(from the Greek bibliotnxn – book depository) – collections of printed music. literature (notes and books) intended for societies. or personal use. B. m. also store collections of handwritten muses. materials, conc. programs, music iconography, have discos and music libraries, archives of microfilms and photograms (photocopies), engage in bibliography, and information. work, lead special catalogs and file cabinets, develop a methodology for music library work. The exact date of occurrence of B. m is unknown. It is assumed that in the libraries of the states of ancient civilizations (Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Judea) they already began to collect muses. manuscripts. It is known that in the largest b-ke of the ancient world – Alexandria – there were musical materials. On Wednesday. century monasteries, churches, churches. singing schools kept musical manuscripts and musical-theoretical. treatises. Founded in the 13th-14th centuries. high fur boots in Paris, Oxford, Cambridge, Prague, Bologna, musical literature was collected in their libraries.
The growth of secular musical culture in the Renaissance, the invention of music printing contributed to the spread of collecting books on music and music publications. They were collected by lovers of books and music, pl. patrons. Among private muses. By that time, the richest B. m. of the Fuggers in Augsburg, the Dukes of the Medici in Florence (the so-called Library of the Medici – Laurenziana), and others are known. In the 16th century, during the Reformation, B. m. were created at Protestant schools, especially in him. principalities. In the 16-17 centuries. there were palace libraries, which had large collections of muses. liters. Later, on their basis, state organizations were organized. libraries (for example, the National Library in Paris). Large personal B. m. owned in the 18th century. music scientists: S. Brossard, J. B. Martini (Padre Martini), I. Forkel, J. Hawkins, C. Burney and others. Brossard’s library was one of the most valuable sections of music. department of the National libraries in Paris, Hawkins and Burney – music. Department of the British Museum in London, muses. lexicographer E. L. Gerber – music. department of the Austrian national libraries in Vienna, and others. One of the first public library books in Europe was organized in 1894 by the Peters publishing house in Leipzig. By the end of the 19th century pl. European music about-va, academies, conservatories had their own. B. m. Among the well-known foreign B. m.: library of the Santa Cecilia Academy in Rome, mountains. library in Bologna (founded in 1798), Society of Friends of Music in Vienna (founded in 1819), Mus. Department of National b-ki in Paris, music. Departments of the British Museum in London, State. libraries in Berlin (founded by Z. Denom), Congress libraries in Washington, Austrian nat. b-ki in Vienna. The largest private collection is the library of A. Cortot in Lausanne.
In 1951, the International music association. b.c. Its tasks include: convening an international congresses, posing questions related to the scientific development of cataloging and musical bibliography, special edition. magazine (“Fontes Artis Musicae”), compilation of the so-called. “International Repertoire of Musical Sources” (“Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (RISM), “International Repertoire of Literature on Music” (“Répertoire Internationale de Littérature Musical” (RILM)) and others.
Music Libraries in Russia.
The oldest Russian music. the library is a repository of musical handwritten books of the choir of the “sovereign singing deacons” in Moscow (end of the 15th century). It contained op. the first Russian sacred music composers. Under Peter I, the “sovereign singing deacons” were transferred to St. Petersburg. With the accession of Peter II in 1727, Moscow again became the seat of the choir; music books were transported along with the choir. After the death of Peter II in 1730, the composition of the choir was reduced, and some of the books were transferred to the Armory and later entered other Moscow. storage. Subsequently, the choir was again transferred to St. Petersburg. With the reorganization of the choir into the Court Singing Chapel in 1763, all the remaining music books became part of the choir’s library. Collections of ancient Russian singing manuscripts in hook and line notation were also available in monasteries (libraries of the Solovetsky Monastery, etc.). spiritual educational institutions (Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan theological academies). Valuable coll. church manuscripts. the library of Moscow had singing. synodal school. In the beginning. 1901 it included 1200 names. church music books, which provided rich material for studying the history of the church. singing in Russia (currently located in the State Historical Museum, Moscow). Means. musical literature (vok. and instr.) was collected in imp. Hermitage Library and, in particular, in the Music Library imp. t-ditch price Petersburg | At 18 – 1st floor. 19th centuries musical libraries existed at large serfs and wok.-instr. chapels (Sheremetevs, Stroganovs, K. A. Razumovsky, etc.). From the basis in 1859 RMO B. m are created at nek-ry local branches of RMO, and then at St. Petersburg. and Moscow. conservatories. One of the most extensive B. m. was the b-ka adv. orchestra in St. Petersburg (founded in 1882), numbering by 1917 approx. 12 copies of notes, books and iconography. materials. Scientific B. m. was organized by the Musical Theoretical Library Society (founded in 000 in Moscow); in 1908 it included St. 1913 copies of books and notes. In 11, the same society opened the first music theater in Russia. reading room to them. N. G. Rubinstein. Accumulation and expansion of book and musical funds of B. m., which existed during the decomp. about-wah, happened in limited. sizes, mainly through private donations.
