Modulation |
Music Terms

Modulation |

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terms and concepts

from lat. modulatio – measured

Change of key with shift of the tonal center (tonics). In the music heritage, the most common functional M., based on the harmonic. kinship of keys: chords common to keys serve as mediators; when these chords are perceived, their functions are reassessed. Overestimation is caused by the appearance of harmonics. turnover, characteristic of the new key, and the modulating chord with the corresponding alteration becomes decisive:

Modulation through a common triad is possible if the new key is in the 1st or 2nd degree of affinity to the original one (see. Relationship of keys). M. in distant keys that do not have common triads is produced through harmonically related keys (according to one or another modulation plan):

M. naz. perfected with the final or relative fixation of a new tonic (M. – transition). Imperfect M. include deviation (with a return to the main key) and passing M. (with further modulation movement).

A special type of functional M. is the enharmonic M. (see Enharmonism), in which the mediating chord is common to both keys due to the enharmonic. rethinking its modal structure. Such a modulation can easily connect the most distant tonalities, forming an unexpected modulation turn, especially when anharmonic. transformation of the dominant seventh chord into an altered subdominant:

F. Schubert. String Quintet op. 163, part II.

Melodic-harmonic M. should be distinguished from functional M., which connects the tonalities by voice leading itself without a common mediating chord. With M., chromatism is formed in a close tonality, while the functional connection is relegated to the background:

The most characteristic melodic-harmonic. M. in distant keys without any functional connection. In this case, an imaginary anharmonism is sometimes formed, which is used in musical notation in order to avoid a large number of characters in an anharmonic equal key:

In a monophonic (or octave) movement, melodic M. (without harmony) is sometimes found, which can go to any key:

L. Beethoven. Sonata for piano op. 7, part II

M. without any preparation, with the direct approval of a new tonic, called. juxtaposition of tones. It is usually applied when navigating to a new section of a form, but is sometimes found inside a build:

M. I. Glinka. Romance “I’m here, Inezilla”. Modulation-mapping (transition from G-dur to H-dur).

From the tonal M. considered above, it is necessary to distinguish the modal M., in which, without shifting the tonic, only a change in the inclination of the mode in the same key takes place.

The change from minor to major is especially characteristic of I.S. Bach’s cadences:

J. C. Bach. The Well-Tempered Clavier, vol. I, prelude in d-moll

The reverse change is usually used as a juxtaposition of tonic triads, emphasizing the minor modal coloring of the latter:

L. Beethoven. Sonata for piano op. 27 No 2, part I.

M. have a very important expression. meaning in music. They enrich the melody and harmony, bring colorful variety, expand the functional connections of chords, and contribute to the dynamics of the muses. development, a broad generalization of the arts. content. In the modulation development, a functional correlation of tonalities is organized. The role of M. in the composition of music is very significant. the work as a whole and in relation to its parts. Diverse techniques of M. developed in the process of historical. development of harmony. However, already the old monophonic Nar. songs are melodic. modulation, expressed in a change in the reference tones of the mode (see Variable mode). Modulation techniques are largely characterized by one or another muses. style.

References: Rimsky-Korsakov HA, Practical textbook of harmony, 1886, 1889 (in Poln. sobr. soch., vol. IV, M., 1960); Practical course in harmony, vol. 1-2, M., 1934-35 (Author: I. Sopin, I. Dubovsky, S. Yevseev, V. Sokolov); Tyulin Yu. N., Textbook of harmony, M., 1959, 1964; Zolochevsky V. H., Pro-modulation, Kipp, 1972; Riemann H., Systematische Modulationslehre als Grundlage der musikalischen Formenlehre, Hamb., 1887 (in Russian translation – Systematic teaching of modulation as the basis of musical forms, M., 1898, Nov. ed., M., 1929) .

Yu. N. Tyulin

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