Orchestra |
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Orchestra |

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terms and concepts, musical instruments

Orchestra |

from the Greek orxestra – a round, later semicircular platform of the ancient theater, where, making rhythmic movements, the chorus of tragedy and comedy sang their parts, from orxeomai – I dance

A group of musicians who play various instruments intended for the joint performance of musical works.

Until ser. 18th century the word “Oh.” understood in antiquity. sense, relating it to the location of the musicians (Walther, Lexikon, 1732). Only in the work of I. Mattheson “Rediscovered Orchestra” (“Das neu-eröffnete Orchestre”, 1713) the word “O.” along with the old meaning acquired a new one. Modern it was first defined by J.J. Rousseau in the Dictionary of Music (Dictionnaire de la musique, 1767).

There are several O.’s classification principles: the main one is O.’s division according to instr. composition. Distinguish between mixed compositions, including instruments of different groups (symphonic O., estr. O.), and homogeneous (for example, string orchestra, brass band, O. percussion instruments). Homogeneous compositions have their own divisions: for example, a string instrument may consist of bowed or plucked instruments; In wind O., a homogeneous composition is distinguished – a copper composition (“gang”) or mixed, with the addition of woodwinds, sometimes percussion. Dr. the principle of O.’s classification proceeds from their appointment in muses. practice. There are, for example, a military band, estr. O. A special type of O. is represented by numerous. nat. ensembles and O. Nar. instruments, both homogeneous in composition (domrovy O.), and mixed (in particular, the Neapolitan orchestra, consisting of mandolins and guitars, taraf). Some of them became professional (the Great Russian Orchestra, created by V. V. Andreev, the O. Uzbek folk instruments, organized by A. I. Petrosyants, and others). For O. nat. instruments of Africa and Indonesia are characterized by compositions with a predominance of percussion, for example. gamelan, O. drums, O. xylophones. In European countries the highest form of joint instr. performance became symphonic. O., consisting of bowed, wind and percussion instruments. All string parts are performed in symphony. O. by a whole group (at least two musicians); this O. differs from instr. ensemble, where each musician plays otd. party.

History of symphony. O. dates back to the turn of the 16th-17th centuries. Large tools collectives existed earlier – in antiquity, the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance. In the 15th-16th centuries. in celebrations. cases were collected adv. ensembles, to-rye included all families of instruments: bowed and plucked strings, woodwinds and brass, keyboards. However, until the 17th c. there were no ensembles acting regularly; the performance of music was timed to festivities and other events. O.’s appearance in modern. the meaning of the word is associated with the emergence at the turn of the 16th-17th centuries. new genres of homophonic music, such as opera, oratorio, solo wok. concert, in which O. began to perform the function of instrumental accompaniment of vocal voices. At the same time, collectives such as O. often bore other names. Yes, Italian. composers con. 16 – beg. 17th century most often they were denoted by the terms “concert” (for example, “Concerti di voci e di stromenti” y M. Galliano), “chapel”, “choir”, etc.

O.’s development was determined by many. material and art. factors. Among them are 3 most important: the evolution of orc. instruments (the invention of new ones, the improvement of old ones, the disappearance of obsolete instruments from musical practice), the development of orc. performance (new methods of playing, the location of musicians on the stage or in the orc. pit, the management of O.), with which the history of the orcs themselves is connected. collectives, and, finally, a change in the orc. composers mind. Thus, in the history of O., material and musical aesthetics are closely intertwined. Components. Therefore, when considering the fate of O., we mean not so much the history of instrumentation or ork. styles, how many material components of O.’s development. The history of O. in this regard is conditionally divided into three periods: O. from about 1600 to 1750; A. 2nd floor. 18 – beg. 20th century (approximately before the start of the 1st World War 1914-18); O. 20th century (after World War I).

