Tonality |
Music Terms

Tonality |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

French tonalite, German. Tonalitat, also Tonart

1) Altitude position of the mode (determined by I. V. Sposobina, 1951, based on the idea of ​​B. L. Yavorsky; for example, in C-dur “C” is the designation of the height of the main tone of the mode, and “dur” – “major” – mode characteristic).

2) Hierarchical. centralized system of functionally differentiated height connections; T. in this sense is the unity of the mode and the actual T., i.e., the tonality (it is assumed that the T. is localized at a certain height, however, in some cases the term is understood even without such localization, completely coinciding with the concept of the mode, especially in foreign countries lit-re). T. in this sense is also inherent in ancient monody (see: Lbs J., “Tonalnosc melodii gregorianskich”, 1965) and music of the 20th century. (See, for example: Rufer J., “Die Zwölftonreihe: Träger einer neuen Tonalität”, 1951).

3) In a narrower, specific way. the meaning of T. is a system of functionally differentiated pitch connections, hierarchically centralized on the basis of a consonant triad. T. in this sense is the same as the “harmonic tonality” characteristic of the classical-romantic. harmony systems of the 17th-19th centuries; in this case, the presence of many T. and defined. systems of their correlation with each other (systems of T.; see Circle of Fifths, Relationship of Keys).

Referred to as “T.” (in a narrow, specific sense) the modes – major and minor – can be imagined as standing on a par with other modes (Ionian, Aeolian, Phrygian, everyday, pentatonic, etc.); in fact, the difference between them is so great that it is quite justified terminological. opposition of major and minor as harmonic. monophonic tonalities. frets. Unlike monodic. frets, major and minor T .. are inherent in ext. dynamism and activity, intensity of purposeful movement, the utmost rationally adjusted centralization and richness of functional relations. In accordance with these properties, tone (unlike monodic modes) is characterized by a clearly and constantly felt attraction to the center of the mode (“action at a distance”, S. I. Taneev; tonic dominates where it does not sound); regular (metric) changes of local centers (steps, functions), not only not canceling the central gravity, but realizing it and intensifying it to the maximum; dialectical the ratio between the abutment and the unstable ones (in particular, for example, within the framework of a single system, with the general gravitation of the VII degree in I, the sound of the I degree may be attracted to the VII). Due to the powerful attraction to the center of the harmonic system. T., as it were, absorbed other modes as steps, “internal modes” (B. V. Asafiev, “Musical Form as a Process”, 1963, p. 346; steps – Dorian, the former Phrygian mode with a major tonic as a Phrygian turn became part of the harmonic minor, etc.). Thus, major and minor generalized the modes that preceded them historically, being at the same time the embodiment of new principles of modal organization. The dynamism of the tonal system is indirectly connected with the nature of European thinking in the Modern Age (in particular, with the ideas of the Enlightenment). “Modality represents, in fact, a stable, and tonality a dynamic view of the world” (E. Lovinsky).

In the T. system, a separate T. acquires a definite. function in dynamic harmonic. and colorist. relationships; This function is associated with widespread ideas about the character and color of the tone. Thus, C-dur, the “central” tone in the system, appears to be more “simple”, “white”. Musicians, including major composers, often have the so-called. color hearing (for N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, the color T. E-dur is bright green, pastoral, the color of spring birches, Es-dur is dark, gloomy, gray-bluish, the tone of “cities” and “fortresses”; L Beethoven called h-moll “black tonality”), so this or that T. is sometimes associated with the definition. will express. the nature of the music (for example, W. A. ​​Mozart’s D-dur, Beethoven’s c-moll, As-dur), and the transposition of the product. – with stylistic change (for example, Mozart’s motet Ave verum corpus, K.-V. 618, D-dur, transferred in the arrangement of F. Liszt to H-dur, thereby underwent “romanticization”).