In the owls time, B. m. are replenished and enriched at the expense of funds released by the state. Muses. departments are based in large libraries of the union and autonomous republics. A system of methodological guide B. m., introduced the centralization of library processing of music. materials.
The largest music libraries in the USSR.
1) Central Music Library of the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theater named after S. M. Kirov. One of the richest music vaults in the world. Arose in the 1st floor. 18th century As a library of the Court Chamber, it was intended to serve the needs of the Chamber’s operatic repertoire (originally called the Note Office, later the Musical Library of the Imperial Chamber). The collections of the library contain opera productions. the first foreign composers who served under the imp. yard, works of Russian. musicians, the repertoire of former imp. t-ditch, reflecting the history of the development of music. t-ra in Russia. After Great Oct. revolution, the library was transferred to the management of acad. T-ditch, and since 1934 became part of the T-ra Opera and Ballet named after S. M. Kirov. In the future, its funds were replenished with the musical library of the People’s House. For 1971 the number of musical names. in the library exceeded 27, and in total there are more than 000 copies of scores, claviers, orc. parties and other musical materials. B-ka has a rare coll. music manuscripts, music. Russian autographs. and foreign composers. B. pl. B. V. Asafiev was in charge for years.
2) Library of the Leningrad Academic Chapel named after M. I. Glinka. Originated in the 18th century. in connection with the organization of the chapel of court choristers (in 1763-1917 – the Court Choir). The purpose of the library and the nature of the musical materials stored in it were determined by the activities of the choir, which took part both in the court. church services, and in the performances of the court. opera t-ra. In the library were concentrated spiritual compositions performed by the chapel, and since 1816, handwritten copies of all spiritual works. Russian composers (published only with the permission of the director of the choir), claviers and choir. voices pl. operas, as well as copies of scores and choir. voices of oratorios and cantatas performed by the chapel in Philharmonic concerts. about-va and in own. conc. hall. In 1904-23 the library was headed by an expert on the Church. music by A. V. Preobrazhensky. In Soviet times, the library was replenished with all written owls. choir composers. prod., both a cappella and oratorio-cantata. The rare manuscripts and publications kept in its funds were transferred in 1933 for scientific research. work in the newly organized muses. institutions (Scientific Research Institute of Technology, Music and Cinematography, the music department of the State Public Library named after ME Saltykov-Shchedrin, partly in the library of the Leningrad Philharmonic, etc.). As of 1971, the general fund of the library was 15 copies, of which 085 scores and claviers, 11 titles. choir. voices (from 139 to 2060 copies in each title), 50 copies of books and magazines on music.
3) Library of the Leningrad Conservatory named after N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov. Created in 1862, simultaneously with the opening of St. Petersburg. conservatory, on the basis of the library Simf. Society (founded in 1859). Its funds initially consisted of donated personal libraries of major muses. figures associated with the RMS (collection of books and notes by A. G. Rubinshtein, V. V. Kologrivov, Mikh. Yu. Vielgorsky and others). In 1870 M. P. Azanchevsky donated to the library his most valuable collection of books on music (more than 3000 volumes) and a collection of music. autographs, in 1872 A. I. Rubets – a personal library containing the manuscripts of A. S. Dargomyzhsky. In 1896 the collection was transferred to the library. books and notes of N. Ya. Afanasyev, including all his published works and music. manuscripts. In the owls time, the funds of the b-ki expanded significantly. In 1937, a manuscript department was created, comprising St. 6000 storage units, Ch. arr. Russian autographs. composers. In 1971 there were approx. 112 printed music and St. 000 books and music. magazines.
4) Library of the Leningrad Philharmonic. It arose in 1882 at the Court Orchestra (the so-called Court Musical Choir, which united spirit and symphony orchestras). Originally consisted of liters for the spirit. orchestra. In the future, the symphony was replenished, as well as chamber, vocal and piano. liter swarm. In the pre-revolutionary time served exclusively by the Court Orchestra. With its reorganization in Oct. 1917 in the State. symp. the orchestra was transferred to him and the library, which in 1921 came under the jurisdiction of Leningrad. philharmonic. The musical fund of the library also included libraries of private collections and muses. ob-in (formerly the orchestra of A. D. Sheremetev, Pavlovsky railway station, the St. Petersburg choral society Singakademie, partly the library of A. I. Siloti, etc.). In 1932, part of the handwritten materials and books was transferred to the muses. department of the State Hermitage, in 1938 – the manuscript department of the State. public library them. ME Saltykov-Shchedrin. Main Part of the library’s fund is made up of musical publications, including: orc. literature (collections of scores and orchestral voices), which is the main. base conc. the activities of the Philharmonic, as well as the clavier and chamber instruments. lit. The collection of opera scores includes old editions of operas by foreign composers. In 1971, the total fund of musical and book-magazine literature was approx. 140 copies. In addition, the library has a collection of iconographic materials (about 000 copies), posters and programs of all concerts of the Philharmonic, an extensive collection of gas. clippings (ca. 15 copies). Since 000, the library has been conducting reference and bibliographic research. work.
