Dance music |
Music Terms

Dance music |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, musical genres, ballet and dance

Dance music – in the general sense of music. an element of the art of choreography, music to accompany dances (ballroom, ritual, stage, etc.), as well as a category of muses derived from it. products not intended for dancing and having independent arts. value; in the narrow, more will use. sense – light music that accompanies popular household dances. The organizing function of T. m. determines its most common ext. signs: dominant position metrorhythmic. beginning, the use of characteristic rhythmic. models, clarity of cadence formulas; the dominant role of metrorhythmics determines the predominance in T. m. instr. genres (although it does not exclude singing). From all branches of music. the art of T. m. and the song are most directly connected with everyday life and are influenced by fashion. Therefore, in the figurative content of T. m., the standards of taste and aesthetics are refracted. the norms of each era; in the expression of T. m., the appearance of people of a given time and the manner of their behavior are reflected: a restrained and arrogant pavane, a proud polonaise, an unscrewed twist, etc.

Most researchers believe that the song, dance and their sound accompaniment (on the basis of which the TM itself was formed) initially and for a long time existed in syncretic. form as a single claim. Main the features of this pra-music with relates. authenticity reconstructed istorich. linguistics dealing with the “archaeology” of languages ​​(for example, an obvious echo of that distant era – the definition of dance and music by the same word in the language of the Indian tribe of Botokuds; “sing” and “play with hands” were synonymous words in ancient Egypt. lang.), and ethnography, which studies the peoples, the culture of which remained at the primitive level. One of the main elements of dance and T. m. is rhythm. The sense of rhythm is natural, biological. origin (breathing, heartbeat), it intensifies in labor processes (for example, repetitive movements during dressing, etc.). The rhythmic noise produced by the uniform movements of people (for example, trampling) is the fundamental principle of T. m. Coordination of joint movements was helped by rhythmic. accents – screams, exclamations, emotionally refreshing monotonous actions and gradually developed into singing. Therefore, the original T. m. is vocal, and the first and most necessary muses. Instruments – the simplest percussion. For example, studies of the life of the Australian aborigines have shown that their T. m., in terms of altitude, is almost chaotic, rhythmically defined, certain rhythmic features stand out in it. formulas that serve as models for improvisation, and they themselves are rhythmic. drawings have external prototypes, since they are associated with figurativeness (for example, imitation of kangaroo jumps).

All available sources – myths, epics, images and archeological data testify to the wide distribution of dances and traditional dances at all times, including in the countries of the Ancient World. There are no records of ancient music. However, associated with the cult of T. m. of the countries of the East, Africa, America, and still feeds on the living traditions of a thousand years ago (for example, the oldest school of Indian classical dance Bharat Natyam, which reached its peak already in the 2nd millennium BC, preserved intact thanks to the Institute of Temple Dancers) and gives an idea of ​​the dances of bygone eras. In other east. civilizations dance and music belonged to a large society. and ideological. role. There are many references to dances in the Bible (for example, in the legends about King David, who is “a jumper and a dancer”). Like music, dance often received cosmogonic. interpretation (for example, according to ancient Indian legends, the world was created by the god Shiva during the cosmic dance), deep philosophical understanding (in ancient India, dance was considered as revealing the essence of things). On the other hand, dance and traditional music have at all times been the focus of emotionality and eroticism; love is one of the themes of the dances of all peoples. However, in highly civilized countries (for example, in India) this does not conflict with the high ethics of dancing. art-va, since the sensual principle, according to the prevailing philosophical concepts, is a form of revealing the spiritual essence. High ethics had a dance in Dr. Greece, where the purpose of the dance was seen in the improvement, ennoblement of a person. Already from ancient times (for example, among the Aztecs and Incas), folk and professional t. m. differed – palace (ceremonial, theatrical) and temple. For the performance of T. m., musicians of a high prof. were required. level (they were usually brought up from childhood, receiving a profession by inheritance). For example, in ind. classical school. kathak dance, the musician actually directs the movement of the dance, changing its tempo and rhythm; The skill of a dancer is determined by her ability to accurately follow the music.

In the Middle Ages. In Europe, as well as in Russia, Christian morality did not recognize dance and T. m .; Christianity saw in them a form of expression of the base sides of human nature, “demonic obsession.” However, the dance was not destroyed: despite the prohibitions, he continued to live both among the people and among the aristocrats. circles. The fertile time for its heyday was the Renaissance; humanistic the nature of the Renaissance was revealed, in particular, in the broadest recognition of dance.