After the era of the dominance of the classical major-minor T. the concept of “T.” is also associated with the idea of ​​a branched musical-logical. structure, i.e., about a kind of “principle of order” in any system of pitch relations. The most complex tonal structures became (from the 17th century) an important, relatively autonomous means of music. expressiveness, and tonal dramaturgy sometimes competes with textual, stage, thematic. Just like int. T.’s life is expressed in changes of chords (steps, functions – a kind of “micro-lads”), an integral tonal structure, embodying the highest level of harmony, lives in purposeful modulation moves, T changes. Thus, the tonal structure of the whole becomes one of the most important elements in the development music thoughts. “Let the melodic pattern be better spoiled,” wrote P. I. Tchaikovsky, “than the very essence of musical thought, which is directly dependent on modulation and harmony.” In the developed tonal structure otd. T. can play a role similar to the themes (for example, the e-moll of the second theme of the finale of Prokofiev’s 7th sonata for piano as a reflection of the E-dur of the 2nd movement of the sonata creates a quasi-thematic intonation “arch”-reminiscence on a scale whole cycle).

The role of T. in the construction of muses is exceptionally great. forms, especially large ones (sonata, rondo, cyclic, large opera): “Sustained stay in one key, opposed to more or less rapid change of modulations, juxtaposition of contrasting scales, gradual or sudden transition to a new key, prepared return to the main one”, – all these are means that “communicate relief and bulge to large sections of the composition and make it easier for the listener to perceive its form” (S. I. Taneev; see Musical Form).

The possibility of repeating motives in other harmony led to a new, dynamic formation of themes; the possibility of repeating themes. formations in other T. made it possible to build organically developing large muses. forms. The same motive elements can take on a different, even opposite, meaning depending on the difference in the tonal structure (for example, prolonged fragmentation under the conditions of tonal changes gives the effect of an exacerbated development, and under the conditions of the tonic of the main tonality, on the contrary, the effect of “coagulation”, cessation development). In the operatic form, a change in T. is often tantamount to a change in the plot situation. Only one tonal plan can become a layer of muses. forms, eg. change of T. in the 1st d. “The Marriage of Figaro” by Mozart.

The classically pure and mature appearance of the tone (i.e., “harmonious tone”) is characteristic of the music of the Viennese classics and composers who are chronologically close to them (most of all, the epoch of the mid-17th and mid-19th centuries). However, harmonic T. occurs much earlier, and is also widespread in the music of the 20th century. Accurate chronological boundaries of T. as a special, specific. it is difficult to establish the forms of the fret, since decomp. can be taken as a basis. complexes of its features: A. Mashabe dates the emergence of harmonics. T. 14th century, G. Besseler – 15th century, E. Lovinsky – 16th century, M. Bukofzer – 17th century. (See Dahhaus S., Untersuchungen über die Entstehung der harmonischen Tonalität, 1); I. F. Stravinsky refers the dominance of T. to the period from the middle. 1968 to Ser. 17th centuries Complex Ch. signs of a classic (harmonic) T.: a) the center of T. is a consonant triad (moreover, conceivable as a unity, and not as a combination of intervals); b) mode – major or minor, represented by a system of chords and a melody moving “along the canvas” of these chords; c) fret structure based on 19 functions (T, D and S); “characteristic dissonances” (S with a sixth, D with a seventh; term X. Riemann); T is consonance; d) change of harmonies inside T., direct feeling of inclination to tonic; e) a system of cadences and fourth-quint relationships of chords outside cadences (as if transferred from cadences and extended to all connections; hence the term “cadence t.”), hierarchical. gradation of harmonies (chords and keys); f) a strongly pronounced metrical extrapolation (“tonal rhythm”), as well as a form – a construction based on squareness and interdependent, “rhyming” cadences; g) large forms based on modulation (i.e., changing T.).

The dominance of such a system falls on the 17th-19th centuries, when the complex of Ch. T.’s signs are presented, as a rule, completely. A partial combination of signs, which gives the feeling of T. (as opposed to modality), is observed even in otd. writings of the Renaissance (14th-16th centuries).

