Three-part form |
Music Terms

Three-part form |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

Three-part form – type of compositional structure, from the 2nd floor. 17th century applied in Europe. prof. music as a form of a whole play or part of it. T. f. in special meaning of the term implies not only the presence of three main. sections, but also a number of conditions regarding the relationship of these sections and their structure (generally accepted definitions of T. f. are guided mainly by the works of J. Haydn, W. A. ​​Mozart, L. Beethoven of the early and middle periods of creativity, however, similar forms in later music often differ from the classical form). There are simple and complex T. t. In a simple 1st part is a single-tone or modulating period (or a construction that replaces it), the middle part, as a rule, does not have a stable structure, and the 3rd part is a reprise of the first, sometimes with an extension; possible and independent. period (non-reprise T. f.). In difficult T. f. The 1st part is usually a simple two- or three-part form, the middle part is similar in structure to the 1st or more free, and the 3rd part is a reprise of the first, exact or modified (in wok. op. – repetition of music, but not necessarily and verbal text). There is also an intermediate form between simple and complex t. f.: the middle (second) part – in a simple two- or three-part form, and the extreme – in the form of a period. If the latter is not inferior in size and value to the middle part, then the whole form is closer to the complex T. f. (Waltz op. 40 No 8 for piano by P. I. Tchaikovsky); if the period is short, then to a simple one with an introduction and conclusion framing it (“The Song of the Indian Guest” from the opera “Sadko” by Rimsky-Korsakov). The introduction and conclusion (code) are found in any form of T. f., as well as the connecting parts between the main. sections, sometimes deployed (especially in complex T. f. between the middle section and the reprise).

The first section of T. f. performs an expositional function (in a complex technical form, with elements of development), that is, it represents a presentation of a topic. Middle (2nd part) simple T. f. – most often the development of muses. material presented in part 1. There are middle parts built on a new theme. material that contrasts with the material of the extreme parts (Mazurka C-dur op. 33 No 3 by Chopin). Sometimes the middle part contains both new material and the development of the theme of the 1st part (3rd part – nocturne – from the 2nd strings of the Borodin quartet). In difficult T. f. the middle section almost always contrasts with the extreme; if it is written in period forms, simple two- or three-part, it is often called a trio (because in the 17th and early 18th centuries it was usually presented in three voices). Complex T. f. with such a middle part, the preim. in fast, in particular dance, plays; with a less formalized, more fluid middle part (episode) – more often in slow pieces.

The meaning of the reprise T. f. usually consists in the approval of the main. image of the play after contrasting or in the reproduction of the main music. thoughts in a holistic form after the development of its otd. sides and elements; in both cases, the reprise contributes to the completeness of the form. If the reprise is changed so that a new level of tension is created in it compared to the 1st part of the form, then T. f. is called dynamic (such forms are much more common among simple T. f. than complex ones). Occasionally a reprise of a simple T. f. does not begin in the main key (“Forgotten Waltz” No. 1 for piano Liszt, “Fairy Tale” op. 26 No. 3 for piano Medtner). Sometimes the main key returns, but not the theme of the 1st section (the so-called tonal reprise; “Song without Words” g-moll No 6 for Mendelssohn).

T. f. can be extended and enriched by the repetition of its parts, exact or varied. In simple T. f. the 1st period is often repeated, in otd. cases with transposition or partial transposition in other keys (1st part of the Funeral March – up to trio – from Beethoven’s Sonata No. 12 for piano; The Forgotten Waltz No. 1 for Liszt’s piano; etude op. 25 No. 11 by Chopin; march op.65 No 10 for Prokofiev’s piano). The middle and reprise are repeated no less often. If the variation of the middle or the 3rd section during their repetition is associated with a change in tonality, then the form is called a simple double three-part and approaches the rondo-shaped. In difficult T. f. at the end of it, the trio and the 3rd section are occasionally repeated (“March of Chernomor” from the opera “Ruslan and Lyudmila” by Glinka); if, instead of repetition, a new trio is given, a double complex TF arises. (complex T. f. with two trios), also a close rondo (“Wedding March” from music to Shakespeare’s comedy “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” by Mendelssohn).

To the complication of T. f. leads not only to the repetition of parts, but also to their internal growth: the initial modulating period of simple T. f. can acquire the features of a sonata exposition, the middle – developments, and the whole form – the features of a sonata allegro (see Sonata form). In other cases, new material in the middle part of the T. f. (simple or complex) is detailed in the code or at the end of the reprise in ch. tonality, which creates a ratio of themes typical of a sonata without development.

Despite the simplicity and naturalness of its rounded structure (ABA or ABA1), T. f. described species arose later than the two-part one and does not have such direct and obvious roots as this last one in the Nar. music. Origin T. f. associated primarily with music. t-rum, especially with the opera aria da capo.

Simple T. f. it is applied as the form to. – l. section non-cyclic. prod. (rondo, sonata allegro, complex t. f., etc.), as well as in romances, opera arias and arioso, small dance and other pieces (for example, in preludes, etudes). How the form is independent. plays simple T. f. became widespread in the post-Beethoven period. Sometimes it is also found as a form of the slow part of the cycle (in Tchaikovsky’s violin concerto; the most detailed example is in Rachmaninov’s 2nd piano concerto). Dynamic simple T. f. especially common in F. Chopin, P. I. Tchaikovsky, A. N. Scriabin.

Complex T. f. used in dance. plays and marches, nocturnes, impromptu and other instr. genres, and also as a form of an opera or ballet number, less often a romance (“I remember a wonderful moment”, “I am here, Inezilla” by Glinka). Complex T. t. is very common. in the middle parts of the sonata-symphony. cycles, especially fast ones (scherzo, minuet), but also slow ones. The most developed samples of complex T. f. represent nek-ry symph. Beethoven’s Scherzo, Funeral March from his “Heroic” Symphony, symphony. scherzo by other composers (for example, the 2nd parts of the 5th and 7th symphonies of Shostakovich), as well as the separate. pieces by romantic composers (for example, Chopin’s Polonaise op. 44). There were also difficult T. f. special kind, eg. with extreme parts in the form of a sonata allegro (scherzo from Beethoven’s 9th symphony and Borodin’s 1st symphony).

In the theoretical works of distinction T. f. from some other types of music. forms are defined in different ways. So, in a number of manuals, complex T. f. with the episode is attributed to the forms of rondo. There are objective difficulties at differentiation simple T. f. with a middle, developing the material of the 1st movement, and a simple reprise two-part form. As a rule, the repetition in the reprise of the entire initial period is considered the main evidence of the tripartite form, and one sentence – two-part (in this case, additional criteria are also taken into account). E. Prout considers both of these types of forms as two-part, since the middle does not provide contrast, tends to reprise and is often repeated along with it. On the contrary, A. Schoenberg interprets both of these types as three-part forms, since they contain a reprise (i.e., the 3rd part), even if it is abbreviated. It seems appropriate, regardless of this or that distinction between the types under consideration, to unite them under the general concept of a simple reprise form. The proportions of some products. do not correspond to the name of the type of form to which they belong (for example, in T. f. with a code, there may actually be 4 equal parts). Mn. compositions that are tripartite in the general sense of the word are not usually called T. f. in special the meaning of the term. Such, for example, are three-act operas, three-movement symphonies, concertos, etc., strophic. wok. compositions containing three stanzas of text with different music, etc.

References: see at Art. Musical form.

Leave a Reply