from lat. concursus, lit. – confluence, meeting
Competitions of musicians (performers, composers, instr. masters, groups), held, as a rule, on pre-announced conditions. Arts. competitions, in which the quality of production was compared and evaluated. or mastery of performance, were already known in Dr. Greece. Around 590 BC the tradition of the Pythian games in Delft was born, where along with poets and athletes, singers, performers on cithara and aulos, authors of muses competed. prod. The winners were awarded laurel wreaths and bore the title of “daphnophores” (bearing laurels). The tradition of competition among musicians was continued into the era of the Roman Empire; at the same time, the term “laureate” arose, which has survived to this day to determine the best participants. On Wednesday. centuries, competitions of troubadours, trouvers, minnesingers and meistersingers became widespread, often becoming an important part of the court. and later mountains. festivities that attracted wide attention. Among them are lit. and musical festivals in France, organized by artisan workshops in the 11th-16th centuries. and called “puy”. The winners of these competitions, held in different provinces of the country, were awarded prizes and received the title of “roy de puy”. Among the laureates of the largest known puy, held in Evreux, were O. di Lasso, J. Titluz, F. E. du Corroy. Puy served as a model for similar Meistersinger competitions in Germany. In the early Middle Ages, the song festival that still exists in Wales, the so-called song festival, was born. “Eisteddfod”, within the framework of which there are also choir competitions. In the Renaissance, competitions of the most prominent musicians in the art of improvisation entered into practice. instruments – organ, harpsichord, later on the piano, violin. As a rule, they were arranged by rulers, wealthy patrons or clerics, who attracted outstanding musicians to participate. Thus, J. S. Bach and L. Marchand, G. F. Handel and A. Scarlatti (1st half of the 18th century), W. A. Mozart and M. Clementi, I. M. Yarnovich and J. B. Viotti (late 18th century), G. Ernst, A. Bazzini, F. David and J. Joachim (1844) and others.
K. in modern form originated in the 19th century. Since 1803, the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris has been awarding an annual award for the best composition (cantata, later – one-act opera) – the so-called. Roman Ave., the holders of which receive a scholarship for improvement in Rome. Among the winners of this award are prominent French. composers: F. Halevi, G. Berlioz, A. Thomas, J. Bizet, J. Massenet, C. Debussy and others. Similar competitions are held in Belgium and the USA. In the UK, the so-called. Mendelssohn scholarship (Mendelsson-scholarship), awarded to a young composer (K. held since 1848 in London once every 1 years). In 4 in Vienna, fp. the Bösendorfer firm established K. for graduates of the Vienna Conservatory; this K. wears an internat. character, because students from many countries study here. countries. National competitions. scale paved the way for the emergence of international. K., the first of which was held in Brussels in 1889 on the initiative of the Russian. guitarist N. P. Makarov; composers from 1856 countries sent works for the competition. for guitar. In 31, on the initiative of A. G. Rubinshtein, the first ever regular international conference was established, and in 1886 the first ever regular international conference was held in St. Petersburg. K., who served as an example for the organization of subsequent muses. competitions. In K. im. Rubinstein (then held once every 1890 years until 1 – in Berlin, Vienna, Paris, St. Petersburg) composers and pianists took part. K. put forward a number of major musicians who subsequently gained wide popularity (F. Busoni, V. Backhaus, I. A. Levin, A. F. Gedike, and others).