O. in the period 17 – 1st floor. 18th century From the Renaissance, O. inherited a rich instrumentation in terms of timbre and tessitura selection. The most important principles of the classification of orc. tools in the beginning 17th century were: 1) the division of tools in physical. the nature of the sounding body into strings and winds, proposed by A. Agazzari and M. Pretorius; the latter also singled out drums. However, according to Pretorius, the association of, for example, strings includes all instruments “with stretched strings”, no matter how different they are in timbre and sound production – viols, violins, lyres, lutes, harps, trumpet, monochord, clavichord, cembalo, etc. 2) Separation of instruments within the same type according to the tessitura determined by their size. This is how families of homogeneous instruments arose, usually including 4, sometimes more tessitura varieties corresponding to human voices (soprano, alto, tenor, bass). They are presented in the tables of instruments in part 2 of the “Code of Musical Science” (“Syntagma musicum”, part II, 1618). Composers of the turn of the 16th-17th centuries. they had, thus, branched families of strings, winds and percussion. Among the string families, viols (treble, alto, large bass, double bass; special varieties – viol d’amour, baritone, viola-bastard), lyres (including da braccio), violins (4-string treble , tenor, bass, 3-string French – pochette, small treble tuned a fourth higher), lutes (lute, theorbo, archilute, etc.). Flute instruments (a family of longitudinal flutes) were common among wind instruments; instruments with a double reed: flute (among them a group of bombards from a bass pommer to a treble pipe), crooked horns – krummhorns; embouchure instruments: wooden and bone zinc, trombones decomp. sizes, pipes; percussion (timpani, sets of bells, etc.). Wok-instr. the thinking of composers 17th century firmly based on the tessitura principle. All the voices and instruments of the treble tessitura, as well as the instruments of the alto, tenor and bass tessitura, were combined in unison (their parts were recorded on one line).

The most important feature of the emerging on the verge of 16-17 centuries. homophonic style, as well as homophonic-polyphonic. letters (J. S. Bach, G. F. Handel and other composers), became basso continue (see General bass); in this regard, along with melodic. voices and instruments (violins, violas, various wind instruments) appeared the so-called. continuo group. Tool its composition changed, but its function (performing the bass and the accompanying polygonal harmony) remained unchanged. In the initial period of the development of opera (for example, the Italian opera schools), the continuo group included the organ, cembalo, lute, theorbo, and harp; in the 2nd floor. 17th century the number of tools in it is sharply reduced. In the days of Bach, Handel, French composers. Classicism is limited to a keyboard instrument (in church music – an organ, alternating with a cembalo, in secular genres – one or two cembalos, sometimes a theorbo in opera) and basses – a cello, a double bass (Violono), often a bassoon.

For O. 1st floor. 17th century characterized by instability of the compositions, caused by many reasons. One of them is the revision of the Renaissance traditions in the selection and grouping of instruments. The instrumentation has been radically updated. They left the music. practices of lute, viol, displaced by violins – instruments of a stronger tone. The bombards finally gave way to the bassoons developed from the bass pommer and the oboes reconstructed from the treble pipe; the zinc is gone. Longitudinal flutes are displaced by transverse flutes that surpass them in sound power. The number of tessitura varieties has decreased. However, this process did not end even in the 18th century; for example, such strings as violino piccolo, violoncello piccolo, as well as the lute, viola da gamba, viol d’amour, often appear in the Bach orchestra.

Dr. the reason for the instability of the compositions is the random selection of tools in the adv. opera houses or cathedrals. As a rule, composers wrote music not for the generally accepted, stable composition, but for the composition of the O. defined. theater or priv. chapels. In the beginning. 17th century on the title page of the score, the inscription was often made: “buone da cantare et suonare” (“fit for singing and playing”). Sometimes in the score or on the title page the composition that was present in this theater was fixed, as was the case in the score of Monteverdi’s opera Orfeo (1607), which he wrote for the court. theater in Mantua.

Changing tools associated with new aesthetics. requests, contributed to the change in internal. organizations O. Gradual stabilization of the ork. compositions went primarily along the line of the origin of the modern. us the concept of orc. a group that combines instruments related in timbre and dynamic. properties. Differentiation of the timbre-homogeneous bowed string group—violins of different sizes—occurred primarily in the practice of performance (for the first time in 1610 in the Parisian bowed opera “24 Violins of the King”). In 1660-85, the Royal Chapel of Charles II was organized in London according to the Parisian model – an instrument consisting of 24 violins.

The crystallization of the string group without viols and lutes (violins, violas, cellos, double basses) was the most important conquest of the 17th-century opera, which was reflected primarily in operatic creativity. Purcell’s opera Dido and Aeneas (1689) was written for the bowed harp with continuo; the addition of a trio of wind instruments – Cadmus and Hermione by Lully (1673). The woodwind and brass groups have not yet taken shape in baroque orthodoxy, although all of the main woodwinds, in addition to clarinets (flutes, oboes, bassoons), are already being introduced into O. In the scores of J. B. Lully, a wind trio is often listed: 2 oboes (or 2 flutes) and a bassoon, and in F. Rameau’s operas (“Castor and Pollux, 1737) is an incomplete group of woodwinds: flutes, oboes, bassoons. In Bach’s orchestra, his inherent attraction to the instruments of the 17th century. also affected the selection of wind instruments: the old varieties of the oboe – oboe d`amore, oboe da caccia (the prototype of the modern English horn) are used in combination with a bassoon or with 2 flutes and a bassoon. Combinations of brass instruments also develop from ensembles of the Renaissance type (for example, zinc and 3 trombones in Scheidt’s Concertus Sacri) to local brass-percussion groups (3 trumpets and timpani in Bach’s Magnificat, 3 trumpets with timpani and horns in his own cantata No. 205). Quantity. O.’s composition had not yet taken shape at that time. Strings. the group was sometimes small and incomplete, while the selection of wind instruments was often random (see Table 1).

