of analytical. a method associated with poetic, literary associations, metaphors and going beyond strict musical-theoretical framework towards a free poetic interpretation of ideas and figurative structure of production. This method played a big role in the further development of A. m. both in the West and especially in the USSR.
In Russian classical musicology of the 19th century. advanced trends of societies. thoughts clearly affected the field of A. m. Efforts of Rus. musicologists and critics were sent to approve the thesis: each mus. prod. created for the sake of expressing a certain idea, conveying certain thoughts and feelings. A. D. Ulybyshev (1794-1858), the first Rus. music writer, author of the works “The New Biography of Mozart” (“Nouvelle biographie de Mozart …”, parts 1-3, 1843) and “Beethoven, his critics and interpreters” (“Beethoven, ses critiques et ses glossateurs”, 1857), who left a noticeable mark in the history of critical. thoughts. Both books contain many analyses, critical and aesthetic music scores. works. These are probably the first examples of monographs in Europe that combine biographical material with analytical. One of the first Russian researchers who turned to the fatherlands. music art-woo, VF Odoevsky (1804-69), not being a theoretician, gave in his critical and journalistic works aesthetic. parsing pl. production, ch. arr. Glinka’s operas. The works of V. F. Lenz (1809-83) “Beethoven and his three styles” (“Beethoven et ses trois styles”, 1852) and “Beethoven. Analysis of his writings” (“Beethoven. Eine Kunst-Studie”, 1855-60) have not lost their significance to this day.
A. N. Serov (1820-71) – the founder of the thematic method. analysis in Russian musicology. In the essay The Role of One Motif in the Entire Opera A Life for the Tsar (1859), using musical examples, Serov explores the formation of the theme of the final chorus Glory. The author connects the formation of this theme-anthem with the maturation of the main. patriotic opera ideas. The article “The Thematism of the Leonora Overture” (a study about Beethoven, 1861) explores the connection between the thematicism of Beethoven’s overture and his opera. In the article “Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, Its Structure and Meaning” (1868), the idea of the gradual formation of the final theme of joy is carried out. A consistent analysis of the works of Glinka and Dargomyzhsky is given in the articles “A Life for the Tsar” and “Ruslan and Lyudmila” (1860), “Ruslan and the Ruslanists” (1867), “Mermaid” by Dargomyzhsky (1856). The unity of the development of arts. ideas and the means of its embodiment – beings. the principle of Serov’s methodology, which became the cornerstone of the owls. theoretical musicology.
In the critical articles by P. I. Tchaikovsky, a prominent place is given to the analysis of muses. productions, performed in various concert halls in Moscow in the late 70s. 19th century Among the lit. heritage of N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov stands out for his thematic. analysis of own the opera The Snow Maiden (ed. 1911, fully published in the ed.: N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, Collected Works, Literary Works and Correspondence, vol. IV, M., 1960). Analysis of own essays and evaluation of production. Other composers are also contained in Rimsky-Korsakov’s Chronicle of My Musical Life (published in 1909). A large number of interesting theoretical remarks. and analytic character is available in the correspondence of S. I. Taneev with P. I. Tchaikovsky. High scientific and theoretical. important are Taneyev’s detailed analyzes of tonal and thematic. development in some Beethoven sonatas (in letters to the composer N. N. Amani and in a special work “Analysis of modulations in Beethoven’s sonatas”).
The talent of many Russian progressive musicologists and critics, who began their activities in pre-revolutionary times, unfolded after the Great October Revolution. socialist. revolution. B. L. Yavorsky (1877-1942), the creator of the theory of modal rhythm, introduced a lot of new things into complex (holistic) analysis. He owns analyzes of the works of A. N. Scriabin and J. S. Bach and other works. At a seminar on Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier, the scientist examined the connection between the preludes and fugues of this collection and cantatas and, based on an analysis of the text of the latter, came to original conclusions about the content of preludes and fugues.
The development of scientific methods A. m. contributed to in the 20s. pedagogical and scientific activities of G. L. Catoire (1861-1926) and G. E. Konyus (1862-1933). Despite the one-sidedness scientific positions (for example, the theory of metrotectonism Konus, the exaggeration of the formative role of the meter in Catoire’s lectures), their theoretical. the works contained valuable observations and contributed to the development of analytical thinking.
A. m. plays an important role in the works of B. V. Asafiev (1884-1949). Among his most prominent analytic research – “Symphonic Etudes” (1922), containing analyzes of a number of Russian. operas and ballets (including the opera The Queen of Spades), the book Eugene Onegin by Tchaikovsky (1944), the study Glinka (1947), in which the sections dedicated to. analysis of the opera “Ruslan and Lyudmila” and “Kamarinskaya”. Essentially new was Asafiev’s idea of intonation. the nature of music. In his works it is difficult to distinguish between moments of theoretical. and historical. Synthesis of historical and theoretical the beginning is the largest scientific merit of Asafiev. Asafiev’s best works had a great influence on the development of musical methods. His book Musical Form as a Process (parts 1-2, 1930 and 1947) played a special role, concluding fruitful thoughts on two aspects of music. form – as a process and as its crystallized result; about the type of forms according to the basic principles – contrast and identity; about the three functions of development – impulse, movement and completion, about their constant switching.