Means. K. developed after World War I (1-1914). A large number of national competitions. In 18, the Intern. K. pianists them. Chopin, which later became a regular. Concerts of performers are held in Vienna (K. Vienna Academy of Music, since 1927), Budapest (named after F. Liszt, since 1932), Brussels (named after E. Isai, violinists in 1933, pianists in 1937), Geneva (since 1938), Paris (since 1939) and other cities. In the international K. from the very beginning act owls. musicians; many of them win the highest awards, demonstrating the achievements of owls. performing school and pedagogy. During the years of the 1943nd World War 2-1939, competitions were either not held or were limited to nat. framework (Geneva). In the postwar years, the tradition of music. K. in pl. countries began to quickly revive; in a number of European countries (France, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Belgium) immediately after the war, large-scale conventions were established, which became regular. K. acquire a particularly large scope from the middle. 45s; competitions cover ever larger areas of performance: competitions are held for instrumentalists, incl. K. “ensemble” instruments (brass and woodwinds, viola, harp), competitions for guitarists, accordionists, organists, conductors, chamber ensembles decomp. compositions, choirs, youth symphonies. and brass bands, instr. masters, composers. Constantly expanding geographically. frames K. Ch. organizers of the international K. in Europe – Belgium, Italy and France, where many are held. competition. Following the Competition Belgian Queen Elisabeth (50), where pianists, violinists and composers compete, vocal competitions are organized in Brussels, strings. quartets in Liege, K. Organists. J. S. Bach in Ghent, choirs in Knokke. In Italy, the prestige of K. is gaining: violinists – to them. N. Paganini in Genoa, pianists – them. F. Busoni in Bolzano, conductors – in Rome (established by the National Academy “Santa Cecilia”), pianists and composers – them. A. Casella in Naples, performing musicians, composers and ballet dancers – them. G. B. Viotti in Vercelli, chor. collectives – “Polyfoniko” in Arezzo, and others. Among the French. K. stand out – to them. M. Long – J. Thibaut in Paris, young conductors in Besançon and vocalists in Toulouse. General recognition is received by K., passing in the socialist. countries – Poland (named after F. Chopin and named after G. Wieniawski), Hungary, Romania (named after J. Enescu), GDR (named after J. S. Bach and named after R. Schumann), Bulgaria. In con. 1951 – beg. 50s there is a number To. in Brazil, the USA, Canada, Uruguay, and also in Japan. An important milestone in the development of K. was the foundation in Moscow of the Intern. K. im. P. I. Tchaikovsky (since 60), which immediately became one of the most authoritative and popular competitions.
The forms of organizing and conducting k., their regulations, periodicity, and artistic content are very different. Conservations are held in state capitals, major cultural centers, and resort towns; often cities associated with the life and work of musicians are chosen as the venue for them, in honor of which K. countries. As a rule, competitions, regardless of their frequency, take place on the same clearly defined dates. The organizers of K. are various muses. institutions, mountains authorities as well as governments. bodies, in nek-ry cases — individuals, commercial firms. In the socialist countries, the organization of K. is in charge of special. state institutions; K.’s holding is subsidized by the state.
Many years of practice have developed certain principles for conducting K., to-rykh adhere to the organizers of decomp. competitions. K. wear democratic. open character – musicians of all nationalities, countries, without distinction of gender are allowed to participate in them; restrictions are established only in relation to age (with a certain exception, for example, composer K.); for different specialties (in accordance with their specifics), the age limits vary. On some especially difficult To. it is carried out preliminary. selection based on documents and recommendations sent by candidates in order to prevent insufficiently prepared applicants from participating in the competition. Participants’ performances are held according to pre-announced regulations; perform. Contests consist of a certain number of audition rounds: from 2 to 4. A limited and ever-decreasing number of participants is allowed to each next round. Competitors perform either in the order of the lot, or alphabetically by last name. The performances of the participants are evaluated by the jury; it usually consists of authoritative performers, composers, and teachers. In most cases, the jury wear international. character, and the host country is most often represented by several. jury members. The methods of work of the jury and the principles for evaluating the contestants are different: in the dep. K. is practiced beforehand. discussion, voting can be open or secret, the game of participants is evaluated by different. the number of points. The most successful candidates are awarded prizes and titles of laureates, as well as diplomas and medals. The number of awards in different cities ranges from one to 12. In addition to official awards, incentives are often awarded. awards for the best individual essays and other awards. Laureates K., as a rule, receive the right to a certain number of conc. speeches.
Arts. K.’s features are determined primarily by the nature and content of their programs. In this regard, the range of K. is very wide: from competitions where the music of one composer is performed (K. named after Chopin in Warsaw), to competitions with a wide and varied repertoire, pursuing the goal of most fully revealing creativity. the possibilities of the artists. There are also K., building their programs on thematic. sign: early music, modern. music, etc. The same applies to competitive disciplines: competitions, dedicated. one specialty, and competitions where representatives of many people compete simultaneously or alternately. specialties. Composer’s concerts are somewhat different: along with competitions whose task is to identify gifted composers, there are quite a few concerts that are utilitarian in nature and are organized by opera houses, publishing houses, and concentrators. organizations for the purpose of staging, publishing or promoting a certain kind of compositions. In such K. the circle of participants is usually wider. In the 60s. K. entertainers and entertainers are gaining great popularity. music. As a rule, such broadcasts are carried out by radio and television centers, record companies, ch. arr. in resort areas (K. “Intervision”, “Eurovision”, etc.). Usually each competition consists of one round and is held without elimination of participants. Forms of conducting estr. K., their repertoire and regulations are diverse and do not differ in a strict order.