From the 1st floor. 18th century division was carried out. compositions in connection with the social function of music, the place of its performance, the audience. The division of compositions into church, opera and concert was also associated with the concepts of church, opera and chamber styles. The selection and number of instruments in each of the compositions still fluctuated widely; nevertheless, the opera opera (Handel’s oratorios were also performed in the opera house) was often more saturated with wind instruments than the concert one. In connection with the dif. in plot situations, along with strings, flutes and oboes, trumpets and timpani, trombones were often present in it (in the Scene of Hell in Monteverdi’s Orpheus, an ensemble of zinc and trombones was used). Occasionally a small flute was introduced (“Rinaldo” by Handel); in the last third of the 17th century. a horn appears. To church. O. necessarily included an organ (in the continuo group or as a concert instrument). To church. O. in op. Bach, along with strings, woodwinds (flutes, oboes), sometimes pipes with timpani, horns, trombones, doubling the voices of the choir (cantata No 21), are often presented. As in the church, so in the operatic O. creatures. the role was played by obligate (see Obligate) instruments accompanying solo singing: violin, cello, flute, oboe, etc.

The concert composition of O. entirely depended on the place and nature of playing music. For celebrations. adv. baroque ceremonies (coronation, wedding), in cathedrals along with liturgical. music sounded instr. concerts and fanfares performed by the court. musicians.

Secular priv. concerts were held both in the opera house and in the open air – at masquerades, processions, fireworks, “on the water”, as well as in the halls of family castles or palaces. All these types of concerts required dec. compositions O. and the number of performers. In “Music for Fireworks” by Handel, performed at London’s Green Park on 27 Apr. 1749, wind and percussion only (minimum 56 instruments); in the concert version, performed a month later at the Foundling Hospital, the composer, in addition to 9 trumpets, 9 horns, 24 oboes, 12 bassoons, percussion, also used string instruments. In the development of the actual conc. O. the greatest role was played by such genres of the Baroque era as concerto grosso, solo concerto, orc. suite. The composer’s dependence on the available – usually small – composition is noticeable here as well. Nevertheless, even within this framework, the composer often set special virtuoso and timbre tasks associated with the chamber style of homophonic-polyphonic concerts. basis. These are the 6 Brandenburg Concertos of Bach (1721), each of which has an individualized composition of soloists-performers, exactly listed by Bach. In some cases, the composer indicated decomp. variants of composition ad libitum (A. Vivaldi).

Creatures. The structure of the orchestra of the Baroque period was influenced by the stereophonic (in the modern sense) principles of multi-choir music. The idea of ​​spatial juxtaposition of sounds was adopted in the 17th century. from choir. antiphonal polyphony of the 16th century. The location of several choir. and instr. chapels in the choirs of large cathedrals created the effect of spatial division of sonority. This practice began to be widely used in the Cathedral of St. Mark in Venice, where G. Gabrieli worked, she was also familiar to G. Schutz, who studied with him, as well as S. Scheidt and other composers. An extreme manifestation of the tradition of multi-choir wok.-instr. The letter was performed in 1628 in the Salzburg Cathedral by O. Benevoli, a festive mass, for which it took 8 choirs (according to contemporaries, there were even 12). The impact of the multi-choir concept was reflected not only in the cult polyphonic. music (Bach’s Matthew Passion was written for 2 choirs and 2 operas), but also in secular genres. The principle of concerto grosso is the division of the entire mass of performers into two unequal groups performing decomp. functions: concertino – a group of soloists and concerto grosso (big concerto) – an accompanying group, was also used in O. oratorio, opera (Handel).

The disposition of O. musicians of the period 1600-1750 reflected all the above-mentioned tendencies. As far as the diagrams given by the theoreticians of the 18th century and the engravings allow us to judge, the location of the O. musicians differed markedly from that used later. Accommodation of musicians in the opera house, conc. hall or cathedral required individual solutions. The center of the opera opera was the bandmaster’s chambalo and the stringed basses located near it – the cello and the double bass. To the right of the bandmaster were the strings. instruments, on the left – wind instruments (woodwinds and horns), collected near the second, accompanying cembalo. Strings were also located here. basses, theorbo, bassoons, which together with the second cembalo form the continuo group.