In G. de Macho (who also composed monophonic musical works), in one of the le (No 12; “Le on death”), the part “Dolans cuer las” is written in a major mode with dominance of tonic. triads throughout the pitch structure:

G. de Macho. Lay No 12, bars 37-44.

“Monodic major” in an excerpt from the work. Masho is still far from classic. type T., despite the coincidence of a number of signs (of the above, b, d. e, f are presented). Ch. the difference is a monophonic warehouse that does not imply a homophonic accompaniment. One of the first manifestations of functional rhythm in polyphony is in the song (rondo) by G. Dufay “Helas, ma dame” (“whose harmony seems to have come from a new world,” according to Besseler):

G. Dufay. Rondo “Helas, ma dame par amours”.

impression of harmony. T. arises as a result of metrized functional shifts and the predominance of harmonics. compounds in a quarto-quint ratio, T – D and D – T in harmonic. the structure of the whole. At the same time, the center of the system is not so much a triad (although it occasionally occurs, bars 29, 30), but a fifth (allowing both major and minor thirds without the intentional effect of a mixed major-minor mode); the mode is more melodic than chordal (the chord is not the basis of the system), the rhythm (devoid of metric extrapolation) is not tonal, but modal (five measures without any orientation to squareness); tonal gravity is noticeable along the edges of the constructions, and not entirely (the vocal part does not begin at all with the tonic); there is no tonal-functional gradation, as well as the connection of consonance and dissonance with the tonal meaning of harmony; in the distribution of cadences, the bias towards the dominant is disproportionately large. In general, even these clear signs of tone as a modal system of a special type still do not allow us to attribute such structures to tone proper; this is a typical modality (from the point of view of T. in a broad sense – “modal tonality”) of the 15th-16th centuries, within the framework of which separate sections ripen. components of T. (see Dahinaus C, 1968, p. 74-77). The collapse of the church frets in some music. prod. con. 16 – beg. 17th century created a special type of “free T.” – no longer modal, but not yet classical (motets by N. Vicentino, madrigals by Luca Marenzio and C. Gesualdo, Enharmonic Sonata by G. Valentini; see an example in column 567, below).

The absence of a stable modal scale and the corresponding melodic. formulas does not allow attributing such structures to the church. frets.

C. Gesualdo. Madrigal “Merce!”.

The presence of a certain standing in cadences, center. chord – a consonant triad, the change of “harmonies-steps” give reason to consider this a special type of T. – chromatic-modal T.

The gradual establishment of the dominance of major-minor rhythm began in the 17th century, primarily in dance, everyday, and secular music.

However, the old churches frets are ubiquitous in the music of the 1st floor. 17th century, for example. J. Frescobaldi (Ricercare sopra Mi, Re, Fa, Mi – Terzo tuono, Canzona – Sesto tuono. Ausgewählte Orgelwerke, Bd II, No 7, 15), S. Scheidt (Kyrie dominicale IV. Toni cum Gloria, Magnificats, see Tabuiatura nova, III. pars). Even J.S. Bach, whose music is dominated by a developed harmonica. T., such phenomena are not uncommon, for example. chorales

J. Dowland. Madrigal “Awake, Love!” (1597).

Aus tiefer Not schrei’ ich zu dir and Erbarm’ dich mein, O Herre Gott (after Schmieder Nos. 38.6 and 305; Phrygian mode), Mit Fried’ und Freud’ich fahr’ dahin (382, Dorian), Komm, Gott Schöpfer, heiliger Geist (370; Mixolydian).

The culminating zone in the development of strictly functional timbre of the major-minor type falls on the era of the Viennese classics. Main the regularities of harmony of this period are considered the main properties of harmony in general; they constitute mainly the content of all harmony textbooks (see Harmony, Harmonic function).

T.’s development in the 2nd floor. 19th century consists in expanding the limits of T. (mixed major-minor, further chromatic. systems), enriching tonal-functional relations, polarizing diatonic. and chromatic. harmony, amplification of color. the meaning of t., the revival of modal harmony on a new basis (primarily in connection with the influence of folklore on the work of composers, especially in new national schools, for example, Russian), the use of natural modes, as well as “artificial” symmetrical ones (see Sposobin I V., “Lectures on the course of harmony”, 1969). These and other new features show the rapid evolution of t. The combined effect of new properties of t. type (in F. Liszt, R. Wagner, M. P. Mussorgsky, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov) from the standpoint of strict T. may seem like a rejection of it. The discussion was generated, for example, by the introduction to Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde, where the initial tonic is veiled by a long delay, as a result of which an erroneous opinion arose about the complete absence of tonic in the play (“total avoidance of tonic”; see Kurt E., “Romantic Harmony and its crisis in Wagner’s “Tristan”, M., 1975, p. 305; this is also the reason for his misinterpretation of the harmonic structure of the initial section as a broadly understood “dominant upbeat”, p. 299, and not as a normative exposition. , and the incorrect definition of the boundaries of the initial section – bars 1-15 instead of 1-17). Symptomatic is the name of one of the plays of Liszt’s late period – Bagatelle Without Tonality (1885).