5) Scientific Musical Library named after S.I. Taneyev of the Moscow Conservatory named after P.I. Tchaikovsky. Organized in 1866 on the basis of a personal collection of notes and books on music by N. G. Rubinshtein, transferred to the Muses. Moscow classes. departments of the RMS (opened in 1860). In 1869, the library received a large collection of notes and books on the music of V. F. Odoevsky, in 1872 the library funds of the Moscow departments of the RMO (including the handwritten heritage of A. N. Verstovsky), in 1888 the library acquired a musical collection. A. Ya. Skaryatin, which included copies of the muses. op. composers of the 16th-18th centuries, then – the library of S.I. Taneyev. B-ka was also systematically replenished with pedagogical. music lit-swarm and books transferred to her by the publishing house of P.I. Jurgenson. Lack of funds extremely slowed down the growth of funds. In the owls In the meantime, the library’s activities have expanded significantly. In 1924, a large library of the Russian Academy of Arts joined it. Sciences (rAXH), which included the library of the Musical Theoretical Library Society, part of the funds of the disbanded Choir Academy (former Synodal School); in 1928, the music collection of the singer A.V. Panaeva-Kartseva was acquired, in 1934, the HP Findeisen library, and in the same year, part of the museum funds was transferred to the library. Department of the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (more than 16 copies of rare editions) and others. An extensive collection of original manuscripts stored in the Library. composers and a number of archival materials were transferred in 000 to the Center. music museum. culture them. M. I. Glinka. The musical fund of the library for 1941 was approx. 1971, book – 520 copies. In 000 the library was named after S. I. Taneyev. The library has departments that carry out a lot of scientific and methodological work: a reference and bibliographic department of rare books, manuscripts, etc.
6) Library of the State Central Museum of Musical Culture named after M. I. Glinka in Moscow. It was organized simultaneously with the museum in 1938. In 1971, the library of the museum contained (together with the libraries of its branches in the Museum-apartment of A. B. Goldenweiser and the Creative Laboratory of Conducting Skill named after N. S. Golovanov) 38 books on music in Russian and foreign languages, 859 musical publications, 59 posters and programs (mainly from the 025nd half of the 34th century), as well as approx. 621 newspaper clippings. The library includes: a department of rare editions (about 2 first editions composed by A. A. Alyabyev, A. E. Varlamov, A. L. Gurilev, A. S. Dargomyzhsky, L. Beethoven, etc.), nominal collections of books and notes of outstanding owls. musicologists and folklorists (B. L. Yavorsky, R. I. Gruber, P. A. Lamm, K. V. Kvitka, V. M. Belyaev, etc.), as well as books and notes with dedicatory inscriptions and autographs of composers and music figures (D. I. Arakishvili, A. S. Arensky, B. Bartok, A. P. Borodin, A. K. Glazunov, A. K. Lyadov, N. Ya. Myaskovsky, S. V. Rakhmaninov, I. F. Stravinsky, P. I. Tchaikovsky, F. Chopin and others).
7) Large funds of notes and books on music are concentrated in the music departments of the State. public library them. ME Saltykov-Shchedrin and Gos. library of the USSR them. V. I. Lenin, as well as in the Library of Tomsk University (a collection of rare musical and book editions of the 18th century Stroganovs), in the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (a musical collection of the fortress chapel of K. A. Razumovsky), in b -kah museums – the Historical Museum (a collection of other Russian church singing books in hook and linear notation), the Palace Museum in Ostankino (the music library of the Sheremetev fortress t-ra); in Notnitsa publishing house “Music” (Moscow), etc. Valuable materials are available in the scientific libraries. institutions, incl. Scientific-research. Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography in Leningrad; there are stored books on music and notes from the library of N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, E. F. Napravnik, A. I. Siloti, a unique collection of printed music. prod. A. G. Rubinstein, music. manuscripts, etc., as well as materials on music and music. t-ru in the collection of manuscripts and early printed editions of the source study sector of the institute (personal funds and collections of M. I. Glinka, A. P. Borodin, A. K. Glazunov and others, including manuscripts of composers, correspondence, documents, collections of musical manuscripts, etc.). In 1971, the Institute’s library stock included 41 books in Russian and foreign languages on music and 527 printed music publications.