The first surviving records of T. m. belong to the late Middle Ages (13th century). As a rule, they are monophonic, although among music historians (X. Riemann and others) there is an opinion that in real performance the melodies that have come down to us served only as a kind of cantus firmus, on the basis of which the accompanying voices were improvised. Early polygoal recordings. T. m. to the 15th-16th centuries. These included the dances accepted at that time, called choreae (Latin, from Greek xoreiai – round dances), saltationes conviviales (Latin – feast, table dances), Gesellschaftstänze (German – social dances), ballroom-dances, ballo , baile (English, Italian, Spanish – ballroom dancing), danses du salon (French – salon dancing). The emergence and spread (up to the middle of the 20th century) of the most popular of them in Europe can be represented by the following. table:

The history of t. m. is closely connected with the development of tools. It is with the dance that the emergence of otd. tools and instr. ensembles. It is no accident, for example. part of the lute repertoire that has come down to us is dance. plays. For the performance of T. m. created special. ensembles, sometimes very inspiring. sizes: other-egypt. an orchestra that accompanied some dances. ceremony, numbered up to 150 performers (this is consistent with the general monumentality of Egyptian art), in Dr. Rome dance. pantomime was also accompanied by an orchestra of grandiose size (to achieve the special pomposity inherent in the art of the Romans). In ancient musical instruments, all types of instruments were used—wind, string, and percussion. Passion for the timbre side, characteristic of the East. music, brought to life many varieties of instruments, especially in the percussion group. Made from various percussion material was often combined into independent. orchestras without the participation of other instruments (eg, Indonesian gamelan). For orchestras blow. instruments, especially African ones, in the absence of a strictly fixed pitch, polyrhythm is characteristic. T. m. differ rhythmic. inventiveness and brilliance – timbre and fret. Extremely diverse in terms of modes (pentatonic in Chinese music, special modes in Indian music, etc.) Afr. and east. T. m. actively cultivates melodic, often microtone ornamentation, which is also often improvised, as well as rhythmic. patterns. In monophony and improvisation based on traditions. models (and therefore in the absence of individual authorship) is an important difference between east. T. m. from the one that developed much later in the West – polyphonic and, in principle, fixed. Until now, T. m. promptly uses the latest achievements in the field of tool making (for example, power tools), electric amplification. technology. At the same time, the specificity itself is determined. instr. sound renders directly. impact on music. the appearance of the dance and sometimes indissolubly merges with its expressiveness (it is difficult to imagine the Viennese waltz without the timbre of the strings, the foxtrot of the 20s without the sound of the clarinet and saxophone, and the latest dances are beyond the dynamic level reaching the pain threshold).