The emergence of new properties of T., moving it away from the classical. type, to the beginning. 20th century led to profound changes in the system, which were perceived by many as the decomposition, destruction of t., “atonality”. The onset of a new tonal system was stated by S. I. Taneyev (in the “Mobile Counterpoint of Strict Writing”, completed in 1906).

Meaning by T. a strict functional major-minor system, Taneyev wrote: “Having taken the place of church modes, our tonal system is now, in turn, degenerating into a new system that seeks to destroy tonality and replace the diatonic basis of harmony with a chromatic one, and the destruction of tonality leads to decomposition musical form” (ibid., Moscow, 1959, p. 9).

Subsequently, the “new system” (but to Taneyev) was called the term “new technology”. Its fundamental similarity with the classical T. consists in the fact that the “new T.” is also hierarchical. a system of functionally differentiated high-altitude connections, embodying a logical. connectivity in the pitch structure. Unlike the old tonality, the new one can rely not only on the consonant tonic, but also on any expediently chosen group of sounds, not only on the diatonic. basis, but widely use harmonies on any of the 12 sounds as functionally independent (mixing all the modes gives a poly-mode or “fretless” – “new, out-of-modal T.”; see Nü11 E. von, “B. Bartok, Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie der neuen Musik”, 1930); the semantic meaning of sounds and consonances can represent a classic in a new way. formula TSDT, but may be disclosed otherwise. Creatures. The difference also lies in the fact that the strict classical T. is structurally uniform, but the new T. is individualized and therefore does not have a single complex of sound elements, that is, it does not have functional uniformity. Accordingly, in one or another essay, different combinations of signs of T are used.

In production A. N. Scriabin of the late period of creativity T. retains its structural functions, but traditional. harmonies are replaced by new ones that create a special mode (“Scriabin mode”). So, for example, in the “Prometheus” center. chord – the famous “Prometheus” six-tone with osn. tone Fis (example A, below), center. sphere (“main T.”) – 4 such six-tones in the low-frequent series (reduced mode; example B); modulation scheme (in the connecting part – example C), the tonal plan of the exposition – example D (the harmonic plan of “Prometheus” was peculiarly, although not completely accurate, fixed by the composer in the part of Luce):

The principles of the new theater underlie the construction of Berg’s opera Wozzeck (1921), which is usually regarded as a model of the “Novensky atonal style”, despite the author’s vigorous objections to the “satanic” word “atonal”. Tonic have not only otd. opera numbers (e.g., 2nd scene of the 1st d. – “eis”; march from the 3rd scene of the 1st d. – “C”, his trio – “As”; dances in the 4th scene 2 -th day – “g”, the scene of the murder of Mary, the 2nd scene of the 2nd day – with the central tone “H”, etc.) and the whole opera as a whole (chord with the main tone “g” ), but more than that – in all production. the principle of “leit heights” was consistently carried out (in the context of leit tonalities). Yes, ch. the hero has the leittonics “Cis” (1st d., bar 5 – the first pronunciation of the name “Wozzeck”; further bars 87-89, the words of Wozzeck the soldier “That’s right, Mr. Captain”; bars 136-153 – Wozzeck’s arioso “We poor people!”, in the 3d bars 220-319 — the cis-moll triad “shines through” in the main chord of the 4th scene). Some basic the ideas of the opera cannot be understood without taking into account the tonal dramaturgy; Thus, the tragedy of the children’s song in the last scene of the opera (after Wozzeck’s death, 3rd d., bars 372-75) lies in the fact that this song sounds in the tone eis (moll), Wozzeck’s leitton; this reveals the composer’s idea that carefree children are little “wozzets”. (Cf. König W., Tona-litätsstrukturen in Alban Bergs Oper “Wozzeck”, 1974.)