Orchestra |

Location of musicians in an opera orchestra in the 18th century. (from the book: Quantz J., Versuch einer Anweisung, die Flöte traversiere zu spielen, Berlin, p. 134).

In the depth (on the right) pipes and timpani could be placed. In the concert composition, soloists were in the foreground near the bandmaster, which contributed to the balance of sonority. The specificity of such a seating arrangement was the functional combination of instruments that form several spatially separated sound complexes: 2 continuo groups, a concertino group in a concerto, sometimes in an opera, 2 large contrasting groups (strings, wooden ones) around 2 cembalos. Such a structure required multi-stage management. Part of the performers followed the accompanying chambalo, O. as a whole, followed the bandmaster’s chambalo. The method of dual control has also been widely used (see Conducting).

A. 2nd floor. 18 – beg. 20th century O. this period, covering such decomp. stylistic phenomena such as the Viennese classical school, romanticism, overcoming the romantic. trends, impressionism and many dissimilar to each other, who had their own. the evolution of the national schools, however, is characterized by a single common process. This is the development of orc. apparatus, inextricably linked with a clear division of the texture vertically on the basis of homophonic harmonic. thinking. It found expression in the functional structure of the orc. fabric (highlighting the functions of melody, bass, sustained harmony, orc. pedal, counterpoint, figuration in it). The foundations of this process are laid in the era of the Viennese muses. classics. By the end of it, an orc was created. apparatus (both in terms of the composition of the instruments and the internal functional organization), which became, as it were, the starting point for the further development of romantics and composers in Russian. schools.

The most important sign of maturity is homophonic harmonic. trends in orc. music thinking – withering away in the 3rd quarter. 18th century basso continuo groups The accompanying function of the cembalo and the organ came into conflict with the growing role of the orc proper. harmony. More and more alien orc. contemporaries also imagined the timbre of the harpsichord to sound. Nevertheless, in a new genre – symphonies – a keyboard instrument that performs the basso continuo (chembalo) function is still quite common – in some symphonies of the Mannheim school (J. Stamitz, A. Fils, K. Cannabih), in the early symphonies of J. Haydn. To church. In music, the basso continuo function survived until the 90s. 18th century (Mozart’s Requiem, Haydn’s Masses).

In the work of composers of the Viennese classic. The school is rethinking the division into church, theater and chamber compositions of O. From the beginning. 19th century the term “church O.” actually fell into disuse. The word “chamber” began to be applied to ensembles, to be opposed to orc. performance. At the same time, the differentiation between the operatic and concert ensembles of opera became of great importance. If the composition of the opera O. is already 18th century. distinguished by the completeness and variety of tools, then the actual conc. the composition, as well as the genres of the symphony and the solo concerto themselves, was in its infancy, ending only with L. Beethoven.

The crystallization of O.’s compositions proceeded in parallel with the renewal of the instrumentation. In the 2nd floor. 18th century due to the change in aesthetics. ideals from music. practices disappeared. instruments – theorbos, viols, oboes d’amore, longitudinal flutes. New instruments were designed that enriched the timbre and tessitura scale of O. The ubiquity in opera in the 80s. 18th century received a clarinet designed (c. 1690) by I. Denner. The introduction of the clarinet to the symphony. O. ended by the beginning. 19th century the formation of a wooden spirit. groups. The basset horn (corno di bassetto), an alto variety of the clarinet, survived a short period of prosperity. In search of a low spirit. bass composers turned to the contrabassoon (Haydn’s oratorio).

In the 2nd floor. 18th century the composer was still directly dependent on the available composition of O. Usually the composition of the early classical. O. 1760-70s. reduced to 2 oboes, 2 horns and strings. It was not unified in Europe. O. and the number of instruments inside the strings. groups. adv. O., in Krom there were more than 12 strings. instruments, was considered large. Nevertheless, it is in the 2nd floor. 18th century in connection with the democratization of music. life, the need for stable compositions of O. grew. At this time, new constant O., pl. of which later became widely known: O. “Spiritual Concerts” (concert spirituel) in Paris, O. Gewandhaus in Leipzig (1781), O. Ob-va concerts of the conservatory in Paris (1828). (See table 2)

