Tonic (French tonique, note tonique; нtm. Tonika) – center. element of tone; the main tone, according to Krom, the whole system gets its name (in C-dur and c-moll – the sound do o), as well as the main chord-stay, on which this mode is built (in C-dur, the chord c-e- g, in c-moll – c-es-g); designation – T. Tonic – basis, starting point and completion of harmonics. process, logical center of harmonic thoughts, esp. ustoy (staying on Krom is felt as a moment of rest, especially when returning to T., the resolution of functional stress). In functional harmonic system of tonality, the action of T. is directly felt throughout the single-dark form (period, two- and three-part; for example, in the theme of the 1st part of the 12th piano sonata of Beethoven, the 1st section of the play “January” from “The Seasons” Tchaikovsky); modulation sets similar. the action of another T. (this explains the connection between the sphere of action of T. and the formation of themes, the articulation of musical forms). The strength of T. in functional harmonic. system of tonality is determined by several factors: the nature of the muses. content, imbued with the idea of rationalistic. centralization; the selection of a scale that is diatonic in the basis and does not contain a tritone to any of the sounds of T.; organization of the fret using the “triple proportion” (functions S – T – D), which contributes to the maximum strengthening of the center-T; a metric emphasizing the weightiness of the conclusion. cadence moments (the so-called heavy measures – the 4th, 8th – as metrical foundations, similar to T.; see Tonality). As a category of music T.’s thinking is one of the types of center (support) that serves as a support in the formation of an integral system of pitch relations (see Lad). The relevance and importance of the category T. as such a center allows us to extend this term to the center. elements of other systems (on the modes of folk music, the ancient world, medieval modes, modal harmony of the Renaissance, symmetrical modes of the 19th-20th centuries, systems with a central tone or chord in music of the 20th century). However, it is necessary to distinguish between types of centers (foundations) – baroque and classical-romantic. T. (by J. S. Bach, W. A. Mozart, F. Chopin, R. Wagner, M. I. Glinka, S. V. Rachmaninov), middle-century. finalis (which, in contrast to the classical T., may not permeate the entire melody with its action; for example, in the antiphons Miserere mei Deus I tone, Vidimus stellam ejus IV tone), T. new key of the 20th century. (for example, tonic G in the opera Wozzeck by Berg, dissonant complex T. in the orc. interlude between the 4th and 5th scenes of the 3rd act of the same opera), center. tone (tone mi at the beginning and conclusion of Penderecki’s Dies irae), center. group (the 1st piece from Schoenberg’s Lunar Pierrot), the quasi-tonic use of the series (for example, the 1st part of E. V. Denisov’s sonata for violin and piano), etc.
References: see under the articles Tonality, Mode, Harmony.
Yu. N. Kholopov