Polygonal T. м. inherently homophonic. Harmonic. interaction of voices, reinforced metric. periodicity, helps the coordination of movements in the dance. Polyphony, with its fluidity, blurring of cadences, metric. fuzziness, in principle, does not correspond to the organizing purpose of T. м. It is natural that the European homophony was formed, among other things, in dances (already in the 15-16 centuries. and even earlier in T. м. met numerous. homophonic patterns). The rhythm put forward in T. м. to the fore, interacting with others. elements of music. language, influenced the formation of her compositions. features. So, rhythmic repetition. figures determines the division of music into motifs of the same length. The clarity of the motive structure stimulates the corresponding certainty of harmony (its regular change). Motivational and harmonious. uniformity dictates the clarity of music. forms, based on a swarm, as a rule, squareness. (Broadly understood periodicity – in rhythm, melody, harmony, form – is being erected by the European. ice consciousness to the rank of the fundamental law of T. m.) Because inside the sections of the form of muses. the material is usually homogeneous (each section is similar in purpose to the previous one, sets out the topic, but does not develop it or develops it in a limited way). scales), contrast – on the basis of complementarity – is expressed in the ratio of entire sections: each of them brings something that was absent or was weakly expressed in the previous one. The structure of sections (clear, dissected, underlined by precise cadences) usually corresponds to small forms (period, simple 2-, 3-part) or, in earlier examples, T. m., approaching them. (It has been repeatedly noted that it was in dances that the small forms of Europ. classical music; already in T. м. 15th-16th centuries topics were often presented in a form similar to a period.) The number of sections in the forms of T. м. determined by practical need, i.e. e. duration of the dance. Therefore, often dance. forms are “chains” consisting of theoretically unlimited. number of links. The same need for greater length forces the repetition of themes. A literal reflection of this principle is one of the early fixed forms of europ. T. м. – estampi, or induction, which consists of many topics, data with a slightly modified repetition: aa1, bb1, cc1, etc. etc. With some digressions (for example, with the repetition of a theme not immediately, but at a distance), the idea of ​​“stringing” themes is also felt in other dance. forms of the 13th-16th centuries, for example. in such dances. poison. songs like ronda (music. scheme: abaaabab), virele or its ital. a variety of ballata (abbba), ballad (aabc), etc. Later, the comparison of topics is carried out according to the principle of rondo (where the usual for T. м. repetition acquires the character of a regular return of DOS. theme) or a widespread complex 3-part form (leading, apparently, from T. m.), as well as others. complex composite forms. The tradition of multi-darkness is also supported by the custom of combining small dances. plays in cycles, often with introductions and codas. The abundance of repetitions contributed to the development in T. м. variation, which is equally inherent in professional music (for example, passacaglia, chaconne) and folk (where dance melodies are short melodies repeated many times with variation, for example. “Kamarinskaya” by Glinka). The listed features retain their value in T. м. to this day. taking place in T. м. changes affect primarily rhythm (over time, more and more sharp and nervous), partly harmony (rapidly becoming more complex) and melody, while the form (structure, structure) has noticeable inertia: minuet and cake walk with full stylistic. heterogeneities fit into the scheme of a complex 3-part form. Certain standard T. m., objectively arising from its applied purpose, is expressed by Ch. arr. in the shape of. At 20 in. standardization is intensified under the influence of the so-called. Mr. mass culture, a vast area of ​​which was T. м. Means the element of improvisation, again introduced into T. м. from jazz and designed to give it freshness and spontaneity, often leads to the opposite result. Improvisation, carried out in most cases on the basis of well-established, proven methods (and in the worst examples, templates), in practice turns into an optional, random filling of the accepted schemes, i.e. e. music leveling. content. In the 20th century, with the advent of the mass media, T. м. became the most widespread and popular type of music. isk-va. The best examples of modern. T. m., often associated with folklore, have undoubted expressiveness and are able to influence the “high” muses. genres, which is confirmed, for example, by the interest of many. composers of the 20th century to jazz dancing (K. Debussy, M. Ravel, I. F. Stravinsky and others). In T. м. reflect the mentality of people, incl. h with a distinct social connotation. So, tendentious exploitation directly. The emotionality of the dance opens up wide opportunities for planting in T. м. popular in def. circles zarub. youth of the idea of ​​”rebellion against culture”. Commercial T.

T. m., exerting a great influence on dec. non-dance genres, at the same time was complicated by their achievements. The concept of “dancing” is to endow the genres of T. м. stand alone. arts. meaning, as well as in the introduction of emotions. dance expressiveness. movements into non-dance music by playing melodic-rhythmic. elements or metrorhythm. organizations T. м. (often outside a distinct genre affiliation, for example. code of the finale of Beethoven’s 5th symphony). The boundaries of the concepts of danceability and T. м. relative; t. Mr. idealized dances (for example, waltzes, mazurkas by F. Chopin) represent an area where these concepts are combined, they pass one into another. The solo. ice the suite of the 16th century already possesses value, where the decisive for all subsequent Europe is drawn up. prof. music, the principle of unity with contrast (tempo and rhythmic. contrast of plays built on the same theme: pavane – galliard). Figurative and linguistic complication, differentiation of the composition of the whole characterize suite 17 – early. 18 cc From here danceability penetrates into new serious genres, among which the sonata da camera is the most important. At G. P. Handel and I. C. Bach’s danceability is the vital nerve of the thematicism of many, even the most complex genres and forms (for example, the f-moll prelude from the 2nd volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier, the fugue from the a-moll sonata for solo violin, the finales of the Brandenburg Concertos, Gloria No 4 in Bach’s mass in h-moll). Dancing, international in origin, can be called the element of the music of the Viennese symphonists; dance themes are elegant (sicilian by V. A. Mozart) or common folk-rough (by J. Haydn; L. Beethoven, for example, in the 1st episode of the final rondo of the sonata No. 21 “Aurora”) – can serve as the basis of any part of the cycle (for example, “the apotheosis of the dance” – Beethoven’s 7th symphony). The center of danceability in the symphony – the minuet – is the point of application of composer’s skill in everything that concerns polyphony (Mozart’s c-moll quintet, K.-V. 406, – double canon in circulation), complex form (quartet Es-dur Mozart, K.-V. 428, – the initial period with the features of a sonata exposition; Haydn’s sonata A-dur, written in 1773, is the initial section, where the 2nd part is a rake of the 1st), metric. organizations (quartet op. 54 No 1 of Haydn – a five-bar division basis). Dramatization minuet (symphony g-moll Mozart, K.-V. 550) anticipates an ardent romantic. poetry; Happy Birthday. On the other hand, through the minuet, danceability opens up a new promising area for itself – the scherzo. At 19 in. danceability develops under the general sign of romanticism. poeticization both in the genre of miniature and in production. large forms. A kind of lyric symbol. tendencies of romanticism was the waltz (more broadly – waltz: 5-beat 2nd part of Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony). Widespread since F. Schubert as instr. miniature, it becomes the property of the romance (“Among the Noisy Ball” by Tchaikovsky) and the opera (“La Traviata” by Verdi), penetrates into the symphony. cycle (“Fantastic Symphony” by Berlioz, “String Serenade” and Tchaikovsky’s 5th Symphony), assimilates the romantic.