References: Stasov V., Autographs of musicians in imp. Public library. Articles 1-3, Domestic Notes, 1856, vol. 108, 109; also in his Collected works, vol. III, St. Petersburg, 1894, Bessonov P., On the fate of musical singing books, Orthodox Review, 1864, book. V and VI, Smolensky S. V., A general outline of the historical and musical significance of the singing manuscripts of the Solovetsky Library and Alexander Mezenets’ ABC of Singers, “Orthodox Interlocutor”, 1887, II; his own, On the collection of Russian ancient singing manuscripts in the Moscow Synodal School of Church Singing, “RMG”, 1899, No 3-5, 12-14 Report of the Musical Theoretical Library Society in Moscow for the first 4 years of its activity 1909-1912 gg, No 1, (M., 1913); Rimsky-Korsakov A.N., Musical treasures of the manuscript department of the State. Public Library named after M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, L., 1938; Libraries and museums, in the book. Musical Leningrad, L., 1958; Rachkova A. A., History of the Department of Music State. Public Library named after M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, 1795-1959, in the book. Trudy Gos. Public Library named after M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, vol. VIII (II), (L., 1960); Scientific Musical Library named after S.I. Taneyev. Essay, M., 1966; Sheffer T., Cherpukhova K., Notation of the Rozumovskys from the funds of the Central National Bank of the Ukrainian Socialist Republic – a document of the musical culture of Ukraine of the 6th century, in collection. Ukrainian Musical Studies, 1971, Kipv, XNUMX.
Librarianship: Uniform rules for describing printed works for library catalogs, part 4, M., 1963, part 7, M., 1968; Library and bibliographic classification Tables for scientific libraries. Issue. XXI, M., 1964; Congrís international des bibliothíques musicales, 1-4, Kassel-Basel, 1951-56, Association internationale des bibliothíques musicales, P, 1955 Merlingen W., Entwurf einer Katalogisierungsvorschrift für wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken (angewendet bei den Musikalien der Universitätsbibliothek Wien), H. -1, W., 3-1955 Grasberger F., Der Autoren-Katalog der Musikdrucke. (The author catalog of published music), transl. by V. Cunningham, Frankf. – L. – NY, 56 (on the title of the parallel in English); Library of Congress. Music division. classification. Class M: Music and books on music, Wash., 1957, Music library association. Code for cataloging music and phono-records, Chi., 1957; Az Orszbgos, könyvtargyi tanacs. A zenebüvek kцnyvtari cнmleirбsa, Bdpst, 1958; Hinterhofer G., Katalogisierungvorschrift für Musikalien. (Mit einer Farbensystematik), Munch., (1958).
General works: Еsdaille A., National libraries of the world. Their history…, L., 1934; Burton М., Famous libraries of the world. Their history…, L., 1937; Weiss-Reyscher E., Musikbьcherei…, Hamb., 1953; Mс Сolvin L. R. and Reeves H., Music libraries. Including a comprehensive bibliography of music literature and a select bibliography of music scores, publ. since 1957…, v. 1-2, L., 1965 (1 ed., L., 1937); Plamenac D., Music libraries in Eastern Europe, «Notes», 1961/62, 11, 19.
National Libraries. Austria – Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek. Geschichte. – Bestnd. – Aufgaben, W., 1954,1958, 39 (ch. about the music department, pp. 42-1913). Belgium and Holland – Prod’ homme JG, Les institutions musicales (bibliothéques et archives) en Belgique et en Hollande, “SIMG”, XV, 14/1 Germany – Eitner R., Fürstenau M., Verzeichniss öffentlicher Bibliotheken Deutschlands, “Monatshefte für Musikgeschichte, IV. Jahrg., No 2, 1872, 1946; Zehnjahresbericht der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek 1955-1956, B., 158 (ch. about the music department, pp. 68-1969); Theurich J., Hebenstreit R., Musikbibliotheken und Musikaliensammlungen in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, V., 1952. Italy – Pirrotta N., La biblioteche musicali italiane, “Rass. Mus.”, 2, Anno XXII, No 123, apr., p. 29-1903. United States of America – Sonnesk O. G. Th., Nordamerikanische Musikbibliotheken, “SIMG”, V, 04/329, S. 35-1946. France – Lebeau E., Histoire des collections du département de la musique de la Bibliothique Nationale, P., 1960. Switzerland – Zehntner H., Musikbibliotheken in der Schweiz, Basel, XNUMX.
I. M. Yampolsky