In Russia, the first steps in the creation of O. were taken only in the 2nd half. 17th century In 1672, in connection with the creation of the adv. t-ra to Moscow were invited foreign. musicians. In the beginning. 18th century Peter I introduced regimental music into Russia (see Military Music). In the 30s. 18th century with Russian The theater and concert life develops in the courtyard. In 1731, the states of the first court were established in St. Petersburg. O., consisting of foreign. musicians (with him there were Russian students). The orchestra included strings, flutes, bassoons, a brass group without trombones, timpani, and clavi-chambalos (up to 40 people in total). In 1735, an Italian was invited to St. Petersburg. an opera troupe led by F. Araya, Russians played in O. adv. musicians. In the 2nd floor. 18th century adv. O. was divided into 2 groups: “camera musicians of the first O.” (according to the states 1791-47 people, accompanist K. Canobbio) and “the second O. musicians are the same ballroom” (43 people, accompanist V.A. Pashkevich). The first O. almost entirely consisted of foreigners, the second – from the Russians. musicians. Serfs were widespread; some of them were highly professional. The orchestra of N. P. Sheremetev (the estates of Ostankino and Kuskovo, 43 musicians) received great fame.

In symph. the work of L. Beethoven finally crystallized the “classical”, or “Beethovenian”, composition of symphonies. A: strings, paired composition of woodwinds (2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons), 2 (3 or 4) horns, 2 trumpets, 2 timpani (in the 2nd half of the 19th century it was classified as a small composition symbol O.). With the 9th symphony (1824), Beethoven laid the foundation for a large (in the modern meaning) composition of symphonies. A: strings, woodwind pairs with additional instruments (2 flutes and a small flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and contrabassoon), 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones (first used in the finale of the 5th symphony), timpani, triangle, cymbals, bass drum. Almost at the same time. (1822) 3 trombones were also used in F. Schubert’s “Unfinished Symphony”. In opera operas of the 18th century. in connection with the stage situations included instruments that were not included in the conc. the composition of the symbol A: piccolo, contrabassoon. In the percussion group, in addition to the timpani, carrying rhythmic. function, a persistent association appeared, most often used in oriental episodes (the so-called Turkish or “Janissary music”): a bass drum, cymbals, a triangle, sometimes a snare drum (“Iphigenia in Tauris” by Gluck, “The Abduction from the Seraglio” by Mozart) . In the department In some cases, bells appear (Glcckenspiel, Mozart’s Magic Flute), tam-toms (Gosseca’s Funeral March for the Death of Mirabeau, 1791).

first decades of the 19th century. marked by a radical improvement of the spirit. instruments that eliminated such shortcomings as false intonation, lack of chromatic. scales of brass instruments. Flute, and later other wooden spirits. the instruments were equipped with a valve mechanism (the invention of T. Boehm), natural horns and pipes were equipped with a valve mechanism, which made their scale chromatic. In the 30s. A. Sachs improved the bass clarinet and designed new instruments (saxhorns, saxophones).

A new impetus to the development of O. was given by romanticism. With the flourishing of program music, landscape and fantastic. element in the opera, the search for the orc came to the fore. color and drama. timbre expressiveness. At the same time, composers (K. M. Weber, P. Mendelssohn, P. Schubert) initially remained within the framework of the pair composition of opera (in opera with the involvement of varieties: a small flute, an English horn, etc.). The economical use of O.’s resources is inherent in M. I. Glinka. Coloristic the wealth of his O. is achieved on the basis of strings. wind groups and pairs (with additional instruments); he attaches trombones to horns and pipes (3, rarely 1). G. Berlioz took a decisive step in using the new possibilities of O.. Presenting increased demands for drama, scale of sound, Berlioz significantly expanded the composition of O. In the Fantastic Symphony (1830), he increased the strings. group, indicating exactly the number of performers in the score: at least 15 first and 15 second violins, 10 violas, 11 cellos, 9 double basses. In this op. in connection with his emphasized programmability, the composer moved away from the former strict distinction between opera and concert. compositions by entering in the symbol. O. so characteristic in color. plan tools, as English. horn, small clarinet, harps (2), bells. The size of the copper group increased, in addition to 4 horns, 2 trumpets and 3 trombones, it included 2 cornets-a-piston and 2 ophicleides (later replaced by tubas).