The dodecaphonic-serial technique, which introduces the coherence of the structure independently of the tone, can equally use the effect of the tone and do without it. Contrary to popular misconception, dodecaphony is easily combined with the principle of (new) T., and the presence of a center. tone is a typical property for it. The very idea of ​​the 12-tone series originally arose as a means capable of compensating for the lost constructive effect of the tonic and the t. concerto, sonata cycle). If serial production is composed on the model of the tonal, then the function of the foundation, tonic, tonal sphere can be performed either by a series on a specific. pitch, or specially allocated reference sounds, intervals, chords. “The row in its original form now plays the same role as the “basic key” used to play; the “reprise” naturally returns to him. We cadence in the same tone! This analogy with earlier structural principles is maintained quite consciously (…)” (Webern A., Lectures on Music, 1975, p. 79). For example, A. A. Babadzhanyan’s play “Choral” (from “Six Pictures” for piano) was written in one “main T.” with center d (and minor coloration). The fugue of R. K. Shchedrin on a 12-tone theme has a clearly expressed T. a-moll. Sometimes altitude relationships are difficult to differentiate.

A. Webern. Concert op. 24.

Thus, using the affinity of series in the concerto op. 24 (for a series, see Art. Dodecaphony), Webern receives a group of three-tones for a specific. height, the return to Crimea is perceived as a return to the “main key”. The example below shows the three sounds of the main. spheres (A), the beginning of the 1st movement (B) and the end of the finale of Webern’s concerto (C).

However, for 12-tone music, such a principle of “single-tone” composition is not necessary (as in classical tonal music). Nevertheless, certain components of T., even if in a new form, are very often used. So, the cello sonata by E. V. Denisov (1971) has a center, the tone “d”, the serial 2nd violin concerto by A. G. Schnittke has the tonic “g”. In the music of the 70s. 20th century there are tendencies to strengthen the principle of the new T.

The history of teachings about T. is rooted in the theory of the church. modes (see Medieval modes). Within its framework, ideas were developed about the finalis as a kind of “tonic” of the mode. The “mode” (mode) itself, from a broad point of view, can be considered as one of the forms (types) of T. The practice of introducing tone (musica ficta, musica falsa) created the conditions for the appearance of the melodic effect. and chordal gravitation towards the tonic. The theory of clauses historically prepared the theory of “cadences of tone”. Glarean in his Dodecachord (1547) theoretically legitimized the Ionian and Aeolian modes that existed long before, the scales of which coincide with major and natural minor. J. Tsarlino (“The Doctrine of Harmony”, 1558) based on the Middle Ages. the doctrine of proportions interpreted consonant triads as units and created the theory of major and minor; he also noted the major or minor character of all modes. In 1615, the Dutchman S. de Co (de Caus) renamed the repercussion church. tones into the dominant (in authentic modes – the fifth degree, in plagal – IV). I. Rosenmuller wrote approx. 1650 about the existence of only three modes – major, minor and Phrygian. In the 70s. 17th century N. P. Diletsky divides “musicia” into “funny” (i.e., major), “pitiful” (minor) and “mixed”. In 1694, Charles Masson found only two modes (Mode majeur and Mode mineur); in each of them 3 steps are “essential” (Finale, Mediante, Dominante). In the “Musical Dictionary” by S. de Brossard (1703), frets appear on each of the 12 chromatic semitones. gamma. The fundamental doctrine of t. (without this term) was created by J. F. Rameau (“Traité de l’harmonie …”, 1722, “Nouveau systéme de musique théorique”, 1726). The fret is built on the basis of the chord (and not the scale). Rameau characterizes the mode as a succession order determined by a triple proportion, i.e., the ratio of the three main chords – T, D and S. The justification of the relationship of cadence chords, together with the contrast of the consonant tonic and dissonant D and S, explained the dominance of the tonic over all chords of the mode.

