Dutch school |
Music Terms

Dutch school |

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terms and concepts, trends in art

Dutch school – lead creative direction to wok. choir. polyphony 15th-16th centuries It developed in the Netherlands (historical; united the modern Netherlands, Belgium, North-East France and Luxembourg); II. sh. called also Burgundian and Flemish, Franco-Flemish. N. sh. included several generations of the netherl. composers who worked in different Europe. countries where its traditions were perceived, which caused the rise of local polyphonics. schools. It was the result of a high level of development of Dutch music. Using song folk. creativity, N. sh. summed up the achievements of Europe. wok-choir polyphony 9 – early. 15th century (English and French, cult and secular) and marked the heyday of the classic. choir. polyphony. N. sh. created a universal system of laws of polyphony – a complex counterpoint of a strict style, developed a classic. samples wok.-choir. polyphonic genres, church and secular – masses, motet, chanson, madrigal and approved the dominance of a full-sounding 4-voice, the voices of which became equal, and developed the traditions of 3-goal music. warehouse. Composers N. sh. distinguished by skillful counterpoint technique, reaching exclusions. virtuosity in the creation of the chorus. polygonal prod. (they brought the number of independent votes to 30), anticipating the instr. music of the following eras. Music of the masters of N. sh. intended primarily. for choir. Pen. a cappella. Tool accompaniment was included in the celebrations. (solemnis) masses and motets, doubling the wok. parties (ch. arr. bass), and was often used in secular polyphonic. songs.

Center. genre of music N. sh. – choir. a cappella mass, typ. the expressiveness of the swarm was determined by the embodiment of the philosophical and contemplative ideas of its time (about a person in a huge universe, about the harmonious beauty of the world, etc.). The complex sound constructions of the masses, which have full-sounding power and impressive impact, corresponded to the greatness of the Gothic. cathedrals, where they were performed on the days of solemn religions. festivities. The expressiveness of the music, its deeply concentrated character and enlightened inspiration were expressed by the predominance of high registers and pure colors of the choir of boys and men. falsetto; skillful combination and smooth deployment of melodic. lines, the beauty of their transparent counterpointing, the filigree precision of details. Secular lyrics almost did not differ from the spiritual; her nar. melodic the basis and lively emotionality were widely manifested in the work of the composers of the N. sh., especially in the 16th century. Even masses often bore the names of secular songs used in them (“Armed Man”, “Pale Face”, etc.).

Name “N. sh.” introduced by R. G. Kizevetter (in his work “The Contribution of the Netherlands to the Art of Music”, 1828), who proposed a conditional division into 3 (or 4) N. sh. in accordance with the spheres of influence of its leading representatives. 1st N. sh., Burgundian, arose in the middle. 15th c. at the Burgundian court in Dijon, distinguished by an exquisite court. culture and developing French. traditions. This school also experienced the impact of the innovative creativity of the English. polyphonists, ch. arr. outstanding English. Komi. J. Dunstable, who worked in France (taught Burgundian musicians). 1st N.sh. led by J. Binchois, who served at the court of the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good (creator of a skillful imitation love chanson) and G. Dufay (also worked in Italy and France; founder of the polyphonic school in Cambrai), who was famous for ballads, rondels, masses, motets , significantly improved polyphony. technique and musical notation. 2nd and 3rd N. sh. (next generations of composers) naz. Flemish. Their leading masters: J. Okegem (worked at the French court) – contemporaries of the name. his “chief master of counterpoint” for his perfect mastery of the technique of through imitation, which was also used in the majestic mystical. masses, and in the advent. lyric miniatures; J. Obrecht (lived in the Netherlands, France, Italy) – his Op. distinguished by a refined and virtuoso style, emotionality and colorful expressiveness of music with clarity of thematic, used Nar. melodies (flam., German, Italian) and dance. rhythms, his masses were famous, dedicated. Virgin Mary, the so-called. parodic masses, flam. chanson and their instr. trans. dance; Josquin Despres (worked in various cities of Italy and Northern France) – the author of outstanding cult works, was especially known for his art of expressing diverse spiritual experiences in elegant polyphonics of various character. songs and motets imbued with humanistic attitude, was one of the first authors of polyphonic. instr. plays will depict. character. 4th N. sh., which spread into the 2nd floor. 16th century in Europe countries, headed by Orlando di Lasso (lived in Italy, France, England, Bavaria), famous for his “Penitential Psalms”, Sat. motets “Great musical creation”, church. prod., as well as created on the Nar. based on bright genre songs, scenes, colorful villanelles will depict. character, madrigals to poems by poets of the Renaissance and antiquity. Great masters of N. sh. had many followers, outstanding contrapuntalists, who were invited to work in decomp. European cities; Venetian polyphonic. the school was founded by A. Willart, the Roman one by J. Arkadelt, F. le Bel (he was a teacher of Palestrina); G. Isak worked in Florence, Innsbruck, Augsburg, A. Brumel – in Ferrara. In Italy, composers N. sh. laid the foundation for the Italian lyric madrigal. Among other well-known masters of N. sh. – A. Bunois, P. de la Rue, L. Comper, J. Mouton, A. de Feven, N. Gombert, J. Clemens – “not dad”, F. Verdelot, F. de Monte, de Werth.