Modern music K. have become the most important means of identifying and encouraging talented musicians, which means. factor of cultural life. The vast majority of instrumentalists, as well as many others. vocalists and conductors came to the fore on the concert stage and opera stage in the 1950s and 70s. it is thanks to K.K. that they contribute to the promotion of music among the broad masses of listeners, the development and enrichment of conc. life. Mn. of which are held within the framework of the muses. festivals, becoming an important part of them (for example, “Prague Spring”). Muses. K. are also included in the programs of the World Festivals of Youth and Students.
Widespread music. K. led to the need to coordinate the efforts of the organizers of the competition, the exchange of experience and the establishment of common standards for holding k. To this end, in 1957 the Federation of International. competitions (Fédération de Concours internationaux) based in Geneva. The Federation holds annual congresses in different cities, publishes reference materials. Since 1959, an annual bulletin has been published, which includes information about the international. music K. and lists of their laureates. The number of member countries of the federation is steadily growing; in 1971, the Sov. Union.
THE BIGGEST INTERNATIONAL MUSIC COMPETITIONS
Austria. Vienna Academy of Music – pianists, organists, vocalists; in 1932-38 – annually; renewed in 1959; since 1961 – 1 time in 2 years. Them. W. A. Mozart in Salzburg – pianists, violinists, vocalists; in 1956 (in honor of the 200th anniversary of the birth of W. A. Mozart).
Belgium. Them. Belgian Queen Elizabeth – violinists, pianists, composers; since 1951 – annually, alternately (after a year’s break, they are resumed). Vocalists in Brussels; since 1962 – 1 time in 4 years. Strings. quartets in Liege – composers, performers, since 1954 – instr. masters; since 1951 – annually, in turn.
Bulgaria. Young opera singers in Sofia; since 1961 – 1 time in 2 years.
Brazil. Pianists (since 1957) and violinists (since 1965) in Rio de Janeiro; since 1959 – 1 time in 3 years.
Great Britain. Them. K. Flesch in London – violinists; since 1945 – annually. Pianists in Leeds; since 1963 – 1 time in 3 years.
Hungary. Budapest K. in various specialties, since 1948; since 1956 – at least once every 1 years.
GDR. Them. R. Schuman – pianists and vocalists; in 1956 and 1960 in Berlin; since 1963 in Zwickau – 1 time in 3 years.
Zap. Berlin. Them. G. Karayana – conductors and youth symphony. orchestras; since 1969 – annually.
Italy. Them. F. Busoni in Bolzano – pianists; since 1949 – annually. Them. N. Paganini in Genoa – violinists; since 1954 – annually. Orchestral conductors in Rome; since 1956 – 1 time in 3 years. Them. Guido d Arezzo – choirs (“Polyfonico”), osn. in 1952 as a national, since 1953 – international; annually.
Canada. Violinists, pianists, vocalists in Montreal; since 1966 – annually, in turn.
Netherlands. Vocalists in ‘s-Hertogenbosch; since 1954 – annually.
Poland. Them. F. Chopin in Warsaw – pianists 1927, 1932, 1937; renewed in 1949 – once every 1 years. Violin them. G. Venyavsky – violinists, composers, skr. masters; the first – in 5 in Warsaw; renewed in 1935 in Poznan – once every 1952 years.
Portugal. Them. Viana da Mota in Lisbon – pianists; the first – in 1957; since 1964 – once every 1 years.
Romania. Them. J. Enescu in Bucharest – violinists, pianists, vocalists (since 1961), chamber ensembles; since 1958 – 1 time in 3 years.
USSR. Them. P. I. Tchaikovsky in Moscow – since 1958 pianists, violinists, since 1962 also cellists, since 1966 and vocalists; 1 time in 4 years. France. Them. M. Long – J. Thibaut in Paris – pianists and violinists; the first – in 1943 (national), the second – in 1946; since 1949 – 1 time in 2 years. Vocalists in Toulouse; since 1954 – annually.
Germany. Munich K. according to diff. specialties; since 1952 – annually.
Czechoslovakia. Muses. K. “Prague Spring” according to dec. specialties; since 1947 – annually.
Switzerland. Performing musicians in Geneva, in various specialties; since 1939 – annually.
Competitions that do not have a permanent venue: Cellists named after. P. Casals; 1 time in 2 years in different countries (first – 1957, Paris). Accordionists for the “World Cup”; annually in different countries (the first – 1948, Lausanne), etc.