The term “T.” first appeared in F. A. J. Castile-Blaz (1821). T. – “the property of a musical mode, which is expressed (existe) in the use of its essential steps” (i.e., I, IV and V); F. J. Fetis (1844) proposed a theory of 4 types of T.: unitonality (ordre unito-nique) – if the product. it is written in one key, without modulations into others (corresponds to the music of the 16th century); transitonality – modulations are used in close tones (apparently, baroque music); pluritonality – modulations are used in distant tones, anharmonisms (the era of the Viennese classics); omnitonality (“all-tonality”) – a mixture of elements of different keys, each chord can be followed by each (the era of romanticism). It cannot be said, however, that Fetis’ typology is well founded. X. Riemann (1893) created a strictly functional theory of the timbre. Like Rameau, he proceeded from the category of the chord as the center of the system and sought to explain the tonality through the relationship of sounds and consonances. Unlike Rameau, Riemann did not simply base T. 3 ch. chord, but reduced to them (“the only essential harmonies”) all the rest (that is, in T. Riemann has only 3 bases corresponding to 3 functions – T, D and S; therefore, only the Riemann system is strictly functional). G. Schenker (1906, 1935) substantiated tone as a natural law determined by the historically non-evolving properties of sound material. T. is based on consonant triad, diatonic and consonant counterpoint (like contrapunctus simplex). Modern music, according to Schenker, is the degeneration and decline of the natural potentialities that give rise to tonality. Schoenberg (1911) studied in detail the resources of modern. harmonic to him. system and came to the conclusion that the modern. tonal music is “at the borders of T.” (based on the old understanding of T.). He called (without a precise definition) the new “states” of tone (c. 1900–1910; by M. Reger, G. Mahler, Schoenberg) by the terms “floating” tone (schwebende; tonic appears rarely, is avoided with sufficiently clear tone). ; for example, Schoenberg’s song “The Temptation” op. 6, No 7) and “withdrawn” T. (aufgehobene; both tonic and consonant triads are avoided, “wandering chords” are used – clever seventh chords, increased triads, other tonal multiple chords).

Riemann’s student G. Erpf (1927) made an attempt to explain the phenomena of music in the 10’s and 20’s from the standpoint of a strictly functional theory and to approach the phenomenon of music historically. Erpf also put forward the concept of “consonance-center” (Klangzentrum), or “sound center” (for example, Schoenberg’s play op. 19 No 6), which is important for the theory of the new tone; T. with such a center is sometimes also called Kerntonalität (“core-T.”). Webern (ch. arr. from the standpoint of classical t.) characterizes the development of music “after the classics” as “the destruction of t.” (Webern A., Lectures on Music, p. 44); the essence of T. he determined the trace. way: “reliance on the main tone”, “means of shaping”, “means of communication” (ibid., p. 51). T. was destroyed by the “bifurcation” of the diatonic. steps (p. 53, 66), “expansion of sound resources” (p. 50), the spread of tonal ambiguity, the disappearance of the need to return to the main. tone, a tendency to non-repetition of tones (p. 55, 74-75), shaping without classical. idiom T. (pp. 71-74). P. Hindemith (1937) builds a detailed theory of the new T., based on a 12-step (“series I”, for example, in the system

the possibility of any dissonance on each of them. Hindemith’s system of values ​​for the elements of T. is very differentiated. According to Hindemith, all music is tonal; avoiding tonal communication is as difficult as the gravity of the earth. I. F. Stravinsky’s view of the tonality is peculiar. With tonal (in the narrow sense) harmony in mind, he wrote: “Harmony … had a brilliant but brief history” (“Dialogues”, 1971, p. 237); “We are no longer within the framework of the classical T. in the school sense” (“Musikalische Poetik”, 1949, S. 26). Stravinsky adheres to the “new T.” (“non-tonal” music is tonal, “but not in the tonal system of the 18th century”; “Dialogues”, p. 245) in one of its variants, which he calls “the polarity of sound, interval, and even the sound complex”; “the tonal (or sound-“tonale”) pole is … the main axis of music,” T. is only “a way of orienting music according to these poles.” The term “pole”, however, is inaccurate, since it also implies the “opposite pole”, which Stravinsky did not mean. J. Rufer, based on the ideas of the New Viennese school, proposed the term “new tone”, considering it to be the bearer of the 12-tone series. The dissertation of X. Lang “History of the concept and term “tonality”” (“Begriffsgeschichte des Terminus “Tonalität””, 1956) contains fundamental information about the history of Tonalism.