Exclude. success N. sh. was due to the high arts. the skill of its creators, who came from a country of advanced culture, which flourished thanks to the common European. trade and cultural relations; here, for the first time in Europe, composers received prof. education in meters. Development and distribution of N. sh. also contributed to the improvement of musical notation and the emergence of musical notation. The heyday of N. sh. polyphony dates back to the heyday of the Netherlands. painting (an equally great innovative art school), applied arts, architecture, philosophy and mathematics. In creating monumental polygons. compositions of the Netherlands. the masters relied on the philosophical teachings of the Neoplatonists, as well as on strict calculations, DOS. on deep mathematics. knowledge (many Renaissance musicians, including Dunstable and, possibly, Okegem and Obrecht, were simultaneously mathematicians, philosophers, astronomers and astrologers). The system of laws of polyphony developed by them in wok. genres of strict writing, based on a single cantus firmus (liturgical or more often folk) and its modifications, carried out the principle of “unity in diversity” (according to the worldview of the era). In the structures of motets and masses, in the choice of the cantus firmus and its celebration, a certain symbolism was expressed. Allegorical thinking of the era, its mathematical. intellectualism was especially evident in the dissemination of enigmatic canons (the skillful mastery of sophisticated contrapuntal technique among the epigones of the N. sh. sometimes amounted to a rational game with exquisite contrapuntal combinations).

Arts. the achievements of the great composers of the N. sh., the principles of polyphonic music approved by them. compositions have become universal for the subsequent development of decomp. styles of free writing, already based on other aesthetic. principles, and were the foundation for the further flourishing of the whole of Europe. music, wok and instr., not only polyphonic, but also homophonic (see Homophony), and their techniques of inversion, conversion, imitation, etc., entered the technique of dodecaphony. As a stylistic phenomenon, N. sh. basically completed the era of domination in Europe. music church culture. (Catholic) wok.-choir. genres and reflected in them philosophical and religious. worldview (later it manifested itself in Protestant wok-instr. music, the peak of which was the work of J. S. Bach).

References: Bulychev V., Music of a strict style and the classical period …, M., 1909; Kiesewetter B., Die Verdienste der Niederländer um die Tonkunst, W., 1828; Wolff H., Die Musik der alten Niederländer, Lpz., 1956; Backers, S., Nederlandsche componisten van 1400 tot op onzen tijd, s’-Gravenhage, 1942, 1950; Borren Ch. van den, Dufay and his school, in The new Oxford history of music, v. 3, L. – NY – Toronto, 1960; Bridgman N., The age of Ockeghem and Josquin, ibid.; see also bibl. to Art. Dutch music, Mass, Counterpoint, Polyphony, Strict style.

L. G. Berger

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