Interest in the local color has caused widespread nat. dances (mazurka, polonaise – by Chopin, halling – by E. Grieg, furiant, polka – at B. Sour cream). T. м. is one of the creatures. conditions for the emergence and development of nat. symphonism (“Kamarinskaya” by Glinka, “Slavic Dances” by Dvorak, and later – production. owls. composers, for example. “Symphonic Dances” by Rivilis). At 19 in. the figurative sphere of music associated with dance expands, which become accessible to romantic. irony (“The violin enchants with a melody” from Schumann’s The Poet’s Love cycle), grotesque (the finale of Berlioz’s Fantastic Symphony), fantasy (Mendelssohn’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream overture), etc. etc. Happy Birthday. side, directly use of Nar. dance. rhythms makes music distinctly genre, and its language – democratic and accessible even with great harmony. and polyphonic. complexity (“Carmen” and music for the drama “Arlesian” by Bizet, “Polovtsian Dances” from the opera “Prince Igor” by Borodin, “Night on Bald Mountain” by Mussorgsky). characteristic of the 19th century. symphonic convergence. music and dance went in different ways. The tradition of Viennese classicism is vividly felt in Op. М. AND. Glinka (for example, the non-squareness of the “Waltz-Fantasy”, virtuoso contrapuntal. combinations in “Polonaise” and “Krakowiak” from the opera “Ivan Susanin”), which he made common for Russian. composers use symphony. techniques for ballet music (P. AND. Tchaikovsky A. TO. Glazunov). At 20 in. T. м. and danceability receive extraordinary distribution and universal application. In music A. N. Scriabin stands out for pure, ideal danceability, which the composer feels more like flightiness – an image that is constantly present in the works of the middle and late periods (the main parts of the 4th and 5th sonatas, the finale of the 3rd symphony, Quasi valse op. 47 and others); the level of sophistication is reached by the elusive-graceful danceability of K. Debussy (“Dances” for harp and strings. orchestra). With rare exceptions (A. Webern) masters of the 20th century. they saw dance as a means of expressing a wide variety of states and ideas: a profound human tragedy (movement 2 of Rachmaninov’s Symphonic Dances), an ominous caricature (movements 2 and 3 of Shostakovich’s 8th symphony, a polka from the 3rd act of the opera “Wozzeck” Berg), idyllic. the world of childhood (2nd part of Mahler’s 3rd symphony), etc. At 20 in. ballet becomes one of the leading genres of music. art-va, many discoveries of modern. music was made within its framework (I. F. Stravinsky, S. C. Prokofiev). Folk and household T. м. have always been a source of renewal of music. language; a sharp increase in metrorhythm. beginnings in 20th century music. made this dependence especially obvious “ragtime” and Stravinsky’s “Black Concerto”, the elegant foxtrot of the Teapot and the Cup from the opera “Child and Magic” by Ravel. Application to folk dance will express. means of new music provides diverse and usually high art. results (“Spanish Rhapsody” by Ravel, “Carmma burana” by Orff, pl. op B. Bartoka, “Gayane” ballet, etc. prod. A. AND. Khachaturian; despite the seeming paradox, the combination of Nar rhythms is convincing. dances with the technique of dodecaphony in the 3rd symphony by K. Karaev, in “Six Pictures” for piano. Babajanyana). Common in the 20th century the appeal to ancient dances (gavotte, rigaudon, minuet by Prokofiev, pavane by Ravel) became stylistic. the norm of neoclassicism (Branle, Sarabande, Galliard in Stravinsky’s Agon, Sicilian in Op. A.

See also articles Ballet, Dance.

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T. S. Kyuregyan

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