The development of A. m. in the USSR was reflected both in special. research, and in works such as textbooks and teaching aids. In the book of L. A. Mazel “Fantasy f-moll Chopin. Experience of Analysis” (1937) based on a detailed analysis of this music. works set a number of common stylistic. laws of Chopin’s work, important problems of the methodology of A. m. are put forward. In the work of the same author “On Melody” (1952), a special was developed. melodic methodology. analysis.
V. A. Zukkerman in his work “Kamarinskaya” by Glinka and its traditions in Russian music (1957) puts forward new fundamental provisions regarding compositions. features of the Russian nar. songs and principles of variational development. Essential theoretical. generalizations contains the book of Vl. V. Protopopov “Ivan Susanin” Glinka “(1961). It was the first to formulate the concept of “contrasting-composite form” (see Musical form). Published on Sat. “Frederic Chopin” (1960) articles “Notes on Chopin’s Musical Language” by V. A. Zukkerman, “Some Features of Chopin’s Free Form Composition” by L. A. Mazel and “The Variation Method of Thematic Development in Chopin’s Music” by Vl. V. Protopopov testify to the high level of A. m., achieved by Soviet musicologists.
A. m. is constantly used in the educational and pedagogical. practice. The study of each of the subjects of music-theoretical. cycle (elementary music theory, solfeggio, harmony, polyphony, instrumentation) consists of three sections: theory of the subject, practical. assignments and analysis of music. prod. or excerpts. In the course of elementary theory of music analytic. section is an analysis of the simplest elements of music. works – tonality, size, grouping within bars, dynamic. and agogic. shades, etc.; in the solfeggio course – auditory analysis of intervals, size, chords, deviations and modulations within small fragments of music. production; in the courses of harmony, polyphony, instrumentation – analysis of arts corresponding to certain sections of the curriculum. samples (analysis of instrumentation – see Instrumentation). Many textbooks and manuals on these subjects have sections of the analytical profile; there are separate manuals for harmonica. and polyphonic. analysis.
In the pre-revolutionary time and in the first years after the revolution there was a subject “Analysis of muses. forms”, which was reduced to the definition of compositions. forms of music works by bringing it under one of the strictly limited number of schemes contained in the textbook. At the same time, little attention was paid to expressive means, the processes of thematic development. In Russia, the first textbooks that found application in the study of musical forms were the works “Theory of Music” by G. Hess de Calve (1818), “Textbook on Composition” by I. Fuchs (1830) and “Complete Guide to Composing Music” by I.K. Gunke (1859-63). In 1883-84, Russian translations of the Textbook of Forms of Instrumental Music (Musikalische Formenlehre, 1878) by the German musicologist L. Busler appeared, in 1901 – textbooks by the English researcher E. Prout, published in two volumes under the titles Musical Form (Musical form”, 1891, Russian translation 1900) and “Applied forms” (“Applied forms”, 1895, Russian translation b.g.).
From the works of Russian. music figures stand out: A. S. Arensky’s textbook “A Guide to the Study of the Forms of Instrumental and Vocal Music” (1893-94), which contained in a compressed and simplified form descriptions of the main musical forms; study by G. L. Catoire “Musical Form” (parts 1-2, 1934-36), which in the 30s. It was also used as a textbook for musicologists.
Successes in the development of domestic musicology after the Great October Revolution contributed to the rapid flowering of the doctrine of music. form. This led to a radical revision of the traditional course of A. m. The new course was created in the 30s. professors of the Moscow Conservatory V. A. Zukkerman, L. A. Mazel, I. Ya. Ryzhkin; at the Leningrad Conservatory, similar work was carried out by V. V. Shcherbachev, Yu. N. Tyulin, and B. A. Arapov. This course was based on the experience accumulated by the theoretical musicology in all areas and, first of all, in the study of musical form.
As a result, the scope of the previous training course was significantly expanded, and he himself was raised to a higher scientific level. stage – its ultimate goal was a comprehensive (holistic) analysis.
The new tasks set in the course of A. m. required new textbooks and teaching aids, further scientific. development of analysis methodology. Already in the first owl. textbook, intended for general courses of A. m., – the book of I. V. Sposobina “Musical Form” (1947), in a systematic. order are considered express. means and with great completeness all the basics are covered. forms. The textbook S. S. Skrebkov “Analysis of musical works” (1958) contains theoretical. positions that give this work the features of a study (for example, an analysis of intra-thematic development and a new aspect in understanding “sonata” as a dramatic principle). In account. L. A. Mazel’s textbook “The Structure of Musical Works” (1960) developed a new theory of the period, summarizing the experience of a functional understanding of this form (the first steps in this direction were taken in the works of E. Prout and G. L. Catoire), a theory of mixed forms, formulated by E. Prout. In 1965, under the general editorship of Yu. N. Tyulin published the Leningrad textbook. authors of “Musical Form”. According to the terminology and some scientific. principles, it differs significantly from textbooks Moscow. authors (for these differences, see the article Musical form).
