Spatial music |
Music Terms

Spatial music |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, trends in art

German Raummusik

Music that uses spatial sound effects: echo, special arrangement of performers, etc. The term “P. m.” appeared in musicological literature in the middle. 20th century, but not widely used. He does not mean k.-l. independent. type of music, because spatial effects are, as a rule, only one of the express. means used in music. products related to P. m. In decomp. the periods of P.’s history m was applied or in connection with to. performance conditions (e.g. outdoors), or for decorative purposes (e.g. in connection with the stage design of a work). In cult practice, the antiphonal and responsorial principles of composition and performance can be considered a semblance of P. m. phrases and major parts of Op. from one choir or half-choir to another (two- and three-choir compositions are associated with this, in particular among the Venetians in the 16th century). To the theatre. music uses the juxtaposition of the orchestra in front of the stage and the orchestra on the stage, as well as other effects (orchestras located in different parts of the stage in Mozart’s Don Giovanni; the approach and removal of the villagers’ choir in Borodin’s Prince Igor, etc.). Spatial effects were also used in music in the open air, on water (for example, “Music on the Water” and “Music in the Forest” by Handel). Occasionally, P.’s samples of m are found in the symphony. genre. Serenade (nocturne) by Mozart (K.-V. 286, 1776 or 1777), written for 4 orchestras, composed for the poetic effect of the echo and allows separate placement of orchestras. In “Requiem” by Berlioz, 4 spirits are used. orchestra located in different places of the hall.

In the 20th century P.’s value m has amplified. In the department cases, the spatial factor becomes one of the most important foundations of the muses. structures (actually P. m). Some modern composers specifically develop the concept of P. m. (first of all, K. Stockhausen – as a composer and as a theorist; for the first time in the op. “Singing of young men …”, 1956, and “Group” for 3 orchestras, 1957; based on the idea of ​​Stockhausen at EXPO-70 in Osaka, a special hall was built for P. m., architect Borneman). Yes, production J. Xenakis “Terretektor” (1966) is designed not only for the effect of the movement of the sound source around the listeners during the alternation of the correspondingly located performers. groups, but (due to the placement of the public inside the orchestra prescribed by the author) and at the same time. the resulting effect of its rectilinear movement, as if passing “through the listeners”. Works related to the actual P. m., are Ch. arr. experimental.

Yu. N. Kholopov

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