In Russia, the theory of tone developed initially in connection with the terms “tone” (V. F. Odoevsky, Letter to a Publisher, 1863; G. A. Laroche, Glinka and Its Significance in the History of Music, Russian Bulletin, 1867-68; P. I. Tchaikovsky, “Guide to the practical study of harmony”, 1872), “system” (German Tonart, translated by A. S. Famintsyn “Textbook of harmony” by E. F. Richter, 1868; HA Rimsky -Korsakov, “Textbook of Harmony”, 1884-85), “mode” (Odoevsky, ibid; Tchaikovsky, ibid), “view” (from Ton-art, translated by Famintsyn of A. B. Marx’s Universal Textbook of Music , 1872). Tchaikovsky’s “Short Handbook of Harmony” (1875) makes extensive use of the term “T.” (occasionally also in the Guide to the Practical Study of Harmony). S. I. Taneyev put forward the theory of “unifying tonality” (see his work: “Analysis of modulation plans …”, 1927; for example, the succession of deviations in G-dur, A-dur evokes the idea of ​​T. D-dur, uniting them , and also creates a tonal attraction to it). As in the West, in Russia, new phenomena in the field of tonality were initially perceived as the absence of “tonal unity” (Laroche, ibid.) or tonality (Taneyev, Letter to Tchaikovsky of August 6, 1880), as a consequence “outside the limits of the system” ( Rimsky-Korsakov, ibid.). A number of phenomena associated with the new tone (without this term) were described by Yavorsky (the 12-semitone system, the dissonant and dispersed tonic, the multiplicity of modal structures in the tone, and most of the modes are outside major and minor); under the influence of Yavorsky Russian. theoretical musicology sought to find new modes (new high-altitude structures), for example. in production Scriabin of the late period of creativity (B. L. Yavorsky, “The structure of musical speech”, 1908; “A few thoughts in connection with the anniversary of Liszt”, 1911; Protopopov S. V., “Elements of the structure of musical speech”, 1930) neither the Impressionists, – wrote B. V. Asafiev, – did not go beyond the limits of the tonal harmonic system ”(“ Musical Form as a Process ”, M., 1963, p. 99). G. L. Catuar (following P. O. Gewart) developed the types of so-called. extended T. (major-minor and chromatic systems). B. V. Asafiev gave an analysis of the phenomena of tone (the functions of tone, D, and S, the structure of the “European mode,” the introductory tone, and the stylistic interpretation of the elements of tone) from the standpoint of intonation theory. Yu. N. Tyulin’s development of the idea of ​​variables significantly supplemented the theory of tone functions functions. A number of owls musicologists (MM Skorik, S. M. Slonimsky, M. E. Tarakanov, HP Tiftikidi, L. A. Karklinsh, etc.) in the 60-70s. studied in detail the structure of the modern. 12-step (chromatic) tonality. Tarakanov specially developed the idea of ​​”new T” (see his article: “New tonality in the music of the 1972th century”, XNUMX).

References: Musician Grammar by Nikolai Diletsky (ed. C. AT. Smolensky), St. Petersburg, 1910, reprinted. (under order. AT. AT. Protopopova), M., 1979; (Odoevsky V. F.), Letter from Prince V. P. Odoevsky to the publisher about primordial Great Russian music, in collection: Kaliki passable?, part XNUMX. 2, no. 5, M., 1863, the same, in the book: Odoevsky V. F. Musical and literary heritage, M., 1956; Laroche G. A., Glinka and its significance in the history of music, “Russian Messenger”, 1867, No 10, 1868, No 1, 9-10, the same, in the book: Laroche G. A., Selected Articles, vol. 1, L., 1974; Tchaikovsky P. I., Guide to the practical study of harmony, M., 1872; Rimsky-Korsakov N. A., Harmony Textbook, no. 1-2, St. Petersburg, 1884-85; Yavorsky B. L., The structure of musical speech, part. 1-3, M., 1908; his, A few thoughts in connection with the anniversary of P. Liszt, “Music”, 1911, No 45; Taneev S. 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Yu. N. Kholopov

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