The textbook by L. A. Mazel and V. A. Zuckerman “Analysis of Musical Works” for the musicological departments of conservatories (Issue 1, 1967) summarized the wealth of practical experience. and scientific work accumulated by its authors.
The works of musicologists contribute to the improvement of both the method of musical analysis itself and the course of analysis of musical works.
References: Serov A., Thematism of the overture to the opera “Leonora”, “Neue Zeitschrift für Musik”, 1861; Russian per. — Critical articles, vol. 3, SPB, 1895; P. Tchaikovsky, Musical notes and notes (1868-1876), M., 1898; perezd., M., 1953; Asafyev B. V., Overture Ruslan and Lyudmila Glinka, “Music. chronicle”, Sat. II, P., 1923; his own, Glinka’s Waltz-Fantasy, “Music. chronicle”, Sat. III, L., 1926; his own, Chopin’s Mazurka, “SM”, 1947, No 7; Belyaev V., “Analysis of modulations in Beethoven’s sonatas” S. AND. Taneeva, in: Russian book about Beethoven, M., 1927; Mazel L., Chopin’s Fantasy in f-moll (analysis experience), M., 1937, in the book: Research on Chopin, M., 1971; his, Aesthetics and Analysis, “SM”, 1966, No 12; Letters from S. AND. Taneeva to N. N. Amani, “SM”, 1940, No 7; Zuckerman V., Types of holistic analysis, “SM”, 1967, No 4; Kholopov Yu., Modern music in the course of the analysis of musical works, in: Methodological notes on music education, M., 1966; Arzamanov F., On teaching the course of analysis of musical works, in Sat: Questions of teaching methods of musical and theoretical disciplines, M., 1967; Pags Yu., On the analysis of the period, ibid.; Ulybyschew A. D., New Biography of Mozart, Moscow, 1843; рус. per., M., 1890-92; Richter E. Fr. E., The basic features of musical forms and their analysis, Lpz., 1852; Lenz W., Beethoven et ses trois styles, v. 1-2, St. Petersburg, 1852, Brussels, 1854, P., 1855; Marx A. В., Ludwig van Beethoven’s life and work, vol. 1 2, В., 1911; Riemann H., Systematic theory of modulation as the basis of musical form theory, Hamb., 1887, рyc. пер., СПБ, 1896; Kretzschmar H., Guide through the concert hall, vols. 1-3, Lpz., 1887-90; Nagel W., Beethoven and his piano sonatas, vols. 1-2, Langensalza, 1903-05, 1933; Schweitzer A., Johann Sebastian Bach, Lpz., 1908 and переизд., рус. per., M., 1965; Bekker P., Beethoven, V., 1911 and reprinted, Russian. per., M., 1913-15; Riemann H., L. van Beethoven’s complete piano solo sonatas. Aesthetic and formal-technical analysis with historical notes, vols. 1-3, В., 1920; Кurth E., Romantic harmony and its crisis in Wagner’s “Tristan”, Bern – Lpz., 1920, В., 1923; Leiсhtentritt H., Analysis of Chopin’s piano works, vols. 1-2, В., 1921-22; Rolland R., Beethoven. Les grandes epoques cryatrices, P., 1928-45 and reprinted, Russian. per. 1938 and 1957-58; Schenker H., New musical theories and fantasies, III, W., 1935, 1956; Tovey D Fr., Essays in musical analysis, 1-6, L., 1935-39; Grabner H., textbook of musical analysis, Lpz.,(o. J.); Federhofer H., Contributions to musical gestalt analysis, Graz, 1950; Gьldenstein G., Synthetic Analysis, «Schweizerische Musikzeitung», XCVI, 1956; Fucks W., Mathematical Analysis of the Formal Structure of Music, Cologne – Upload, 1958; Cone E. T., Analysis today, «MQ», XLVI, 1960; Goldschmidt H., On the methodology of musical analysis, в кн.: Contributions to musicology, Vol III, No 4, В., 1961; Коlneder W., Visual and auditory analysis, в кн.: The change in musical hearing, В., 1962; New ways of musical analysis. Eight contributions by L. U. Abraham etc., В., 1967; Attempts at musical analysis. Seven contributions by P. Benary, S. Borris, D. de la Motte, H. Widow, H.-P. Reis and R. Stephan, В., 1967; Motte D. de la, musical analysis, text and sheet music, vols. 1-2, Kassel – N. Y., 1968. See also lit.
V. P. Bobrovsky