The work of R. Wagner became an epoch in the history of O. Koloristich. the search for and striving for the density of texture already in Lohengrin led to an increase in orc. up to a triple composition (usually 3 flutes or 2 flutes and a small flute, 3 oboes or 2 oboes and an English horn, 3 clarinets or 2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 3 bassoons or 2 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombone, bass tuba, drums, strings). In the 1840s completed the formation of modern. copper group, which included 4 horns, 2-3 trumpets, 3 trombones and a tuba (first introduced by Wagner in the Faust overture and in the opera Tannhäuser). In the “Ring of the Nibelung” O. became the most important member of the muses. drama. The leading role of timbre in leitmotif characteristics and the search for dramas. expression and dynamics. The power of sound prompted the composer to introduce an exclusively differentiated timbre scale into O. (by adding tessitura varieties of wooden wind instruments and pipes). The composition of O., thus, increased to a quadruple. Wagner strengthened the copper group with a quartet of French horn (or “Wagner”) tubas designed to his order (see Tuba). The demands made by the composer on the virtuoso orc technique have grown radically. musicians.

The path outlined by Wagner (partially continued by A. Bruckner in the symphony genre) was not the only one. Simultaneously in the work of I. Brahms, J. Bizet, S. Frank, G. Verdi, among Russian composers. The school was further developing the “classical” line of orchestration and rethinking a number of romantic. trends. In the orchestra of P. I. Tchaikovsky, the search for psychological. the expressiveness of the timbre was combined with the extremely economical use of ork. funds. Rejecting the expansion orc. apparatus in symphonies (pair composition, often including 3 flutes), the composer only in program works, in later operas and ballets turned to the complement. orc colors. palettes (e.g. English horn, bass clarinet, harp, celesta in The Nutcracker). In the work of N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, other tasks are fantastic. coloring, visuals prompted the composer to widely use (without going beyond the pair-triple and triple compositions) both the main and characteristic timbres of O. K supplement. the small clarinet, alto varieties of the flute and trumpet were added to the instruments, the number of percussion instruments carrying decorative and decorating functions increased, keyboards were introduced (according to the Glinka tradition – fp., as well as the organ). The interpretation of the orchestra by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, adopted by Russian. composers of the younger generation (A. K. Glazunov, A. K. Lyadov, I. F. Stravinsky in the early period of creativity), had an influence in the sphere of orc. color and on the work of Western-European. composers – O. Respighi, M. Ravel.

A major role in the development of timbre thinking in the 20th century. the orchestra of C. Debussy played. Increasing attention to color led to the transfer of the function of the theme to the separate. motives or texture-background and coloristic. elements of fabric, as well as comprehension of fonich. sides O. as a form factor. These tendencies determined the subtle differentiation of the orc. invoices.

The further development of Wagnerian tendencies led to the verge of the 19th-20th centuries. to the formation in the work of a number of composers (G. Mahler, R. Strauss; Rimsky-Korsakov in Mlada, A. N. Scriabin, and also Stravinsky in The Rite of Spring) of the so-called super-orchestra – expanded compared to the quadruple composition of O. Mahler and Scriabin resorted to a grandiose orchestral composition to express their worldviews. concepts. The apogee of this trend was the performer. composition of Mahler’s 8th symphony (8 soloists, 2 mixed choirs, boys’ choir, five composition of a large symphony O. with reinforced strings, a large number of percussion and decorating instruments, as well as an organ).

Percussion instruments in the 19th century did not form a stable association. To the beginning 20th century the percussion-decorating group has noticeably expanded. In addition to the timpani, it included a large and snare drums, a tambourine, cymbals, a triangle, castanets, tom-toms, bells, a glockenspiel, a xylophone. The harp (1 and 2), celesta, pianoforte, and organ were often included in the large O., less often – “instruments for the occasion”: a rattle, a wind machine, a clapperboard, etc. In the middle. and con. 19th century new orcs continue to form. ensembles: New York Philharmonic Orchestra (1842); orchestra Column in Paris (1873); Orchestra of the Wagner Festival in Bayreuth (1876); Boston Orchestra (1881); the Lamoureux orchestra in Paris (1881); Court Orchestra (“Court Musical Choir”) in St. Petersburg (1882; now Academic Symphony of O. Leningrad Philharmonic).

In 19th-century O., in contrast to O. of the Baroque period, monochoirism prevails. However, in the music of Berlioz, multi-choir again found application. In Tuba mirum from Berlioz’s “Requiem”, written for an enlarged set of large symphonies. O., performers are divided into 5 groups: symphony. O. and 4 groups of copper instruments located at the corners of the temple. In the opera (beginning with Mozart’s Don Giovanni) such tendencies also appeared: O. “on stage”, “behind the stage”, the voices of singers and instr. solo “behind the stage” or “upstairs” (Wagner). Diversity of spaces. placement of performers found development in the orchestra of G. Mahler.