Among other international K.: vocalists in Verviers (Belgium); choirs in Debrecen (Hungary); instrumentalists and vocalists (named after J. S. Bach) in Leipzig (GDR); instrumentalists and vocalists (named after M. Canals) in Barcelona (Spain); music and dance (named after G. B. Viotti) in Vercelli, pianists and composers (named after A. Casella) in Naples, vocalists of “Verdi Voices” in Busseto (Italy); organ improvisation in Haarlem (Netherlands); pianists and conductors (named after D. Mitropoulos) in New York (USA); young conductors in Besançon (France); pianists (named after K. Haskil) in Lucerne (Switzerland), etc.
COMPETITIONS IN RUSSIA AND THE USSR
The first national music K. in Russia have been held since the 60s. 19th century on the initiative of the RMO, St. Petersburg. about-va rus. chamber music (in 1877), the piano factory “Schroeder” (in 1890), etc. At the initiative of major patrons and musicians, several. K. was organized in the beginning. 20th century In 1910 two concerts of violinists took place – in honor of the 40th anniversary of the creative. activities of Professor Mosk. Conservatory I. V. Grzhimali in Moscow (1st Ave. – M. Press) and them. L. S. Auera in St. Petersburg (January 1 – M. Piastro). In 1911, the cello competition took place in Moscow (1st pr. — S. M. Kozolupov), while pianists competed in St. – Y. Turchinsky). In the same year, a special was held in St. Petersburg. K. im. S. A. Malozemova for women pianists (the winner is E. Stember). According to the regulations, this K. was to be held every 1 years. The establishment of K. specifically for female performers was of progressive importance.
In the USSR, the State music K. and created all the conditions for their wide implementation. The first competitions for musicians were competitions for quartet performance in the RSFSR (1927, Moscow) and competitions for violinists in Ukraine (1930, Kharkov). Since then, K. on the best music. production, competition prof. and do-it-yourselfers. musicians and singers were held in many. cities. The first All-Union Festival of Performing Musicians took place in May 1 in Moscow. It was held in the specialties – piano, violin, cello, singing. 1933nd – in February – March 2 (Leningrad). Violists, double bassists, harpists, performers on wooden and brass spirits also competed here. tools. Subsequently, a cycle of all-Union competitions was held in Moscow in various specialties—the qualifications of violinists, cellists, and pianists (1935–1937), conductors (38), and strings. quartets (1938), vocalists (1938-1938, final tours in Moscow), pop artists (39), spirit performers. instruments (1939). These K. had a huge impact on the development of muses. life of the country, for the further growth of muses. education.
After the Great Fatherland. During the war of 1941-45, talented youth performed at all-Union K. performing musicians (1945, Moscow), variety artists (1946, Moscow), and vocalists for the best performance of owls. romance and song (1956, Moscow), vocalists and pop artists (1956, Moscow).
In the 60s. a new stage in the development of the competitive movement has begun; Regular all-Union concerts of pianists, violinists, cellists, and conductors are organized, as well as concerts of vocalists named after V.I. M. I. Glinka. These competitions allow you to nominate gifted performers to participate in the International. K. im. P. I. Tchaikovsky. On the eve of K. them. P. I. Tchaikovsky competitions are also arranged. masters. All-Union concerts of musicians-performers on orc took place. instruments (1963, Leningrad). Conditions of all-Union muses. To. basically correspond to the international. standards.
In honor of the 100th anniversary of the birth of V. I. Lenin (1970), all-Union competitions of young performers for the best conc. were organized. program. In the USSR, concerts of variety artists are regularly held. K. to create music. prod. in different genres are often arranged on the occasion of anniversaries. Slender system of music. K. includes not only all-Union, but also republican, city and zonal competitions, which makes it possible to carry out a consistent and thorough selection of new representatives of the muses. lawsuits for all-Union and international. contests.
References: International Tchaikovsky Piano and Violin Competition. (First. Reference book, M., 1958); Second International Competition for Pianists, Violinists and Cellists. P. I. Tchaikovsky. (Handbook), M., 1962; … named after Tchaikovsky. Sat. articles and documents about the Second International Competition of Musicians-Performers. P. I. Tchaikovsky. Ed.-stat. A. V. Medvedev. Moscow, 1966. Musical competitions past and present. Handbook, M., 1966; … named after Tchaikovsky. Sat. articles and documents about the Third International Competition of Musicians-Performers. P. I. Tchaikovsky. Tot. ed. A. Medvedeva, (M., 1970).