In the seating arrangement of musicians O. in the 2nd floor. 18th century and even in the 19th century. Partially preserved are the dismemberment and separation of timbre complexes, which are characteristic of Baroque O.. However, already in 1775 I. F. Reichardt put forward a new principle of seating, the essence of which is the mixing and merging of timbres. The first and second violins were located to the right and left of the conductor in one line, the violas were divided into two parts and made up the next row, the spirit. tools were placed behind them in depth. On this basis, the location of the orc later arose. musicians, which spread in the 19th and in the 1st floor. 20th century and subsequently received the name of the “European” seating arrangement: the first violins – to the left of the conductor, the second – to the right, violas and cellos – behind them, woodwinds – to the left of the conductor, brass – to the right (in opera) or in two lines: first wooden, behind them – copper (in concert), behind – drums, double basses (see figure above).

O. in the 20th century. (after the 1st World War 1914-18).

20th century put forward new forms of performing. practice O. Along with the traditional. Radio and television operas and studio operas appeared as opera and concert concerts. However, the difference between radio and opera opera and symphony concerts, in addition to the functional one, lies only in the seating arrangements of the musicians. Symphonic compositions. The cities of the world’s largest cities are almost completely unified. And although the scores continue to indicate the minimum number of strings in order for Op. could also be performed by smaller O., a large symphony. O. 20th century involves a team of 80-100 (sometimes more) musicians.

In the 20th century 2 paths of evolution of O compositions are combined. One of them is associated with the further development of traditions. big symbol. A. Composers continue to turn to the pair composition (P. Hindemith, “Artist Mathis”, 1938; D. D. Shostakovich, Symphony No. 15, 1972). A large place was occupied by a triple composition, often expanded due to additions. instruments (M. Ravel, opera “Child and Magic”, 1925; S. V. Rachmaninov, “Symphonic Dances”, 1940; S. S. Prokofiev, symphony No. 6, 1947; D. D. Shostakovich, symphony No. 10, 1953; V. Lutoslavsky, symphony No. 2, 1967). Often, composers also turn to a quadruple composition (A. Berg, opera Wozzeck, 1925; D. Ligeti, Lontano, 1967; B. A. Tchaikovsky, symphony No 2, 1967).

At the same time, in connection with the new ideological and stylistic trends in the early 20th century a chamber orchestra emerged. In many symp. and wok.-symp. compositions use only part of the composition of a large symphony. O. – so-called. non-normative, or individualized, composition of O. For example, in Stravinsky’s “Symphony of Psalms” (1930) from the traditional. clarinets, violins and violas are confiscated in large numbers.

For the 20th century the rapid development of the percussion group is characteristic, to-rye declared themselves as a full-fledged orc. association. In the 20-30s. hit. instruments began to be entrusted not only with rhythmic, coloristic, but also thematic. functions; they have become an important component of the texture. In this regard, the drum group for the first time received independent. meaning in symbol. O., at first in the O. of non-normative and chamber composition. Examples are Stravinsky’s The Story of a Soldier (1918), Bartók’s Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta (1936). There appeared for a composition with a predominance of percussion or exclusively for them: for example, Stravinsky’s Les Noces (1923), which includes, in addition to soloists and a choir, 4 pianos and 6 percussion groups; “Ionization” by Varèse (1931) was written for only percussion instruments (13 performers). The percussion group is dominated by undefined instruments. pitches, among them dissimilar instruments of the same type (a set of large drums or cymbals, gongs, wood blocks, etc.) have become widespread. All R. and especially the 2nd floor. 20th century hit. the group occupied an equal position with the string and wind groups both in the normative (“Turangalila” by Messiaen, 1946-48) and in the non-normative compositions of O. (“Antigone” by Orff, 1949; “Colors of the Heavenly City” by Messiaen for piano solo, 3 clarinets, 3 xylophones and metal percussion instruments, 1963; Luke Passion by Penderecki, 1965). In the department The percussion group itself also increased. In 1961, a special was organized in Strasbourg. percussion ensemble (140 instruments and various sounding objects).

The desire to enrich O.’s timbre scale led to episodic. inclusion in the symbol. O. power tools. Such are the “Martenot waves” constructed in 1928 (A. Honegger, “Joan of Arc at the stake”, 1938; O. Messiaen, “Turangalila”), electronium (K. Stockhausen, “Prozession”, 1967), ionics (B. Tishchenko, 1st symphony, 1961). Attempts are being made to include a jazz composition in O.. In the 60-70s. tape recording began to be introduced into the apparatus of O. as one of the components of the sound (E. V. Denisov, The Sun of the Incas, 1964). K. Stockhausen (Mixtur, 1964) defined such an expansion of O.’s composition as “live electronics.” Along with the craving for timbre renewal in symphony. O. there are tendencies towards the revival of tools and otd. principles of O. Baroque. From the 1st quarter 20th century oboe d’amore (C. Debussy, “Spring Dances”; M. Ravel, “Bolero”), basset horn (R. Strauss, “Electra”), viol d’amour (G. Puccini, “Chio -Chio-san”; S. S. Prokofiev, “Romeo and Juliet”). In connection with the restoration in the 20th century. music tools of the Renaissance did not go unnoticed and the tools of the 15th-16th centuries. (M. Kagel, “Music for Renaissance Instruments”, 1966; involves 23 performers, A. Pärt, “Tintinnabuli”, 1976). In O. 20th century. found reflection and the principle of variance composition. Ch. Ives used a change in part of the composition of O. in the play The Question Left Unanswered (1908). The free choice of composition within the O. groups prescribed by the score is provided for in L. Kupkovich’s Ozveny. The stereophonic concept of O was further developed. The first experiments in the spatial division of O. belong to Ives (“The Question Left Unanswered”, 4th Symphony). In the 70s. the plurality of sound sources is achieved by diff. ways. The division of the entire orc. masses per several “choirs” or “groups” (in a different than before – not timbre, but spatial meaning) is used by K. Stockhausen (“Groups” for 3 O., 1957; “Kappe” for 4 O. and chorus, 1960). The composition of the O. “Group” (109 people) is divided into three identical complexes (each with its own conductor), arranged in a U-shape; the listeners’ seats are in the space formed between the orchestras. 3. Mattus in the opera The Last Shot (1967, based on B. A. Lavrenyov’s story The Forty-First) used three O. located in an orc. pit, behind the audience and at the back of the stage. J. Xenakis in “Terretektor” (1966) placed 88 musicians of a large symphonic orchestra in a ray-like manner in relation to the conductor in the center; the audience stands not only around O., but also between the consoles, mixing with the musicians. “Moving stereophony” (the movement of musicians with instruments during performance) is used in “Klangwehr” by M. Kagel (1970) and the 2nd symphony by A. G. Schnittke (1972).

Orchestra |

Table 3.

Individualized seating arrangements for O. musicians are used when using. op. non-normative composition; in these cases the composer makes appropriate indications in the score. During normal use of O. as a single monochoric complex in the 1st floor. 20th century the “European” seating arrangement described above existed. Since 1945, the so-called “so-called” system introduced by L. Stokowski began to be widely introduced. Amer. seating. The 1st and 2nd violins are located to the left of the conductor, the cellos and violas are to the right, the double basses are behind them, the wind instruments are in the center, behind the strings, the drums, the piano player are on the left.

Providing greater solidity of the sound of strings in the high register “Amer.” the seating arrangement is not without, in the opinion of some conductors, and is denied. sides (for example, weakening the functional contact of cellos and double basses located far from each other). In this regard, there are tendencies to restore the “European” the location of the musicians O. The work of the symphony. O. in studio conditions (radio, television, recording) puts forward a number of specifics. seating requirements. In these cases, the sound balance is regulated not only by the conductor, but also by the tonemaster.

The very radicalness of the changes experienced by O. in the 20th century testifies to the fact that he is still a living instrument of creativity. will of the composers and continues to fruitfully develop both in its normative and updated (non-normative) composition.

References: Albrecht E., The past and present of the orchestra. (Essay on the social status of musicians), St. Petersburg, 1886; Music and musical life of old Russia. CO., L., 1927; Pindeizen Nick., Essays on the history of music in Russia from ancient times to the end of the 2th century, (vol. 1928), M.-L., 29-2; Materials and documents on the history of music, vol. 1934 – XVIII century, ed. M. V. Ivanov-Boretsky. Moscow, 1. Shtelin Jakob von, Izvestiya o musik v Rossii, trans. from German, in Sat: Musical heritage, no. 1935, M., 1935; him, Music and ballet in Russia in the 1961th century, trans. from German., L., 1969; Rogal-Levitsky D. R., Conversations about the orchestra, M., 1969; Barsova I. A., Book about the orchestra, M., 1971; Blagodatov G. I., History of the symphony orchestra, L., 1973; Musical Aesthetics of Western Europe in the 1973th-3th Centuries, Sat, comp. V. P. Shestakov, (M., 1975); Levin S. Ya., Wind instruments in the history of musical culture, L., XNUMX; Fortunatov Yu. A., History of orchestral styles. Program for musicological and composer faculties of music universities, M., XNUMX; Zeyfas HM, Concerto grosso in baroque music, in: Problems of Musical Science, vol. XNUMX, M., XNUMX.

I. A. Barsova

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